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This study aims to explore the factors influencing the post-pandemic intentions of Chinese residents to participate in outbound travel. The mechanism by which residents'…
This study aims to explore the factors influencing the post-pandemic intentions of Chinese residents to participate in outbound travel. The mechanism by which residents' perception of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) influenced their outbound travel intentions are studied.
This study developed an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) model and used structural equations to analyze data received from 432 questionnaires. Responses were obtained through a combination of online surveys and a traditional paper-based distribution of questionnaires.
Results showed that attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and past outbound travel behavior have significant positive effects on post-pandemic outbound travel intentions. Although the perception of COVID-19 directly and negatively influences outbound travel intentions, it also has an indirect influence on outbound travel intentions through the mediating effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions. The authors also found that risk tolerance has a negative moderating effect on the direct impact of residents' perception of COVID-19 on their travel intentions.
The findings can serve as a reference for formulating appropriate tourism development policies by government agencies, tourism management departments and tourism enterprises in destination countries.
This study developed an extended TPB model by adding more constructs into the TPB model. Compared with the original TPB model, the extended TPB model has better explanatory power of post-pandemic travel intentions. The study also provides evidence for the applicability of the TPB model in studying travel intentions within the context of major public health emergencies and has expanded the application scope of the TPB model.
本文以TPB理论为基础, 通过构建扩展TPB模型, 并利用结构方程对432份问卷进行数据分析。问卷通过网络发放与传统纸质问卷调研相结合的方式获得。
态度、主观规范、感知行为控制及过去出境旅游行为对中国居民疫情后出境旅游意愿具有显著正向影响; 疫情感知在直接负向影响出境旅游意愿的同时, 还通过非药物干预行为的中介作用间接影响出境旅游意愿; 在疫情感知对出境旅游意愿的直接影响中, 风险容忍度起着负向调节作用。
本文通过在原始TPB模型的基础上加入更多变量, 进而构建了扩展TPB模型。与原始模型相比, 扩展TPB模型对疫情蔓延背景下中国居民疫情后出境旅游意愿有着更好的解释力和预测力。本文证实了在突发重大公共卫生事件背景下TPB模型对于研究旅游意愿的适用性, 扩展了TPB模型的应用范围。
Investigación sobre los factores que influyen en la voluntad de viajar al extranjero de los residentes chinos después de la nueva epidemia de neumonía coronaria: un modelo extendido de TPB basado en la percepción de la epidemia
Este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar los factores que influyen en las intenciones posteriores a la pandemia de los residentes chinos de participar en viajes al extranjero. Se estudia el mecanismo por el cual la percepción de los residentes sobre la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) influyó en sus intenciones de viajar al extranjero.
Este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar los factores que influyen en la intención de viaje de salida de los residentes chinos después de la pandemia, en particular el mecanismo por el cual la percepción de los residentes de COVID-19 influyó en sus intenciones de viaje de salida.
Los resultados mostraron que la actitud, las normas subjetivas, el control conductual percibido y el comportamiento de viajes de ida y vuelta en el pasado tienen efectos positivos significativos sobre la intención de viajar de ida después de la pandemia. Si bien la percepción de COVID-19 influye directamente de forma negativa en la intención de viaje de ida, también influye indirectamente en la intención de viaje de ida a través del efecto mediador de las intervenciones no farmacéuticas. También encontramos que la tolerancia al riesgo tiene un efecto moderador negativo sobre el impacto directo de la percepción de los residentes sobre el COVID-19 en la intención de viaje.
Nuestros hallazgos se pueden utilizar como referencia para las agencias gubernamentales, los departamentos de gestión del turismo y las empresas turísticas en los países de destino en la formulación de políticas de desarrollo turístico adecuadas.
