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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Ron McIver

This article outlines contingent claims created as a result of the arrangements underlying the transfer of state‐owned commercial banks’ non‐performing loans to asset…

Abstract

This article outlines contingent claims created as a result of the arrangements underlying the transfer of state‐owned commercial banks’ non‐performing loans to asset management companies. An understanding of these factors is central in analysing the potential for China’s as set management companies to realise value from their acquisition of these nonperforming state‐owned enterprise loans. After establishing the scale of the non‐performing loan problem, the article identifies and describes a number of real and financial options that may assist in the consideration of the value of assets associated with the transfer of non‐performing loans from the state‐owned commercial banks to the asset management companies. Real and financial options appear in the form of implied guarantees over asset management corporation debt, implied guarantees associated with the non‐performing assets remaining with the stateowned commercial banks, and within the equity positions held by the asset management companies as a result of equity‐for‐debt swaps initiated under the current reform process. The article concludes that any gains made to the credit standing of the state‐owned commercial banks reflect the value of implied guarantees over both the asset management corporation debt and the remaining stock of non‐performing loans held by the banks. Furthermore, institutional arrangements associated with the equity positions held by the asset management corporations significantly reduce the value of options associated with operation and control of firms in which the equity positions are held. Additionally, the structure of equity positions taken under the equity‐debt swaps suggest that the value of equity positions held in state‐owned enterprises by the asset management companies will be considerably lower than hoped for and implied in the asset management companies’ mandates.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 31 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2017

Moufida Ben Saada

This paper aims to explore the extent to which the control quality impacts non performing loans (NPLs) of Tunisian listed banks by integrating the guidelines of Circular…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the extent to which the control quality impacts non performing loans (NPLs) of Tunisian listed banks by integrating the guidelines of Circular No. 2011-06 issued on 20 May 2011 by Tunisian Central Bank.

Design/methodology/approach

Regressions using panel data are applied on a sample of 11 listed banks during the period from 2010 to 2015.

Findings

The results show that the presence of foreign directors on the Tunisian bank board affects credit risk. These administrators, with knowledge, independence and technology transfer, exercise more control than institutional administrators or state representatives. The risk committee is more effective than the other committees (audit committee and credit committee) in reducing non-performing loans. The role played by this body is the most important.

Practical implications

Testing empirically the impact of control quality on NPL by integrating the guidelines of the Central Bank leads to a better evaluation of reforms’ application and effective measures to strengthen the banking governance practices.

Originality value

By exploring the application of the Central Bank’s guidelines for strengthening post-revolutionary banking governance practices, it becomes easy to assess the extent of the Circular No. 2011-06 by accounting practitioners, auditors and authority bodies to give the necessary recommendations for further reforms.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2021

Syed Mehmood Raza Shah, Qiang Fu, Ghulam Abbas and Muhammad Usman Arshad

Wealth Management Products (WMPs) are the largest and most crucial component of China's Shadow banking, which are off the balance sheet and considered as a substitute for…

Abstract

Purpose

Wealth Management Products (WMPs) are the largest and most crucial component of China's Shadow banking, which are off the balance sheet and considered as a substitute for deposits. Commercial banks in China are involved in the issuance of WMPs mainly to; evade the regulatory restrictions, move non-performing loans away from the balance sheet, chase the profits and take advantage of yield spread (the difference between WMPs yield and deposit rate).

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors investigate what bank related characteristics and needs; influenced and prompted the issuance of WMPs. By using a quarterly panel data from 2010 to 2019, this study performed the fixed effects approach favored by the Hausman specification test, and a feasible generalized least square (FGLS) estimation method is employed to deal with any issues of heteroscedasticity and auto-correlation.

Findings

This study found that there is a positive and significant association between the non-performing loan ratio and the issuance of WMPs. Moreover, profitability and spread were found to play an essential role in the issuance of WMPs. The findings of this study suggest that WMPs are issued for multi-purpose, and off the balance sheet status of these products makes them very lucrative for regulated Chinese commercial banks.

