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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Mostafa Abd-El-Barr, Kalim Qureshi and Bambang Sarif

Ant Colony Optimization and Particle Swarm Optimization represent two widely used Swarm Intelligence (SI) optimization techniques. Information processing using…

Abstract

Ant Colony Optimization and Particle Swarm Optimization represent two widely used Swarm Intelligence (SI) optimization techniques. Information processing using Multiple-Valued Logic (MVL) is carried out using more than two discrete logic levels. In this paper, we compare two the SI-based algorithms in synthesizing MVL functions. A benchmark consisting of 50,000 randomly generated 2-variable 4-valued functions is used for assessing the performance of the algorithms using the benchmark. Simulation results show that the PSO outperforms the ACO technique in terms of the average number of product terms (PTs) needed. We also compare the results obtained using both ACO-MVL and PSO-MVL with those obtained using Espresso-MV logic minimizer. It is shown that on average, both of the SI-based techniques produced better results compared to those produced by Espresso-MV. We show that the SI-based techniques outperform the conventional direct-cover (DC) techniques in terms of the average number of product terms required.

Details

Applied Computing and Informatics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-1964

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2017

Dylan Amy Davis

Purpose: To consider the extent to which the legal recognition of non-binary gender has the potential to disrupt the gender binary.Methodology/Approach: This chapter will…

Abstract

Purpose: To consider the extent to which the legal recognition of non-binary gender has the potential to disrupt the gender binary.

Methodology/Approach: This chapter will employ case study as method, focusing on recent changes to Australian law and policy, which introduce a third gender category. I rely on the work of queer theorists on normativity and recognition as a theoretical framework and on the work of social scientists on transgender people as evidence.

Findings: This chapter finds that while there is much to be celebrated about increasing alternatives to the dominant categories of male and female, the legal recognition of non-binary gender may in fact serve to conceptually purge the dominant gender categories of non-conforming elements while simultaneously masking the ways in which institutions of regulatory power continue to demand conformity with normative standards of gender.

Research Limitations: Since few non-binary individuals in Australia have adopted the X marker the implications laid out in this paper are speculative. The experiences of non-binary individuals present an important avenue for further research.

Practical Implications: I recommend, as an alternative to further gender classifications, that we should seek to minimize the degree to which membership of a particular gender category is used to distribute rights and privileges.

Originality/Value of Paper: This chapter advances the literature on non-binary gender, contributes to existing queer and feminist analyses of the gender binary and extends work on normativity to legal recognition of alternative genders.

Details

Gender Panic, Gender Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-203-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Ridhima Mehta

This paper aims to evaluate the user satisfaction criterion for qualitative assessment of timeliness and efficacy of digital libraries based on the multivariate fuzzy…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the user satisfaction criterion for qualitative assessment of timeliness and efficacy of digital libraries based on the multivariate fuzzy logic technique.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the performance of digital library services using fuzzy logic modeling are evaluated. This model based on fuzzy logic control is used to compute the dynamic response of users by using multiple independent variables. These parameters with inherent uncertainties in practical scenarios are characterized by fuzzy linguistic information.

Findings

Several parameters determining the user satisfaction metric in the deployment of digital library exhibit implicit uncertainties which can be intelligently modeled by means of fuzzy control systems. Given the sample data set for the proposed fuzzy multi-attribute decision-making framework, the simulation results are used to compute various error performance measures in the estimation of the fuzzy output variables.

Research limitations/implications

The size of the considered sample data set is considerably small. Scalable real-world data sets can be used to reinforce the statistical efficiency and accuracy of the proposed model. Moreover, other techniques such as evolutionary multi-objective optimization and the Markovian process can be implemented to explore the efficient correlation between different parameters influencing the users’ behavior and facilitate the general application of the proposed technique.

Originality/value

The paper applied a fuzzy design methodology in which several attributes related to the service of digital library and the affiliated online resource provisions are used to assess their synchronous impact on user convenience in accessing and manipulating the library information. End-users’ satisfaction is crucial for quality-based valuation of compliance with the time limitations and proficiency of digital libraries.

