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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Mostafa Abd-El-Barr, Kalim Qureshi and Bambang Sarif

Ant Colony Optimization and Particle Swarm Optimization represent two widely used Swarm Intelligence (SI) optimization techniques. Information processing using…

Abstract

Ant Colony Optimization and Particle Swarm Optimization represent two widely used Swarm Intelligence (SI) optimization techniques. Information processing using Multiple-Valued Logic (MVL) is carried out using more than two discrete logic levels. In this paper, we compare two the SI-based algorithms in synthesizing MVL functions. A benchmark consisting of 50,000 randomly generated 2-variable 4-valued functions is used for assessing the performance of the algorithms using the benchmark. Simulation results show that the PSO outperforms the ACO technique in terms of the average number of product terms (PTs) needed. We also compare the results obtained using both ACO-MVL and PSO-MVL with those obtained using Espresso-MV logic minimizer. It is shown that on average, both of the SI-based techniques produced better results compared to those produced by Espresso-MV. We show that the SI-based techniques outperform the conventional direct-cover (DC) techniques in terms of the average number of product terms required.

Details

Applied Computing and Informatics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-1964

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Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2017

Dylan Amy Davis

Purpose: To consider the extent to which the legal recognition of non-binary gender has the potential to disrupt the gender binary.Methodology/Approach: This chapter will…

Abstract

Purpose: To consider the extent to which the legal recognition of non-binary gender has the potential to disrupt the gender binary.

Methodology/Approach: This chapter will employ case study as method, focusing on recent changes to Australian law and policy, which introduce a third gender category. I rely on the work of queer theorists on normativity and recognition as a theoretical framework and on the work of social scientists on transgender people as evidence.

Findings: This chapter finds that while there is much to be celebrated about increasing alternatives to the dominant categories of male and female, the legal recognition of non-binary gender may in fact serve to conceptually purge the dominant gender categories of non-conforming elements while simultaneously masking the ways in which institutions of regulatory power continue to demand conformity with normative standards of gender.

Research Limitations: Since few non-binary individuals in Australia have adopted the X marker the implications laid out in this paper are speculative. The experiences of non-binary individuals present an important avenue for further research.

Practical Implications: I recommend, as an alternative to further gender classifications, that we should seek to minimize the degree to which membership of a particular gender category is used to distribute rights and privileges.

Originality/Value of Paper: This chapter advances the literature on non-binary gender, contributes to existing queer and feminist analyses of the gender binary and extends work on normativity to legal recognition of alternative genders.

Details

Gender Panic, Gender Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-203-1

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Ridhima Mehta

This paper aims to evaluate the user satisfaction criterion for qualitative assessment of timeliness and efficacy of digital libraries based on the multivariate fuzzy…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the user satisfaction criterion for qualitative assessment of timeliness and efficacy of digital libraries based on the multivariate fuzzy logic technique.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the performance of digital library services using fuzzy logic modeling are evaluated. This model based on fuzzy logic control is used to compute the dynamic response of users by using multiple independent variables. These parameters with inherent uncertainties in practical scenarios are characterized by fuzzy linguistic information.

Findings

Several parameters determining the user satisfaction metric in the deployment of digital library exhibit implicit uncertainties which can be intelligently modeled by means of fuzzy control systems. Given the sample data set for the proposed fuzzy multi-attribute decision-making framework, the simulation results are used to compute various error performance measures in the estimation of the fuzzy output variables.

Research limitations/implications

The size of the considered sample data set is considerably small. Scalable real-world data sets can be used to reinforce the statistical efficiency and accuracy of the proposed model. Moreover, other techniques such as evolutionary multi-objective optimization and the Markovian process can be implemented to explore the efficient correlation between different parameters influencing the users’ behavior and facilitate the general application of the proposed technique.

Originality/value

The paper applied a fuzzy design methodology in which several attributes related to the service of digital library and the affiliated online resource provisions are used to assess their synchronous impact on user convenience in accessing and manipulating the library information. End-users’ satisfaction is crucial for quality-based valuation of compliance with the time limitations and proficiency of digital libraries.

Details

Digital Library Perspectives, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5816

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Tobias Blanke, Michael Bryant and Mark Hedges

This paper aims to present an evaluation of open source OCR for supporting research on material in small‐ to medium‐scale historical archives.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an evaluation of open source OCR for supporting research on material in small‐ to medium‐scale historical archives.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach was to develop a workflow engine to support the easy customisation of the OCR process towards the historical materials using open source technologies. Commercial OCR often fails to deliver sufficient results here, as their processing is optimised towards large‐scale commercially relevant collections. The approach presented here allows users to combine the most effective parts of different OCR tools.

