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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2013

Kirstin Hubrich and Timo Teräsvirta

This survey focuses on two families of nonlinear vector time series models, the family of vector threshold regression (VTR) models and that of vector smooth transition…

Abstract

This survey focuses on two families of nonlinear vector time series models, the family of vector threshold regression (VTR) models and that of vector smooth transition regression (VSTR) models. These two model classes contain incomplete models in the sense that strongly exogeneous variables are allowed in the equations. The emphasis is on stationary models, but the considerations also include nonstationary VTR and VSTR models with cointegrated variables. Model specification, estimation and evaluation is considered, and the use of the models illustrated by macroeconomic examples from the literature.

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VAR Models in Macroeconomics – New Developments and Applications: Essays in Honor of Christopher A. Sims
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-752-8

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2014

Liang Hu and Yongcheol Shin

This paper proposes an efficient test designed to have power against alternatives where the error correction term follows a Markov switching dynamics. The adjustment to…

Abstract

This paper proposes an efficient test designed to have power against alternatives where the error correction term follows a Markov switching dynamics. The adjustment to long run equilibrium is different in different regimes characterised by the hidden state Markov chain process. Using a general nonlinear MS-ECM framework, we propose an optimal test for the null of no cointegration against an alternative of a globally stationary MS cointegration. The Monte Carlo studies demonstrate that our proposed tests display superior powers compared to the linear tests. In an application to price-dividend relationships, our test is able to find cointegration while linear based tests fail to do so.

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Essays in Honor of Peter C. B. Phillips
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-183-1

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Mohamed El Hedi Arouri and Fredj Jawadi

Purpose – This chapter aims to investigate the stock market comovements between Mexico and the world capital market using nonlinear modeling tools.Methodology/approach …

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter aims to investigate the stock market comovements between Mexico and the world capital market using nonlinear modeling tools.

Methodology/approach – We apply recent nonlinear cointegration and nonlinear error correction models (NECMs) to investigate the comovements between stock prices over the recent period.

Findings – While the previous literature only highlights some evidence of time-varying comovements, our chapter aims to specify the mechanism characterizing the comovement process through the comparison of two nonlinear error correction models (NECMs). It shows a nonlinear relationship between stock prices that are activated per regime.

Originality – Studying the integration hypothesis between stock markets over the recent financial crisis, our findings highlight strong evidence of significant comovements that explain the global collapse of stock markets in 2008–2009.

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Nonlinear Modeling of Economic and Financial Time-Series
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-489-5

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Dinabandhu Sethi and Susanta Kumar Sethy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between financial inclusion (FI) and economic growth in India.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between financial inclusion (FI) and economic growth in India.

Design/methodology/approach

To measure FI, a multidimensional time-varying index is proposed following the Human Development Index method. The long-run relationship between FI and economic growth is examined by using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration and nonlinear ARDL approach. Further, the direction of causality is investigated by employing the Toda–Yamamoto Granger causality test.

Findings

The linear cointegration test confirms a long-run relationship between FI and economic growth for India. The improvement in both demand-side and supply-side financial services has a positive impact on economic growth. These results suggest that India can attain long-run economic growth by improving the coverage of FI. However, there is no evidence of nonlinear cointegration, indicating that there is no asymmetric effect of FI on economic growth. Further, the causality test shows that FI granger causes economic growth but not vice versa.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of the study is the availability of time series data for all important variables. The index for both demand- and supply-side indicators can be extended with several other important variables in later date once the data are available for those variables.

Practical implications

As the study confirms that FI is one of the main drivers of economic growth, it is suggested that the policy maker emphasizing on financial sector reforms can enjoy economic growth in the long run, especially in developing countries. Therefore, the government and policy makers need to address the issues involved in access to financial services to spur economic growth.

Originality/value

The study examines the long-run relationship between FI and economic growth employing ARDL bound testing approach and nonlinear ARDL approach, separately for demand-side and supply-side indicators. Further, the study uses the Toda–Yamamoto granger causality to find the direction of causal flow between FI and economic growth.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2018

Javed Ahmad Bhat and Naresh Kumar Sharma

This paper aims to scrutinize the asymmetric interactions between current account deficit and gross fiscal deficit in case of a growing and dynamically integrated economy…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to scrutinize the asymmetric interactions between current account deficit and gross fiscal deficit in case of a growing and dynamically integrated economy, namely, India featured with high inequality and liquidity constraints. Two additional variables, trade-openness and output growth, are also incorporated into the analysis to assess their likely impact on the current account balance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a recently developed non-linear autoregressive distributed lag model given by Shin et al. (2014) in its empirical examination. In addition, non-linear cumulative dynamic multipliers are used to understand the route between disequilibrium position of short-run and subsequent long-run equilibrium of the system.

