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Article

Lenita Hietanen and Taina Järvi

The purpose of this study is to examine and model entrepreneurial learning processes as a continuum from non-business basic education to vocational education. Previous…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine and model entrepreneurial learning processes as a continuum from non-business basic education to vocational education. Previous studies and policy programs in Europe suggest that entrepreneurship education should be a core part of the education system.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an action research piece of work in which two researchers (the authors) have first studied each other’s own data independently, and then combined these two sets of data. One data set has been collected in a non-business, basic education setting, whereas the other focuses on business studies in vocational education. Here, the entrepreneurial learning process is seen as a synthesis of experimentation with discovered and created opportunities and managing knowledge and competences through reflective practices and decision-making processes.

Findings

The main finding is that entrepreneurial learning can be enabled and may manifest itself as a useful process both in non-business and business school contexts. Another related essential finding is the importance of developing learners’ reflective practices.

Practical implications

This research aims to provide scientific evidence that different school levels should cooperate to establish entrepreneurial learning as a continuous process. This case has been researched in the Finnish educational system, but it may also prompt teachers at different school levels in other countries to enable their students’ entrepreneurial learning.

Originality/value

Although entrepreneurial learning has been researched frequently, there is still a lack of investigation concerning lower educational levels, especially non-business basic education. In addition, the point when growth to become entrepreneurial could begin has not been studied in depth. This research focuses on demonstrating how entrepreneurial learning can be planned and executed as a continuum at lower educational levels.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article

Charlotte Carey and Harry Matlay

The aim of this paper is to explore how creative disciplines education is taught, delivered, and assessed, and how this might inform the development of enterprise education UK.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to explore how creative disciplines education is taught, delivered, and assessed, and how this might inform the development of enterprise education UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper makes use of empirical data from three main sources across creative disciplines: interviews with entrepreneurs; job adverts for lecturing staff; and a survey of educators. This approach offers multiple perspectives on hypothesis development as well as the validation of emergent result.

Findings

The analysis of the three strands of data highlights the benefits of contextualized enterprise education. It confirms that ideas assessment techniques within creative disciplines are well embedded in practice and applied consistently within the context of an academic framework.

Practical implications

An exploration of delivery styles and ideas assessment in the creative sector has highlighted a potential model which could be adopted by generic enterprise education in business schools and other faculties. Potentially, it offers educators a template for assessment of entrepreneurial ideas.

Originality/value

This paper highlights characteristics of creative discipline education and ideas assessment, which might potentially be a model for teaching enterprise within an academic framework, which could be adopted by enterprise educators.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 52 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article

Hao Jiao, Jifeng Yang, Jianghua Zhou and Jizhen Li

The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the extent to which two types of commercial partnerships (business partner and non-business partner) affect the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the extent to which two types of commercial partnerships (business partner and non-business partner) affect the collaborative innovation of firms in emerging economies. Specifically, the roles of two commercial partnerships are investigated. Additionally, the study explores the moderating effect of external technological uncertainty and internal dynamic capabilities on the relationship between two commercial partnerships and on collaborative innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 370 high-tech firms in China, the authors applied the partial least squares structural equation modeling approach to model these relationships.

Findings

The findings reveal opportunities and challenges for companies according to two intensities of commercial partnership for collaborative innovation. The partnership contribution to innovation and competiveness is different within the two routes and ranges. The findings indicate that (1) intense commercial relationships with business partners have a stronger positive significant impact on collaborative innovation than those with non-business partners and (2) non-business partners have a weaker positive impact on collaborative innovation at high external technological uncertainty. It was also found that (3) the positive impact of business partners on collaborative innovation is weakened when a firm has high dynamic capabilities, whereas the positive impact of non-business partners is strengthened.

Research limitations/implications

Insight into the roles of two commercial partnerships in achieving collaborative innovation facilitates the advancement of the theoretical understanding of the circumstances under which cooperative innovation can be more effective under different partnerships.

Originality/value

A key strategic question is whether comprehensiveness enables firms to make better strategic decisions in various environments. In the process of innovation, companies must choose different types and quantities of partners, and they must regulate their partners’ innovative behavior by establishing a corresponding network structure and relationship rules. The current study focuses on analysis of how different intensities of commercial partnerships affect collaborative innovation. This research provides a theoretical framework that creates a new classification of commercial relations with regard to collaborative innovation, and it highlights the difference between the two types of partnerships. This study finds that there are many problems in the selection of innovative partners in China’s high-tech companies. Therefore, companies should strengthen their understanding of cooperative innovation, and they should build and manage highly efficient innovation networks. This study helps companies, high-tech industry associations, academia and government to take enhanced, informed actions.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article

Deema Refai and Rita Klapper

The purpose of this paper is to investigate implementation of enterprise education (EE) through experiential learning, and its relevance to pharmacy education in the UK…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate implementation of enterprise education (EE) through experiential learning, and its relevance to pharmacy education in the UK Higher Education Institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper characterises the state of pharmacy EE using Fayolle’s (2013) generic teaching model in EE and Kolb’s (1984) experiential learning theory as underlying conceptual and theoretical frameworks. The paper focuses on how EE takes place through approaches employed within experiential learning to develop graduates’ enterprise skills, and investigate the challenges faced within institutional contexts. The paper draws on qualitative empirical approach using the social constructionist paradigm to investigate experiences of pharmacy academics.