Research limitations/implications

Non-guaranteed WMPs are considered as an item of shadow banking in China, as banks do not consolidate this type of WMPs into their balance sheet; due to that reason, there is no individual bank data available for the amount of WMPs. The authors use the number of WMPs issued by banks as a proxy for the bank's exposure to the WMPs business.

Practical implications

From a regulatory perspective, this study helps regulators to understand the risk associated with the issuance of WMPs; by providing empirical evidence that Chinese banks issue WMPs to hide the actual risk of non-performing loans, and this practice could mislead the regulators to evaluate the bank credit risk and loan quality. This study also identifies that Chinese banks issue WMPs for multi-purpose; this can help potential investors to understand the dynamics of WMPs issuance.

Originality/value

This research is innovative in its orientation because it is designed to investigate the less explored wealth management products (WMPs) issued by Chinese banks. This study's content includes not only innovation but also contributes to the existing literature on the shadow banking sector in terms of regulatory arbitrage. Moreover, the inclusion of FGLS estimation models, ten years of quarterly data, and the top 30 Chinese banks (covers 70% of the total Chinese commercial banking system's assets) make this research more comprehensive and significant.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Doriana Cucinelli

This study aims to analyze bank lending behavior before and during the most recent financial crisis. Banks are more willing to grant loans during economic expansion…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze bank lending behavior before and during the most recent financial crisis. Banks are more willing to grant loans during economic expansion. However, this behavior can result in reduced portfolio asset quality. The analysis tries to facilitate understanding of whether this relationship is always true. A second aim of the study is to highlight whether the impact of credit risk on bank lending behavior during a financial crisis is greater for banks that grew faster during the pre-crisis period than for other banks.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on a sample of banks in Italy, an example of a country undergoing a credit crunch without a lending bubble burst. The methodology is based on a panel regression and author uses different models to test his hypothesis: an ordinary least squares, a fixed effect, a least absolute regression and a Generalized Method of Momentum (GMM). This allows to mitigate some of the endogeneity problems.

Findings

The essay shows that effectively, most of the banks that grew faster during a pre-crisis period show a higher growth of non-performing loans and a greater reduction in lending activity during a financial crisis. However, 34 per cent of banks that grew faster during a pre-crisis period have a low growth of non-performing loans in the subsequent years. Finally, the results suggest that credit risk negatively affects bank lending behavior, but a higher impact relative to fast banks with respect to other banks cannot be emphasized.

Practical implications

Findings have some policy implications. First, given the adverse effect of the increase of non-performing loans (NPLs) on the bank’s lending activity and on the broad economy in general, there is merit to strengthen supervision to prevent a further increase and accumulation of NPLs in the bank’s credit portfolio. In addition, the supervisors could require that banks take always high credit standard when extend credit, both during positive economic cycle and during period of contraction. The using of higher credit standard could be helpful in the reduction of the pro-cyclicality of bank’s lending behavior and credit risk. Furthermore, the fact that high level of NPLs continues to impact on the bank’s lending activity and that this activity is very important for the economic recovery underlines that banks should clean-up their credit portfolios as soon as possible.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature in various ways. The study analyzes the cyclical effect of credit growth, i.e. banks increase their bank lending behavior during good times, which leads to an increase in bad loans and a high credit risk in their portfolio. These cyclical effects are not knowingly studied together, but the literature usually analyzes the single steps of the cycle. Second, studying listed and unlisted banks allows to have a more representative sample and to analyze better the real bank lending activity considering both commercial than cooperative banks.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2015

James E. McNulty and Aigbe Akhigbe

Directors help determine the strategic direction of a corporation and are responsible for ensuring the institution has a good system of internal control. Banking…

Abstract

Directors help determine the strategic direction of a corporation and are responsible for ensuring the institution has a good system of internal control. Banking institutions without a strategic direction emphasizing sound lending practices that promote the long-run financial health and viability of the institution will be sued more frequently than peer institutions. Institutions that do not have a good system of internal control will also be sued more frequently. Hence, legal expense is a bank corporate governance measure. We compare the performance of bank legal expense and a widely cited corporate governance index in a regression framework to determine which better predicts bank performance. The regressions indicate legal expense is a much better predictor, hence a better measure of bank corporate governance. Regulators should require legal expense reporting and rank institutions by the ratio of legal expense to assets to help identify institutions with weak governance. Seven case studies illustrate the role of legal expense in corporate governance.