Details

Digital Library Perspectives, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5816

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Tobias Blanke, Michael Bryant and Mark Hedges

This paper aims to present an evaluation of open source OCR for supporting research on material in small‐ to medium‐scale historical archives.

1792

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an evaluation of open source OCR for supporting research on material in small‐ to medium‐scale historical archives.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach was to develop a workflow engine to support the easy customisation of the OCR process towards the historical materials using open source technologies. Commercial OCR often fails to deliver sufficient results here, as their processing is optimised towards large‐scale commercially relevant collections. The approach presented here allows users to combine the most effective parts of different OCR tools.

Findings

The authors demonstrate their application and its flexibility and present two case studies, which demonstrate how OCR can be embedded into wider digitally enabled historical research. The first case study produces high‐quality research‐oriented digitisation outputs, utilizing services that the authors developed to allow for the direct linkage of digitisation image and OCR output. The second case study demonstrates what becomes possible if OCR can be customised directly within a larger research infrastructure for history. In such a scenario, further semantics can be added easily to the workflow, enhancing the research browse experience significantly.

Originality/value

There has been little work on the use of open source OCR technologies for historical research. This paper demonstrates that the authors' workflow approach allows users to combine commercial engines' ability to read a wider range of character sets with the flexibility of open source tools in terms of customisable pre‐processing and layout analysis. All this can be done without the need to develop dedicated code.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 68 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Alicia F. Noreiga and Casey Burkholder

In this comparative study, we explore the ways eight queer university students from Trinidad and Tobago and New Brunswick, Canada, use cellphilm production (cellphone

Abstract

In this comparative study, we explore the ways eight queer university students from Trinidad and Tobago and New Brunswick, Canada, use cellphilm production (cellphone + film production + intention) to share their experiences, make calls for change, and forge solidarities across racial, cultural, and national contexts. Engaging in cellphilm production as a research method for social change, we ask: What are queer, trans, and non-binary students’ experiences in campus spaces? What are the commonalities and tensions that exist between their experiences? How might cellphilm production work to disrupt unsafe campus spaces and create transnational queer solidarities? Through cellphilm production, participants crafted narratives highlighting significant systemic barriers, and speaking back to micro and macro aggressions. Both participating groups expressed feelings of exclusion and institutional neglect and highlighted their university’s disregard toward accommodating physical spaces, such as washrooms, downplaying of verbal hostilities, and other microaggressions. Participants also noted that students were at the forefront of creating purposefully queer spaces. Our comparative study disrupts the erasure of the experiences of queer, trans, and non-binary university students in Trinidad and Tobago and New Brunswick and speaks back to hegemonic whiteness in the context of queer campus spaces in New Brunswick, Canada.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2021
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-618-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Jeanie Austin

Possibilities for self-representation for transgender (trans) and gender non-conforming (GNC) youth must be conceptualized in relation to youths’ placement within frames…

Abstract

Possibilities for self-representation for transgender (trans) and gender non-conforming (GNC) youth must be conceptualized in relation to youths’ placement within frames of power. Powerful institutional forces in youths’ lives include schools and policing and, as is evidenced by youths’ statements, extend to mass media portrayals. Library approaches that reify the inclusion of representative texts do not adequately meet the needs of trans and GNC youth. As a profession, librarianship must reflect on ideological approaches to gendered embodiment to push against an ongoing repetition of institutional harms done to trans and GNC youth.

This chapter offers examinations of information needs, complex online worlds, and incorporation of histories made invisible by power alongside critical literacy skills as crucial aspects of providing services to all possibly or actually trans and GNC youth. It critically situates the circumstances of trans youths’ lives in relation to the effect that adult perceptions have on trans and GNC youths’ ability to access resources. It provides a framework for reflection on how young adult librarians often unconsciously limit library access by enacting gendered expectations that do not always match the possibility or actuality of youths’ experiences or self-conceptions. The chapter outlines modes of communication – through library materials, programs, community resources and partnerships – that convey deeper understandings of trans and GNC experiences to possibly or actually trans and GNC youth.

