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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

T.C. Chung and H.A. Moore

Tape automated bonding (TAB) is one technology which is becoming widely adopted for interconnecting integrated circuits to a substrate or package. Both destructive and…

Abstract

Tape automated bonding (TAB) is one technology which is becoming widely adopted for interconnecting integrated circuits to a substrate or package. Both destructive and non‐destructive test methods for evaluation of TAB bonds are analysed and criticised. The key parameters and general guidelines of a destructive beampull test set‐up are identified and presented. The key features of four different non‐destructive test methods are described and discussed. It is found that no universal solution exists for non‐destructive evaluation of TAB bonds although some methods may be more useful than others under certain conditions and constraints. Data and experimental procedure are presented for correlation of scanning laser acoustic microscopy and beampull data.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Giovanna Concu, Barbara De Nicolo and Luisa Pani

This paper aims to report a case study regarding the combined use of several non‐destructive techniques (NDTs) as a tool in the management of diagnosis and refurbishment…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report a case study regarding the combined use of several non‐destructive techniques (NDTs) as a tool in the management of diagnosis and refurbishment of a damaged reinforced concrete building.

Design/methodology/approach

Four types of NDTs have been selected and carried out on the pillars of the building: visual inspection, electromagnetic rebar location, sonic test and rebound hammer test. The campaign has been planned and run in order to get the highest amount of reliable data about materials degradation and structural safety with limited costs and limited interference with the functionality of the building.

Findings

The diagnostic campaign highlighted the usefulness of the selected techniques in the diagnosis of the type and the amount of degradation, thus permitting a plan of refurbishments to be defined, and to get a realistic estimation of restoration costs.

Practical implications

NDTs' ability to specifically identify a type of damage may be viewed as a reliable tool in assessing and managing the structural life‐cycle cost.

Originality/value

The presented case study highlighted that NDTs are very likely to locate and quantify the damage of materials and buildings, so that they can be considered as one of the most important parts of health monitoring of civil structures and infrastructures.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

P.S. Speicher

The challenge presented by advanced package development in the past five years has further accentuated the constant need for package quality and reliability monitoring…

Abstract

The challenge presented by advanced package development in the past five years has further accentuated the constant need for package quality and reliability monitoring through extensive laboratory testing and evaluation. As pin counts and chip geometries have continued to increase, there has been additional pressure from the military and commercial sectors to improve interconnect designs for packaged chips, including chips directly attached to the printed wiring board (PWB). One of the options employed has been tape automated bonding (TAB). However, this assembly technique also presents new standardisation, qualification and reliability problems. Therefore, at Rome Air Development Center (RADC), there is regular assessment (through in‐house failure analysis studies) of parts destined for military and space systems. In addition, Department of Defense (DoD) high tech development programmes, such as very high speed integrated circuits (VHSIC), have utilised all present screening methods for package evaluation, and have addressed the need for development of more definitive non‐destructive tests. To answer this need, two RADC contractual efforts were awarded on laser thermal and ultrasonic inspection techniques. Through these package evaluations, a number of potential reliability problems are identified and the results provided to the specific contractors for corrective action implementation. Typical problems uncovered are lid material and pin corrosion, damage to external components and adhesion problems between copper leads and polyimide supports, hermeticity failures, high moisture content in sealed packages and particle impact noise detection (PIND) test failures (internal particles). Further tests uncover bond strength failures, bond placement irregularities, voids in die attach material (potential heat dissipation problems), and die surface defects such as scratches and cracks. This presentation will review the specific package level physical test methods that are employed as a means of evaluating reliable package performance. Many of the tests, especially the environmental tests—e.g., salt atmosphere and moisture resistance—provide accelerated forms of anticipated conditions and are therefore applied as destructive tests to assess package quality and reliability in field use. In addition to a manufacturer's compliance with designated qualification procedures, the key to package quality lies in utilising good materials and well‐controlled assembly techniques. This practice, along with effective package screen tests, will ensure reliable operation of very large scale integration (VLSI) devices in severe military and commercial environment applications.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

A. Saboktakin, T. Vu-Khanh and Y. Bonnefon

The purpose of this paper is to experimentally investigate the capability of four non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques to detect the layer orientation in textile…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to experimentally investigate the capability of four non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques to detect the layer orientation in textile composite laminates. The aerospace industry has been the primary driving force in the use of textile composites.

Design/methodology/approach

Woven glass fiber composite samples were inspected using C-scan ultrasonic, vibration analyzer, X-ray micro-tomography and ultraviolet technique. In a complementary study, mechanical testing was carried out to investigate the effect of mid-layer orientation on in-plane tensile strength and their failure modes using microscopic imagining.