Findings

The study identifies four Aspects of Experiential Learning in the context of EE (AELEE), which extend both Fayolle’s and Kolb’s frameworks.

Research limitations/implications

The research focuses solely on views of academics in UK pharmacy schools, and is of qualitative nature. This could limit the generalisability of results, yet also offer deeper sector-specific insight into EE.

Practical implications

Findings provide insights into the difficulty of positioning EE in non-business schools and the hurdles academics face. Findings are expected to encourage enterprise educators to design EE programmes that consider the institutional context.

Originality/value

The research makes a significant contribution to existing EE literature with its non-business sector specificity and its focus on academics. Hence, the study responds to Fayolle’s (2013) call for more research into EE with focus on the educator, and deeper connections between EE and education literature.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article

Fareeha Shareef, Murugesh Arunachalam, Hamid Sodique and Howard Davey

– The objective of this study is to examine CSR practices in the Maldives.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study is to examine CSR practices in the Maldives.

Design/methodology/approach

The perceptions of business and non-business stakeholders were analysed in order to identify CSR practices that are idiosyncratic to the Maldives and to reflect on the relevance of current mainstream CSR agenda for the Maldives. Surveys and in-depth interviews were used to draw the perceptions of a sample of 52 businesses and 36 non-business stakeholders. The study adopts an interpretive methodology to analyse the perceptions and to reflect on extant CSR theories.

Findings

The paper suggests mediocre CSR practices of businesses and lukewarm responses from non-business stakeholders in the Maldives. There is a difference between what businesses consider ought to be CSR practices (the normative) and their actual CSR practices. Businesses prefer to keep their CSR practices discreet as publicity may cause increasing demands from local communities for financial and other assistance. CSR practices in the Maldives are also influenced by the local Islamic culture. The meaning of CSR prevalent in the context of more advanced western economies may prove to be superfluous in the context of the Maldives, a small and developing Islamic country struggling to meet the basic needs of its people.

Originality/value

This study represents the first research on CSR activities in the Maldives. It contributes to existing literature by challenging the relevance of mainstream CSR practices to a developing economy.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

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Book part

Meifang Xiang and Sarah Hinchliffe

Using data from a mid-west public university, this study examines the determinants of students’ repeating the first college-level accounting course. More than 600 students…

Abstract

Using data from a mid-west public university, this study examines the determinants of students’ repeating the first college-level accounting course. More than 600 students are included in the study. The results show that three factors (cumulative college grade point average, intention to major in accounting, and students’ motivation and determination) are significant in explaining students’ repeating of the course. The study provides evidence that the repeating students are more likely to be the students with prior high school accounting education. The study identifies that repeating is not due to a student failing the course but rather that repeating is more likely to be an individual decision when the student is not satisfied with the grade he/she gets, either because he/she self-screens out of business school, or decides to repeat the course to stay in their business major. Finally, the study shows that there is little evidence of grade improvement when a student repeats the first college-level accounting course.

Details

Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-540-1

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Article

Katherine Fulgence

The purpose of this paper is to assess the status of entrepreneurship courses offered in education schools. It provides recommendations for how to address the existing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the status of entrepreneurship courses offered in education schools. It provides recommendations for how to address the existing challenges by developing entrepreneurship initiatives in education schools.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was circulated to the management of all education schools in Tanzania, respective entrepreneurship educators and graduates from these schools. Random sampling was used to select teachers who had graduated from education schools.

Findings

The findings show that all education schools have an entrepreneurship module in the development studies course, which is mandatory for all students in first year. From 2008 to date, six education schools (31.6 per cent) have introduced stand-alone courses at undergraduate level reflecting entrepreneurship in their title and 68.4 per cent are planning to introduce entrepreneurship courses both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Although entrepreneurship educators demonstrate subject specialty, they use traditional teaching and assessment techniques. The lack of books on entrepreneurship and the large number of students were cited as the main challenges affecting their role as subject facilitators.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to education schools in higher education institutions. Similar studies in non-business disciplines need to be conducted to establish how entrepreneurship is developed among graduates of higher education institutions.

Practical implications

The study recommends that the management of all education schools should be made aware of the need to provide courses in entrepreneurship, to integrate experiential learning and innovative techniques in the teaching and assessment processes and to involve students in extra-curriculum activities.