Este estudio desarrolló un modelo TPB extendido agregando más constructos en el modelo TPB. En comparación con el modelo TPB original, el modelo TPB extendido tiene un mejor poder explicativo de las intenciones de viaje posteriores a una pandemia en el contexto de una pandemia. Este estudio también proporcionó evidencia de la aplicabilidad del modelo TPB para estudiar las intenciones de viaje en el contexto de las principales emergencias de salud pública y amplió el ámbito de aplicación del modelo TPB.
Coronavirus disease 2019 COVID-19 is a health and humanitarian disaster threatening the livelihood and nutritional security of the people globally. This study examined the…
Coronavirus disease 2019 COVID-19 is a health and humanitarian disaster threatening the livelihood and nutritional security of the people globally. This study examined the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic-related non-pharmaceutical measures on households' livelihood and food security in Pakistan.
Data collected through an online survey from 712 households were analyzed through descriptive statistics, t-test, and binary logit model.
More than 71% of the total households asserted that COVID-19 had affected their livelihoods negatively. Results revealed that food insecurity among households had increased more than two folds during one year of the COVID-19 compared to the pre-pandemic period. Moreover, the number of households in food insecure and severely food insecure groups had also increased significantly during the pandemic. Increasing monthly income was negatively associated with the COVID-19 induced food security and livelihood shocks implying that households with lower monthly income were likely to suffer more from the COVID-19. Households having agriculture as their main source of livelihood were 35 percentage points less likely to suffer the negative effects of the pandemic compared to wage earners. Wage-earners were 29 percentage points more likely to suffer worsened food security than salaried persons during the COVID-19 period. A large proportion of the households were forced to change their nutritional patterns to negate the adverse consequence of the pandemic on their livelihood and food security.
The cross-sectional nature of the collected data does not allow developing a causal relationship between COVID-19 implications and the food security of the households.
The pandemic has affected every sphere of life in developing countries but there is no study to assist the policymakers that how to minimize the impacts of the COVID-19 on the food security of households. Therefore, the study will fill this gap in the literature and help policymakers in developing countries to develop strategies to lessen the impact of the pandemic on food security.
Health authorities have introduced non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) with the aim of reducing the spread of viruses. Against the backdrop of social marketing…
Health authorities have introduced non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) with the aim of reducing the spread of viruses. Against the backdrop of social marketing, normative and utility theories, the purpose of the paper is to examine the relationships between user centric measures such as perceived effectiveness, user satisfaction, and value for effort on intentions to continue to use NPIs. Furthermore, the moderating role of value for effort on user satisfaction and, subsequently, intentions to continue to use NPIs was also considered.
A cross-sectional online survey was completed in British Columbia, Canada (N = 287). Analysis was done with partial least squares structural equation modeling.
The results show that the relationships between user centric measures are positive and significant on intentions to continue to use NPIs. Furthermore, value for effort moderated the relationship between user satisfaction and intentions to continue to use NPIs – but the relationship was negative. Thus, the higher values of the value for effort construct cause the relationship between user satisfaction and reuse intention to somewhat diminish.
The results confirm the positive and significant relationships between user centric measures in the context of the use of NPIs and introduce a new understanding of the effect of value for effort on the relationship between user satisfaction and intentions to use NPIs. This enables health officials to better understand how to encourage the use of NPIs.
Social distancing. Travel bans. Confinement. The purpose of this paper is to document that more than 50% of the world population is affected by World Health Organization…
Social distancing. Travel bans. Confinement. The purpose of this paper is to document that more than 50% of the world population is affected by World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for the 2020 coronavirus crisis. The WHO admits that the evidence quality for the effectiveness of these recommendations is low or very low.
This self-contradiction is confirmed by a WHO document published in October 2019 as well as supporting documentation from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.
This viewpoint concludes that an obvious resolution of this self-contradiction would be to limit restrictions and interventions to those for whose effectiveness the WHO’s document reported that there was at least moderate evidence.
A shift of focus is suggested from discussions on the commensurability and social costs of anti-COVID-19 interventions to their actual effectiveness.