Details

International Corporate Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-355-6

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2020

Guangcheng Xu and Zhixiang Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate Chinese commercial banks efficiency based on different non-performing loans in the process. Moreover, we identified the difference…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate Chinese commercial banks efficiency based on different non-performing loans in the process. Moreover, we identified the difference among different types of banks (state-owned commercial banks, joint-stock commercial banks and city commercial banks) and different operation stages (deposit producing sub-stage, profit earning sub-stage and overall stage).

Design/methodology/approach

Assurance region (AR) restrictions are combined with a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) model. The efficiency scores of 26 Chinese commercial banks (listed banks) are analyzed by a two-stage AR-DEA model in the study period of 2013–2017.

Findings

The results show that state-owned commercial banks had better performance than joint-stock commercial banks and city commercial banks over the five-year study period. The development of Internet finance has positive impact on deposit producing sub-stage and insignificant non-homogeneity existed among the different groups in the circumstances of considering different non-performing loans.

Practical implications

The research findings provide practical insights that help bank managers find the defects in operation process, which need to be improved.

Originality/value

Previous studies viewed non-performing loans as an integrated whole variable. The paper divides non-performing loans into three categories based on the risk and investigates the effect of different types of loans on bank efficiency scores.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 121 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Amit Ghosh

Using time-series data on the US banking industry for the period 1984Q1-2016Q2, the present study aims to examine the impact of both aggregate and sector-specific…

Abstract

Purpose

Using time-series data on the US banking industry for the period 1984Q1-2016Q2, the present study aims to examine the impact of both aggregate and sector-specific non-performing loans (NPLs) on aggregate and sectoral product and labor markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Using both single equation ordinary least squares and instrumental variables regressions, the study compares the sensitivity of sector-specific gross domestic product (GDP) and employment growth to changes in both aggregate and sectoral NPLs. Moreover, the paper uses vector autoregressions (VARs) to dynamically trace the impact and duration of NPLs on different types of real economic activity..

Findings

Rise in total NPLs reduces US real GDP growth that is most accentuated for construction sector GDP. Likewise, total NPLs significantly lowers both total and non-farm employment growth, financial activities and construction sector employment growth, with the latter showing most sensitivity. Moreover, NPLs in commercial and industrial sector, consumer lending, non-farm non-residential, construction and land development, single- and multi-family residential sectors reduce corresponding sectoral employment growth. The VARs largely confirm these findings with shocks to total NPLs having the most immediate and persistent inimical impact on construction-sector GDP growth.

Practical implications

The deleterious impact of different categories of NPLs on both aggregate as well as sector-specific product and labor markets illustrate that a distressed banking sector is a serious obstacle to the real sector. The findings underscore the need not only to clean up NPLs for the sake of banks financial soundness but also to reduce their pernicious effects on the health of the US economy. For bank regulatory authorities in the USA, it indicates constant monitoring of banks in their jurisdiction and identifying early warning signals to mitigate the potential real sector losses due to rising NPLs.

Originality value

The extant literature on NPLs has mainly focused on explaining its underlying determinants but not on its real sector consequences. The present paper examines the impact of NPLs on different facets of real economic activity, an issue that has been rarely studied and especially not on the US economy. Moreover, the overwhelming majority of existing literature focuses on aggregate NPLs. The relationships derived in such studies, while useful, can mask important differences between different types of NPLs and real economic activity. The present paper explores the impact of disaggregated NPLs in the US banking industry on corresponding sector-specific product and labor markets, again an issue that has not been studied previously.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

Abd. Ghafar Ismail and Adelina Tan Be Lay

This study develops a model for loan loss provision which follows the accounting practice in Malaysia. Banks are subject to generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP…