Details

LGBTQ+ Librarianship in the 21st Century: Emerging Directions of Advocacy and Community Engagement in Diverse Information Environments
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-474-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

G. Russell Merz, Jamie Ward, Sufian Qrunfleh and Bud Gibson

The purpose of this paper is to describe the role and characteristics of the summer internship program (Digital Summer Clinic) delivered by Eastern Michigan University…

74

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the role and characteristics of the summer internship program (Digital Summer Clinic) delivered by Eastern Michigan University. The authors report the results of an exploratory study of interns participating in the Digital Summer Clinic over a five-year time period. The study captures and analyzes the experiences of interns as expressed in structured interviews and blog posts.

Design/methodology/approach

The study data were text from structured interviews and blog posts capturing the “voice” of the interns. A natural language processing (NLP) analysis of the text corpus, consisting of 43 interviews and blog posts, resulted in the identification of 242 unique stem-terms used by interns in describing the internship experiences. The authors used the JMP Pro 15.2 Text Explorer algorithm (It is defined as a suite of computer programs for statistical analysis developed by the JMP business unit of SAS Institute) to extract the terms that were subsequently transformed and analyzed with factor analysis and regression to address the research questions.

Findings

The factor analysis results found six dimensions or themes, defined by the stem-terms used by student interns, best described the internship experience. The authors then explored the relationship between the six themes and the umbrella term “internship” with multiple regression analysis. The regression findings suggest a hierarchy of effects with the theme “Introducing Professional Opportunities” being the theme most predictive of the umbrella term.

Originality/value

The methodology used within the paper is unique in several ways when compared to other research investigating internship programs. First, it uses NLP analysis for the qualitative analysis of text-based descriptions of student experiences over a five-year time horizon. Second, the data analysis uses transformed text to quantitatively determine the major dimensions or themes expressed by the interns about their experiences in the Summer Clinic program. Finally, the relative importance of the themes identified provided direction for future program development.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Chandell Gosse

Online environments have become a central part of our social, private, and economic life. The term for this is “digital existence,” characterized as a new epoch in…

Abstract

Online environments have become a central part of our social, private, and economic life. The term for this is “digital existence,” characterized as a new epoch in mediated experience. Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in how online abuse impacts one's digital existence. Drawing on 15 interviews with women, this chapter demonstrates a type of labor—which I call “ontological labor”—that women exercise when processing their own experiences of online abuse, and when sharing their experiences with others. Ontological labor is the process of overcoming a denial of experience. In the case of online abuse, this denial stems partly from the treatment of online and offline life as separate and opposing. This division is known as digital dualism, which I argue is a discourse that denies women the space to have their experiences of online abuse recognized as such.

Details

The Emerald International Handbook of Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-849-2

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 26 April 2022

Maria Merisalo and Teemu Makkonen

The purpose of this paper is to create a research framework to scrutinize how individuals' digital technology use produces tangible and intangible outcomes in online …

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to create a research framework to scrutinize how individuals' digital technology use produces tangible and intangible outcomes in online (digital) and offline realms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies the Bourdieusian e-capital perspective to create a theory-based framework. The framework was used to guide a survey design to explore women's “social media-assisted reuse” at the micro-scale in Helsinki, Finland.

Findings

The paper argues that a new form of capital emerges when individuals utilize digital technologies in correspondence to their goals to gain added value that would be impossible or significantly more arduous to gain without the digital realm. The survey indicates that the respondents utilize the digital space – set objectives and gain capital-related outcomes – in correspondence to their differing social, economic and cultural positions and related resources in- and outside of the digital realm.

Practical implications

If digital spaces – due to social inequality and underlying power structures – become increasingly stratified, there will be significant impacts on how individuals from differing backgrounds gain accumulated forms of capital through the digital realm. The question is of great importance for battling inequality.

Originality/value

The paper enhances and synthesizes recent discussions on different forms of capital and outcomes of the use of digital technologies and presents a combined “e-capital–digital divide” framework that offers a more complete agenda for investigating the finely nuanced links between the inputs, outputs and outcomes of digital technology use.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Abstract

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2021
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-618-9

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