Findings

The study confirms the long-run co-movements of current account deficit and gross fiscal deficit and therefore refutes the Ricardian Equivalence proposition and validates the twin-deficit hypothesis. But instead of a linear relationship of the kind examined in the previous studies, the two variables share asymmetric linkages – both in the short run and in the long run. The asymmetry indicates that positive changes are more influential than their negative counterparts in the short run, whereas in the long run, only the positive changes are found to alter the external balance statistically. The asymmetric impact of fiscal deficits on the current account balance of a country may arise due to its asymmetric impact on aggregate demand through consumption inflexibility (ratchet effect) and the existence of liquidity constraints. The other control variables used in the study are also found to have cointegration with the current account deficit, but the relationship is symmetrical in the long run, even though it is asymmetrical in the short run. The study finally uses the asymmetric cumulative dynamic multipliers to examine the route of asymmetries and adjustments over the course of time. The dynamic multipliers also confirm the results documented in the earlier part and therefore demonstrate their robustness.

Practical implications

The asymmetric results obtained in the study provide strong grounds to devise the policies adaptive to changing arenas in domestic and external sectors. Output growth, export promotion and import substitution, increasing integration and fiscal austerity are seen as helpful in achieving a desired (and growth conducive) external balance together with macroeconomic stability. The need for a prudent fiscal policy and avoidance of profligacy is indicated based on the asymmetric results to ward off any unfavorable impact of fiscal deficits on external account. To conduct a sound fiscal policy, the government needs to cut down unproductive consumption expenditure, raise tax revenues and should pay attention to distribution and trickle-down effects to avoid the adversity of high inequality and liquidity constraints in the economy. Moreover, to ameliorate the current account balance, policies aimed at increasing the real competitiveness through control of domestic price fluctuations and improvement in the quality of tradable goods and services (such as productive investments and technological advancements) should be adopted.

Originality/value

Work reported in the present paper is motivated by the fact that there is no study conducted so far in the Indian context which has analyzed the two deficits in a nonlinear framework. The authors have used a well-articulated nonlinear asymmetric technique to examine the relationship between two deficits when asymmetry is incorporated. This paper will, therefore, enrich the existing literature along the lines of asymmetric linkages. Moreover, the traverse of asymmetries and adjustments over the course of time highlights the inherent dynamism of the relationship.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

P.S. Nirmala, P.S. Sanju and M. Ramachandran

– The purpose of this paper was to examine the long-run causal relations between share price and dividend in the Indian market.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to examine the long-run causal relations between share price and dividend in the Indian market.

Design/methodology/approach

Panel vector error correction model is estimated to examine the long-run causal relations between share price and dividend. Prior to this, panel unit root tests and panel cointegration tests are carried out to test the unit root properties of the data and test for the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship between the variables, respectively.

Findings

The results of empirical investigation reveal that there exists bi-directional long-run causality between share price and dividends.

Research limitations/implications

For the chosen sample, data on share price are available only for limited years. This limits the time dimension of the sample. Hence, in the future, the analysis can be extended to cover longer time series.

Practical implications

The interplay between share prices and dividends needs to be given due consideration by firms while framing their policies. A change in dividend policy would have an effect on the market value of the firm; hence, firms need to frame dividend policy in such a way that it would enhance their market value. Similarly, investors need to take into consideration the influence of share prices and dividends on each other. While making investment decisions, they need to consider the dividend history of shares, as better dividends would lead to better share prices.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first attempt in the Indian market to examine the long-run causal relations between share price and dividend. The results of this study would be helpful to the investors in taking wise investment decisions. It would also enable firms in formulating appropriate dividend policies.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2020

Faheem Ur Rehman, Yibing Ding, Abul Ala Noman and Muhammad Asif Khan

Over the past two decades, China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) has risen remarkably. Whether such an increase affects the Chinese export diversification (ED…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past two decades, China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) has risen remarkably. Whether such an increase affects the Chinese export diversification (ED) is a significant issue that has surprisingly remained unaddressed. This study aims to explain this issue that how OFDI plays a vital role in symmetric and asymmetric effects on its ED.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors introduce a robust nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model. Ironically, the purpose of this study is to analyze the symmetric and asymmetric effect of OFDI on ED.

Findings

The authors propose that growing OFDI would be more advantageous to China, rather than the policies of contraction. Therefore, the study provides valuable policy insights to consider the long-run asymmetric momentum given to ED by China’s OFDI.

Originality/value

The results of this study may seem to be an important newsletter for further policy discussion on how China can catch up on the benefits of ED through OFDI.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Masood Tadi and Irina Kortchemski

This paper aims to demonstrate a dynamic cointegration-based pairs trading strategy, including an optimal look-back window framework in the cryptocurrency market and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to demonstrate a dynamic cointegration-based pairs trading strategy, including an optimal look-back window framework in the cryptocurrency market and evaluate its return and risk by applying three different scenarios.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the Engle-Granger methodology, the Kapetanios-Snell-Shin test and the Johansen test as cointegration tests in different scenarios. This study calibrates the mean-reversion speed of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process to obtain the half-life used for the asset selection phase and look-back window estimation.