Findings

During C-scan ultrasonic, the high attenuation and scattering of ultrasonic waves caused by the textile fabric layers limited its application to only detect the first layer of samples. Frequency response tests of composite samples were also conducted to investigate the effect of mid-layer orientation on dynamic responses. The same trend was observed in the finite element modeling results with a clear effect of the fiber orientation defect seen in frequency response function response and higher mode shapes. Moreover, the results of micro computed tomography demonstrate that this technique could definitely detect the orientation of each layer; however, X-ray imaging at small scales introduced some challenges. Images obtained from ultraviolet technique did not reveal mid-layer orientation.

Originality/value

In this paper, the application of different NDT techniques along with finite element modeling to inspect two-dimensional textile composites was presented. Hopefully, the research results presented here will lead to much published papers in inspection of textile composites.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Abstract

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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 78 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Abstract

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2007

Abstract

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2019

Radek Doubrava, Martin Oberthor, Petr Bělský and Jan Raška

The purpose of this paper is to describe the approach for the design of a jet engine composite air inlet for a new generation of jet trainer aircraft from the perspective…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the approach for the design of a jet engine composite air inlet for a new generation of jet trainer aircraft from the perspective of airworthiness requirements regarding high-speed impact resistance.

Design/methodology/approach

Validated numerical simulation was applied to flat test panels. The final design was optimised and verified by validated numerical simulation and verified by testing on a full-scale demonstrator. High-speed camera measurement and non-destructive testing (NDT) results were used for the verification of the numerical models.

Findings

The test results of flat test panels confirmed the high durability of the composite structure during inclined high-speed impact with a near-real jet inlet load boundary condition.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to the sensitivity of the composite material on technology production, the results are limited by the material used and the production technology.

Practical implications

The application of flat test panels for the verification and tuning of numerical models allows optimised final design of the air inlet and reduces the risk of structural non-compliance during verification tests.

Originality/value

Numerical models were verified for simulation of the real composite structure based on high-speed camera results and NDT inspection after impact. The proposed numerical model was simplified for application in a real complex design and reduced calculation time.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Neal de Beer and André van der Merwe

The purpose of this paper is to develop a process chain for design and manufacture of endplates of intervertebral disc implants, with specific emphasis on designing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a process chain for design and manufacture of endplates of intervertebral disc implants, with specific emphasis on designing footprint profiles and matching endplate geometry.

Design/methodology/approach

Existing techniques for acquiring patient‐specific information from CT scan data was and a user‐friendly software solution was developed to facilitate pre‐surgical planning and semi‐automated design. The steps in the process chain were validated experimentally by manufacturing Ti6Al4 V endplates by means of Direct Metal Laser Sintering to match vertebrae of a cadaver and were tested for accuracy of the implant‐to‐bone fitment.

Findings

Intervertebral disc endplates were successfully designed and rapid manufactured using a biocompatible material. Accuracy within 0.37 mm was achieved. User‐friendly, semi‐automated design software offers an opportunity for surgeons to become more easily involved in the design process and speeds up the process to more accurately develop a custom‐made implant.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to the design and manufacture of the bone‐implant contacting interface. Other design features, such as keels which are commonly used for implant fixation as well as the functionality of the implant joint mechanics were not considered as there may be several feasible design alternatives.

Practical implications

This research may change the way that current intervertebral disc implants are designed and manufactured.

Originality/value

Apart from other areas of application (cranial, maxillofacial, hip, knee, foot) and recent research on customized disc nucleus replacement, very little work has been done to develop patient‐specific implants for the spine. This research was conducted to contribute and provide much needed progress in this area of application.

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Article
Publication date: 30 January 2007

Vassilios Kappatos and Evangelos Dermatas

In outside constructions (e.g. aircraft frames, bridges, tanks and ships) real‐life noises reduce significantly the capability of location and characterization of crack…

Abstract

Purpose

In outside constructions (e.g. aircraft frames, bridges, tanks and ships) real‐life noises reduce significantly the capability of location and characterization of crack events. Among the most important types of noise is the rain, producing a signal similar to crack. This paper seeks to present a robust crack detection system with simultaneous raining conditions and additive white‐Gaussian noise at −20 to 20 dB signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR).

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed crack detection system consists of two sequentially, connected modules: the feature extraction module where 15 robust features are derived from the signal and a radial basis function neural network is built up in the pattern classification module to extract the crack events.

Findings

The evaluation process is carried out in a database consisting of over 4,000 simulated cracks and drops signals. The analysis showed that the detection accuracy using the most robust 15 features ranges from 77.7 to 93 percent in noise‐free environment. This is a promising method for non‐destructive testing (NDT) by acoustic emission method of aircraft frame structures in extremely noisy conditions.

Practical implications

Continuous monitoring of crack events in the field requires the development of advance noise reduction and signal identification techniques. Robust detection of crack signals in noisy environment, including raining drops, improves significantly the reliability of real‐time monitoring systems in large and complex constructions and in adverse weather conditions.

Originality/value

As far as is known this is the first time that an efficient system is presented and evaluated which deals with the problem of crack detection in adverse environment including both stationary and non‐stationary noise components. Moreover, it provides further information on the engineering and efficiency problems associated with NDT techniques in the aircraft industry.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 79 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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