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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Michael R. Ford and Douglas M. Ihrke

This study aims to use the original data collected from school board members representing nonprofit charter schools in the state of Minnesota to examine the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use the original data collected from school board members representing nonprofit charter schools in the state of Minnesota to examine the relationship between the distribution of board-executive governance responsibilities and the performance of organizations operating as part of a New Public Management style macro-governance reform.

Design/methodology/approach

A combination of survey data collected from Minnesota charter school board members and hard performance data were utilized in two OLS regression models to predict the link between organizational governance and school performance.

Findings

The authors find that boards can improve hard measures of organizational performance by shifting responsibility of day-to-day operations closer to the executive, and public advocacy duties closer to the board. The results build on the existing literatures on school board governance and board-executive relations. Overall, the findings suggest the existence of an ideal balance between board-executive governance responsibilities in key functional areas on charter school boards.

Originality/value

Though a healthy literature exists regarding the value of charter schools, very few studies have actually explored the way in which these organizations are governed. This study is the first to link charter board governance responsibilities to performance.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Laura Berardi, Michele A. Rea and Giulia Bellante

The literature considers three main models of nonprofit sector structure and development: liberal, welfare partnership, and social democratic. This study analyzes the…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature considers three main models of nonprofit sector structure and development: liberal, welfare partnership, and social democratic. This study analyzes the cases of Italian and Canadian nonprofit organizations (NPOs) that operate in two third-sector contexts, widely known as “hybrids.” In particular, we aim to verify whether some features of governance, leadership, and volunteer participation have impacts on the financial performances of selected Italian and Canadian NPOs.

Methodology/approach

Differences between the two studied nonprofit contexts influenced the sampling, the data collection, and the methods of analysis. Data on Italian and Canadian NPOs are analyzed both together and separately, using multiple regression models. Revenues, fund-raising and other grants from the general public, and program expenses are used as measurements of financial performance.

Findings

Our analysis demonstrates that some board characteristics, as well as volunteer participation and representation on the board, have impacts on the nonprofit financial performance. The characteristics of the CEO studied in this work are not significantly associated with the level of financial performance.

Research implications/limitations

This study has several important implications for research on board characteristics, CEO characteristics and volunteer management and governance, as well as implications for practitioners. The limitations of this study are related mostly to the different methods used for sampling NPOs and collecting data in the two different country contexts due to the different level of availability of data.

Originality/value

The past literature has not adequately examined the relationships among the board and CEO characteristics, the role of volunteers in governance and financial performance.

Details

Governance and Performance in Public and Non-Profit Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-107-4

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2010

Hongpeng Liu

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the actual status of roles and responsibilities of boards in nonprofit organizations in China by comparative analysis and through…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the actual status of roles and responsibilities of boards in nonprofit organizations in China by comparative analysis and through setting the USA as a frame of reference.

Design/methodology/approach

Five roles and responsibilities are compared between Chinese and American nonprofits. Among Chinese nonprofits, foundations and associations are compared. Both primary and secondary data are used.

Findings

On the roles and responsibilities of nonprofit boards, developed countries such as the USA are more active than China. Within China, boards of foundations are more active than the boards of associations.

Research limitations/implications

Small sampling limits universality and applicability of this paper's conclusions. Every sort of role and responsibility are not further divided.

Originality/value

This paper examines the extent to which boards fulfill roles and responsibilities, and provides reference effects for further researches and for improvement of board governance of nonprofits in China.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Michael R. Ford and Douglas M. Ihrke

The purpose of this paper is to determine the differing ways in which nonprofit charter and traditional public school board members define the concept of accountability in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the differing ways in which nonprofit charter and traditional public school board members define the concept of accountability in the school or schools they oversee. The findings speak to the governing consequences of shifting oversight of public education from democratically elected bodies to unelected nonprofit governing boards.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use originally collected survey data from democratically elected school board members and nonprofit charter school board members in Minnesota to test for differences in how these two populations view accountability. Open-ended survey questions are coded according to a previously used accountability typology.

Findings

The authors find that charter school board members are more likely than traditional public school board members to define accountability through high stakes testing as opposed to staff professionalization and bureaucratic systems.