Findings

By considering the main limitations in the market microstructure, the strategy of this paper exceeds the naive buy-and-hold approach in the Bitmex exchange. Another significant finding is that this study implements a numerous collection of cryptocurrency coins to formulate the model’s spread, which improves the risk-adjusted profitability of the pairs trading strategy. Besides, the strategy’s maximum drawdown level is reasonably low, which makes it useful to be deployed. The results also indicate that a class of coins has better potential arbitrage opportunities than others.

Originality/value

This research has some noticeable advantages, making it stand out from similar studies in the cryptocurrency market. First is the accuracy of data in which minute-binned data create the signals in the formation period. Besides, to backtest the strategy during the trading period, this study simulates the trading signals using best bid/ask quotes and market trades. This study exclusively takes the order execution into account when the asset size is already available at its quoted price (with one or more period gaps after signal generation). This action makes the backtesting much more realistic.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Anthanasius Fomum Tita and Pieter Opperman

Homeownership provides shelter and is a vital component of wealth, and house purchase signifies a lifetime achievement for many households. For South Africa confronted…

Abstract

Purpose

Homeownership provides shelter and is a vital component of wealth, and house purchase signifies a lifetime achievement for many households. For South Africa confronted with social and structural challenges, homeownership by the low and lower middle-income household is pivotal for its structural transformation process. In spite of these potential benefits, research on the affordable housing market in the context of South Africa is limited. This study aims to contribute to this knowledge gap by answering the question “do changes in household income per capita have a symmetric or asymmetric effect on affordable house prices?”

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of the international literature on house prices and income revealed that linear modelling that assumes symmetric reaction of macroeconomic variables dominates the empirical strategy. This linearity assumption is restrictive and fails to capture possible asymmetric dynamics inherent in the housing market. The authors address this empirical limitation by using asymmetric non-linear autoregressive distributed lag models that can test and detect the existence of asymmetry in both the long and short run using data from 1985Q1 to 2016Q3.

Findings

The results revealed the presence of an asymmetric long-run relationship between affordable house prices and household income per capita. The estimated asymmetric long-run coefficients of logIncome[+] and logIncome[−] are 1.080 and −4.354, respectively, implying that a 1% increase/decrease in household income per capita induces a 1.08% rise/4.35% decline in affordable house prices everything being equal. The positive increase in affordable house prices creates wealth, helps low and middle-income household climb the property ladder and can reduce inequality, which provides support for the country’s structural transformation process. Conversely, a decline in affordable house prices tends to reduce wealth and widen inequality.

Practical implications

This paper recommends both supply- and demand-side policies to support affordable housing development. Supply-side stimulants should include incentives to attract developers to affordable markets such as municipal serviced land and tax credit. Demand-side policy should focus on asset-based welfare policy; for example, the current Finance Linked Income Subsidy Programme (FLISP). Efficient management and coordination of the FLISP are essential to enhance the affordability of first-time buyers. Given the enormous size of the affordable property market, the practice of mortgage securitization by financial institutions should be monitored, as a persistent decline in income can trigger a systemic risk to the economy.

Social implications

The study results illustrate the importance of homeownership by low- and middle-income households and that the development of the affordable market segment can boost wealth creation and reduce residential segregation. This, in turn, provides support to the country’s structural transformation process.

Originality/value

The affordable housing market in South Africa is of strategic importance to the economy, accounting for 71.4% of all residential properties. Homeownership by low and lower middle-income households creates wealth, reduces wealth inequality and improves revenue collection for local governments. This paper contributes to the empirical literature by modelling the asymmetric behaviour of affordable house prices to changes in household income per capita and other macroeconomic fundamentals. Based on available evidence, this is the first attempt to examine the dynamic asymmetry between affordable house prices and household income per capita in South Africa.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

Shruti Shastri, Geetilaxmi Mohapatra and A.K. Giri

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nexus among economic growth, nonrenewable energy consumption and renewable energy consumption in India over the period 1971-2017.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nexus among economic growth, nonrenewable energy consumption and renewable energy consumption in India over the period 1971-2017.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses nonlinear autoregressive distributed lags model and asymmetric causality test to explore nonlinearities in the dynamic interaction among the variables.

Findings

The findings indicate that the impact of nonrenewable energy consumption and renewable energy consumption on the economic growth is asymmetric in both long run and short run. In long run, a positive shock in nonrenewable energy consumption and renewable energy consumption exerts a positive impact on growth. However, the negative shocks in nonrenewable energy consumption produce larger negative effects on the growth. The results of nonlinear causality test indicate a unidirectional causality from nonrenewable energy consumption and renewable energy consumption to economic growth and thus support “growth hypothesis” in context of India.

Practical implications

The findings imply that policy measures to discourage nonrenewable energy consumption may produce deflationary effects on economic growth in India. Further, the findings demonstrate the potential role of renewable energy consumption in promoting economic growth.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first attempt to explore nonlinearities in the relationship between economic growth and the components of energy consumption in terms of renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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