Developing ‘patient‐centred’ health services has become a goal in many countries but little work has been done to identify what research is needed to support the…
Developing ‘patient‐centred’ health services has become a goal in many countries but little work has been done to identify what research is needed to support the development of such services within mental health. The aim of this study was to consult all relevant stakeholder groups to establish research priorities for developing ‘patient‐centred’ mental health services in the UK. More than 1,000 stakeholders were consulted, including service users, carers and mental health professionals. The consultation identified 12 thematic areas requiring further research. These should be prioritised if services are to become more centred on the needs and aspirations of the people who use them.
Between 2020 and spring 2022, health safety was the new pressing concern among the risks at major events. It seemed that it – respectively hygiene as part of infection…
Between 2020 and spring 2022, health safety was the new pressing concern among the risks at major events. It seemed that it – respectively hygiene as part of infection control – was as important as event safety if an event in Germany was to be approved. Problems aroused in terms of an equal implementation in practice. This article therefore addresses how safety and hygiene aspects interacted during event planning and implementation phases.
The authors draw on qualitative data from a German research project. They use results from eleven semi-structured expert interviews and four field observations at major events. One guiding assumption in the content analysis is that there are major interrelations between event and health safety concepts, which become visible during planning and the implementation of event-related technical, organisational and personal measures.
The empirical data shows that hygiene is not perceived as an integral part of event safety, but rather as a disconnected pillar beside the “classical” event safety. This is reflected in an imbalanced attention as well as in separate, disintegrated concepts. This disconnectedness leaves room for unwanted interplays between event and health safety as well as potential legitimacy facades.
Most studies to date focus on the effectiveness of hygiene concepts and impacts of COVID-19 on the event sector in general without taking a closer look at interactions between event safety and health safety.
This paper aims to provide a country case study of South Africa’s response during the first six months following its first COVID-19 case. The focus is on the government’s…
This paper aims to provide a country case study of South Africa’s response during the first six months following its first COVID-19 case. The focus is on the government’s (mis-)management of its non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) (or “lockdown”) to stem the pandemic and the organized business sector’s resistance against the lockdown.
This paper makes use of a literature review and provides descriptive statistics and quantitative analysis of COVID-19 and the lockdown stringency in South Africa, based on data from Google Mobility Trends, Oxford University’s Stringency Index, Johns Hopkins University’s COVID-19 tracker and Our World in Data.
This paper finds that both the government and the business sector’s responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have been problematic. These key actors have been failing to “pull together,” leaving South Africa’s citizens in-between corrupt and incompetent officials on the one hand, and lockdown skeptics on the other. This paper argues that to break through this impasse, the country should change direction by agreeing on a smart or “Goldilocks” lockdown, based on data, testing, decentralization, demographics and appropriate economic support measures, including export support. Such a Goldilocks lockdown is argued, based on available evidence from the emerging scientific literature, to be able to save lives, improve trust in government, limit economic damages and moreover improve the country’s long-term recovery prospects.
The pandemic is an unprecedented crisis and moreover was still unfolding at the time of writing. This has two implications. First, precise data on the economic impact and certain epidemiological parameters was not (yet) available. Second, the causes of the mismanagement by the government are not clear yet, within such a short time frame. More research and better data may be able in future to allow conclusions to be drawn whether the problems that were besetting the country’s management of COVID-19 are unique or perhaps part of a more general problem across developing countries.
The paper provides clear practical implications for both government and organized business. The South African Government should not altogether end its lockdown measures, but follow a smart and flexible lockdown. The organized business sector should abandon its calls for ending the lockdown while the country is still among the most affected countries in the world, and no vaccine is available.
There should be better collaboration between government, business and civil society to manage a smart lockdown. Government should re-establish lost trust because of the mismanagement of the lockdown during the first six months of the pandemic.
The outline of the smart lockdown that is proposed for the country combines NPIs with the promotion of exports, as a policy intervention to help aggregate demand to recover. The paper provides advice on how to resolve an impasse created by mismanagement of COVID-19, which could be valuable for decision-making during a crisis, particularly in developing countries.