Originality/value

The results speak to the link between board governance structure and accountability in the public education sector, providing new understanding on the way in which non-elected charter school board members view their accountability function.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 55 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2007

Terry Shields

Abstract

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Dennis R. Young and Choony Kim

The purpose of this paper is to adapt concepts from resiliency theory to understand the conditions under which social enterprises may remain true to form and purpose or…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to adapt concepts from resiliency theory to understand the conditions under which social enterprises may remain true to form and purpose or are likely to change their character. This leads us to consider issues of governance, economic incentives associated with different organizational forms of social enterprise and the effects of the financial environment, the role of organizational slack and the influence of organizational leadership on the dynamics of social enterprises. Three case studies of organizations in the USA are analyzed to illustrate the application of resiliency theory to the stability of social enterprises. The fact that all forms of social enterprise must reconcile the tensions of social purpose and market raises important questions about the dynamics of these enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

Theory and case study analysis.

Findings

Governance, financial incentive structure, organizational slack and leadership influence the stability of social enterprises.

Originality/value

First application of resiliency theory to the analysis of social enterprise stability.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Ana M. Viader and Maritza I. Espina

This paper aims to focus on governance theories and practice variables in Not-For-Profit Service Organizations. The research answers two questions: what the prevalent

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on governance theories and practice variables in Not-For-Profit Service Organizations. The research answers two questions: what the prevalent governance practices of Not-for-Profit Service Organizations (NPSO) are, and whether there is a crossover among NPSO governance practices and For-Profit-Organization theories in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire to the 285 organizations within the defined parameters obtained a 18 percent response. Data were collected regarding the boards' predominant roles in the organizations' governance activities, the top executives' predominant roles in the organizations' operations and their interrelationship with the boards, and the boards' most common meeting agenda topics.

Findings

The findings prove that governance models in NPSO are mostly driven by Agency Theory (52 percent of the sample). Stewardship and Resource Dependence Theories also contribute to existing governance models (28 percent), while some of the organizations have developed Hybrid Models (20 percent) drawing from the various theories.

Research limitations/implications

The limited number of organizations participating in the research does not allow a generalization. However the diversity of organization types and sizes within the scope do provide a panoramic view of the not-for-profit service sector.

Practical implications

Having proved that there is a crossover of governance practices among For-Profit and Not-for Profit Organizations, this research opens the door to the evaluation of many other existing or potential crossovers in governance and other management elements.

Originality/value

This research is novel in its approach to look for similarities rather than differences between For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Organizations. The approach allows both sectors to learn from each other and seek for fresh improvement alternatives.

Details

Corporate Governance, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 April 2012

J. Lawless

Abstract

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Anne Cohn Donnelly, Walter Scott, Shaw Kathy, Gong Millie, Morris Lydia and Roark Michael

This case describes a community-based healthcare clinic and the issues facing the management and board of directors. The issues raised are common problems faced by all…

Abstract

This case describes a community-based healthcare clinic and the issues facing the management and board of directors. The issues raised are common problems faced by all types of nonprofit organizations: insufficient fundraising and marketing policies to guide board decision making, confusion over staff and board roles in decision making, poorly thought-out bylaws that contribute to the confusion over board and staff roles, the challenge of harnessing the diverse backgrounds and opinions of a community-based board of directors, and lack of sound financial planning.

The Whitney Clinic case identifies common pitfalls in board governance and includes a roleplay to help students understand the difficulties inherent in implementing the basics of good governance.

Details

Kellogg School of Management Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-6568
Published by: Kellogg School of Management

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Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Anne Cohn Donnelly and Charlotte Snyder

In January 2012, the Jane Addams Hull House Association—one of Chicago's largest and oldest social service agencies and arguably its most iconic—announced that it might…

Abstract

In January 2012, the Jane Addams Hull House Association—one of Chicago's largest and oldest social service agencies and arguably its most iconic—announced that it might have to close in the spring due to financial difficulties. Just days later, the 122-year-old organization stunned the philanthropic world when it laid off its employees without notice, declared its intention to liquidate in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, and shut its doors forever. In the weeks that followed, more and more people began to ask: What had happened to the board? Had bankruptcy really been inevitable? This case chronicles the organization's final decade and enables students to step into the shoes of the chairman of the board, Steve Saunders, as he led the board through its last two years. Students will examine the roles and responsibilities of effective boards and determine how internal and external factors contributed to Hull House's demise.

After reading and analyzing the case, students will be able to:

  • Describe the roles and responsibilities of nonprofit boards

  • Determine when the board is not performing its job and what the implications are for the organization

  • Evaluate ways in which the board might change in order to do a better job

  • Diagnose when external environmental factors threaten the security of a nonprofit and how the board itself might diagnose and work with such threats

Describe the roles and responsibilities of nonprofit boards

Determine when the board is not performing its job and what the implications are for the organization

Evaluate ways in which the board might change in order to do a better job

Diagnose when external environmental factors threaten the security of a nonprofit and how the board itself might diagnose and work with such threats

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