Originality/value

This is the first study to be conducted in Tanzanian higher education institutions that focuses on the teaching of entrepreneurship to education school students.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 57 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article

Lenita Hietanen and Heikki Ruismäki

Entrepreneurship education is recommended for implementation throughout the entire educational path. However, there have been challenges in implementing entrepreneurship…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship education is recommended for implementation throughout the entire educational path. However, there have been challenges in implementing entrepreneurship education for many kinds of students, especially in non-business education. The case study presented in the current paper asks how 15-year-old students in Finnish basic education are able to find their ‘entrepreneurial selves’ by looking at their musical activities through an ‘entrepreneurial lens’.

Design/methodology/approach

This case study examines an intervention carried out among music students in basic education. The music teacher interpreted the enterprise approach as guiding the students to experiment with different styles in singing and playing instruments, to seek various opportunities to sing and play both individually and as a group, and to reflect upon their activities. To awaken their entrepreneurial selves, the students were guided to assess their musical activity using 12 enterprise concepts.

Findings

The study shows that students in basic education can be encouraged to reflect on their music studies by comparing their musical activities with small-sized entrepreneurs’ attributes and activities. For example, the students pointed out the ability to take initiative and cooperate. One principle in organising the music learning environment was to allow the students to make choices based on their own interests. The alternatives given led students to discover opportunities and to make decisions to experiment. Their reflective practices enabled them to make new decisions and finally own and lead their music learning paths.

Practical implications

This investigation shows that encouraging students to reflect on their study practices through an entrepreneurial lens may awaken them to their entrepreneurial selves regardless of the subject and context. Despite examining only music studies in basic education, the findings may prompt teachers and educators in other non-business educational contexts and subjects to apply the ideas shared in the current paper.

Originality/value

Music as a subject and basic education as an educational level have not been examined in depth as enterprise learning environments. Only a few previous studies have focused mainly on non-business students’ enterprise activities without training in business skills.

Details

Education + Training , vol. 58 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article

Lenita Hietanen

This study focuses on the implementation of entrepreneurship education in non-business education at the basic education level and in class-teacher education in Finland…

Abstract

Purpose

This study focuses on the implementation of entrepreneurship education in non-business education at the basic education level and in class-teacher education in Finland. The subject to learn was music, which did not include any entrepreneurial content. Accordingly, this study looks closely at the way learners behave when studying music. The purpose of this paper is to see whether entrepreneurial behaviour is appropriate in non-business education.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the action research approach; in particular, it used the special teacher-as-researcher method. The analysis was based on content analysis.

Findings

In this study, the teacher-researcher looked at entrepreneurial learning as experimenting with alternative learning methods and different learning contents. To ensure that every learner received the support they needed in their self-chosen tasks, peer learning was encouraged. Learners got the support they needed both from each other and from the teacher-researcher.

Practical implications

Although this study was only carried once during some music lessons in one particular comprehensive school and once in one class-teacher education in Finland, the findings may prompt teachers in other subjects and other countries to add entrepreneurial activities to their learning environments.

Originality/value

There is a lack of research into entrepreneurship education practices at lower educational levels and where education is not business-oriented. Using the entrepreneurial approach in general education raises another question: is the approach suitable for every learner? Neither of these facets has been studied in depth.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 57 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Content available
Article

Amy V. Benstead, Linda C. Hendry and Mark Stevenson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how horizontal collaboration aids organisations in responding to modern slavery legislation and in gaining a socially…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how horizontal collaboration aids organisations in responding to modern slavery legislation and in gaining a socially sustainable competitive advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

Action research has been conducted in the textiles and fashion industry and a relational perspective adopted to interpret five collaborative initiatives taken to tackle modern slavery (e.g. joint training and supplier audits). The primary engagement has been with a multi-billion pound turnover company and its collaborations with 35 brands/retailers. A non-government organisation and a trade body have also participated.

Findings

Successful horizontal collaboration is dependent on both relational capital and effective (formal and informal) governance mechanisms. In collaborating, firms have generated relational rents and reduced costs creating a socially sustainable competitive advantage, as suggested by the relational perspective. Yet, limits to horizontal collaboration also exist.

Research limitations/implications

The focus is on one industry only, hence there is scope to extend the study to other industries or forms of collaboration taking place across industries.

Practical implications

Successful horizontal collaborative relationships rely on actors having a similar mindset and being able to decouple the commercial and sustainability agendas, especially when direct competitors are involved. Further, working with non-business actors can facilitate collaboration and provide knowledge and resources important for overcoming the uncertainty that is manifest when responding to new legislation.

Social implications

Social sustainability improvements aim to enhance ethical trade and benefit vulnerable workers.

Originality/value

Prior literature has focussed on vertical collaboration with few prior studies of horizontal collaboration, particularly in a socially sustainable supply chain context. Moreover, there has been limited research into modern slavery from a supply chain perspective. Both successful and unsuccessful initiatives are studied, providing insights into (in)effective collaboration.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 38 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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