Abstract

This study develops a model for loan loss provision which follows the accounting practice in Malaysia. Banks are subject to generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in disclosing the loan loss provision. However, the expected loan losses factor should also be taken into account to counter unexpected situations. Prior studies show that banks tend to manipulate the loan loss provision through discretionary accruals for income smoothing purposes. Since the loan loss provision is important to banks' income, this study will determine factors that influence the provision. Empirical evidence state that the loan loss provision is positively related to non‐performing loans, loan loss allowance and write‐offs. Estimation results using ordinary least squares regression prove that the banks follow GAAP guidelines, whereby the loan loss provision depends on the beginning balance and the current write‐offs. In addition, the banks should also consider the expected non‐performing loans in providing loan loss provisions. In determining loan losses, the performance of each economic sector should also be considered due to different default risks.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Peterson K. Ozili

The distinction between systemic banks (GSIBs) and non-systemic banks (non-GSIBs) is driven by policy reasons. This study aims to examine the behaviour of non-performing

Abstract

Purpose

The distinction between systemic banks (GSIBs) and non-systemic banks (non-GSIBs) is driven by policy reasons. This study aims to examine the behaviour of non-performing loans in European GSIBs and non-GSIBs from 2004 to 2013.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses regression methodology to analyse the association between non-performing loans (NPLs) and the state of the economy.

Findings

The author finds that more profitable banks witness higher NPLs regardless of them being systemic or non-systemic. Secondly, GSIBs have fewer NPLs during economic booms and during periods of increased lending, while non-GSIBs experience higher NPLs during periods of increased lending. The author also observes that European non-GSIBs that exceed regulatory capital requirement also experience higher NPLs. In the post-crisis period, there is a significant and negative relationship between NPLs and the economic cycle for GSIBs in the post-financial crisis period and a significant and positive relationship between NPLs, loan supply and bank profitability for GSIBs in the post-financial crisis period; on the other hand, there is a significant and negative relationship between NPLs and regulatory capital ratios for non-GSIBs in the post-financial crisis period and a significant and positive relationship between NPLs and bank profitability for non-GSIBs in the post-financial crisis period. The findings have implications.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, the literature on the determinants of NPL has not empirically examined the behaviour of NPLs in European GSIBs and non-GSIBs. This paper examines this issue to provide insights to help policymakers and academics understand the peculiarities of NPLs in Europe.

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Dennis Olson and Taisier A. Zoubi

This study aims to examine the determinants of the allowance for loan losses (ALL) and loan loss provisions (LLP) for banks in the Middle East and North African (MENA…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the determinants of the allowance for loan losses (ALL) and loan loss provisions (LLP) for banks in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region using both a two-stage approach and simultaneous equation system to address the potential problem of estimation bias introduced by estimating the ALL and LLP separately. The paper also tests three competing hypotheses: the earnings management hypothesis, the capital management hypothesis, and the signaling hypothesis.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopt a simultaneous equation and three-stage approaches to test whether MENA banks jointly determine LLP and ALL and the determinants of the two accounts. The sample consists of all available electronic data for 75 banks (451 bank-year observations) in nine MENA countries over the period 2000-2008.

Findings

Evidence suggests that the two accounts are jointly determined. The results support the earnings management hypothesis – meaning that MENA banks have engaged in year-to-year income smoothing. The authors also find that LLP and ALL provide signals about future earnings.

Research limitations/implications

The authors acknowledge that the LLP account is only one of many accounts on the income statement that could be used for signaling or to manage earnings, and that the ALL is one of several accounts that could be used for signaling, earnings or capital management. Future studies could examine other accruals for their role in managing earnings, signaling and capital.

Practical implications

The results indicate that bank managers use LLP and ALL accounts to manage earnings management, policy makers may want to limit the ability of banks to manipulate earnings.

Originality/value

Prior research on the loan loss accounting practices has been based on single equation models of the determinants of LLP and ALL. An issue that has not been adequately addressed in this literature is that ALL and LLP may be interrelated and jointly determined by banks. If the two accounts are not independent of each other, failure to include one when estimating the other may lead to an omitted variable problem, while including both in the same equation induces a potential simultaneity bias. The study is the first empirical work examining whether ALL and LLP are jointly determined by banks. By jointly estimating LLP and ALL, the study permits an assessment of the magnitude of the potential error from adopting ordinary least squares estimation of a single equation model.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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