Findings

The authors demonstrate their application and its flexibility and present two case studies, which demonstrate how OCR can be embedded into wider digitally enabled historical research. The first case study produces high‐quality research‐oriented digitisation outputs, utilizing services that the authors developed to allow for the direct linkage of digitisation image and OCR output. The second case study demonstrates what becomes possible if OCR can be customised directly within a larger research infrastructure for history. In such a scenario, further semantics can be added easily to the workflow, enhancing the research browse experience significantly.

Originality/value

There has been little work on the use of open source OCR technologies for historical research. This paper demonstrates that the authors' workflow approach allows users to combine commercial engines' ability to read a wider range of character sets with the flexibility of open source tools in terms of customisable pre‐processing and layout analysis. All this can be done without the need to develop dedicated code.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 68 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Book part
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Jeanie Austin

Possibilities for self-representation for transgender (trans) and gender non-conforming (GNC) youth must be conceptualized in relation to youths’ placement within frames…

Abstract

Possibilities for self-representation for transgender (trans) and gender non-conforming (GNC) youth must be conceptualized in relation to youths’ placement within frames of power. Powerful institutional forces in youths’ lives include schools and policing and, as is evidenced by youths’ statements, extend to mass media portrayals. Library approaches that reify the inclusion of representative texts do not adequately meet the needs of trans and GNC youth. As a profession, librarianship must reflect on ideological approaches to gendered embodiment to push against an ongoing repetition of institutional harms done to trans and GNC youth.

This chapter offers examinations of information needs, complex online worlds, and incorporation of histories made invisible by power alongside critical literacy skills as crucial aspects of providing services to all possibly or actually trans and GNC youth. It critically situates the circumstances of trans youths’ lives in relation to the effect that adult perceptions have on trans and GNC youths’ ability to access resources. It provides a framework for reflection on how young adult librarians often unconsciously limit library access by enacting gendered expectations that do not always match the possibility or actuality of youths’ experiences or self-conceptions. The chapter outlines modes of communication – through library materials, programs, community resources and partnerships – that convey deeper understandings of trans and GNC experiences to possibly or actually trans and GNC youth.

Details

LGBTQ+ Librarianship in the 21st Century: Emerging Directions of Advocacy and Community Engagement in Diverse Information Environments
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-474-9

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Content available
Book part
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Chandell Gosse

Online environments have become a central part of our social, private, and economic life. The term for this is “digital existence,” characterized as a new epoch in…

Abstract

Online environments have become a central part of our social, private, and economic life. The term for this is “digital existence,” characterized as a new epoch in mediated experience. Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in how online abuse impacts one's digital existence. Drawing on 15 interviews with women, this chapter demonstrates a type of labor—which I call “ontological labor”—that women exercise when processing their own experiences of online abuse, and when sharing their experiences with others. Ontological labor is the process of overcoming a denial of experience. In the case of online abuse, this denial stems partly from the treatment of online and offline life as separate and opposing. This division is known as digital dualism, which I argue is a discourse that denies women the space to have their experiences of online abuse recognized as such.

Details

The Emerald International Handbook of Technology Facilitated Violence and Abuse
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-849-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Christiane Behnert and Dirk Lewandowski

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how to apply traditional information retrieval (IR) evaluation methods based on standards from the Text REtrieval Conference…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how to apply traditional information retrieval (IR) evaluation methods based on standards from the Text REtrieval Conference and web search evaluation to all types of modern library information systems (LISs) including online public access catalogues, discovery systems, and digital libraries that provide web search features to gather information from heterogeneous sources.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply conventional procedures from IR evaluation to the LIS context considering the specific characteristics of modern library materials.

Findings

The authors introduce a framework consisting of five parts: search queries, search results, assessors, testing, and data analysis. The authors show how to deal with comparability problems resulting from diverse document types, e.g., electronic articles vs printed monographs and what issues need to be considered for retrieval tests in the library context.

Practical implications

The framework can be used as a guideline for conducting retrieval effectiveness studies in the library context.

Originality/value

Although a considerable amount of research has been done on IR evaluation, and standards for conducting retrieval effectiveness studies do exist, to the authors’ knowledge this is the first attempt to provide a systematic framework for evaluating the retrieval effectiveness of twenty-first-century LISs. The authors demonstrate which issues must be considered and what decisions must be made by researchers prior to a retrieval test.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Konstantina Martzoukou

This paper examines children's development of digital literacy, resilience and citizenship in the online environment, addressing active engagement and participation via…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines children's development of digital literacy, resilience and citizenship in the online environment, addressing active engagement and participation via cartoon videos. Previous research has emphasised the positive role of cartoons in different educational contexts, as important agents of attracting children's attention and interest with opportunities to engage in contextual and collaborative learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The work describes the design and an initial pilot study of the animated cartoon video series, with a group of 30 children in an S1 class, at a secondary school in Scotland as part of workshop addressing digital resilience themes. Children worked individually and in teams in a series of interactive activities, which were evaluated by means of a short questionnaire survey.

Findings

The majority of the children enjoyed the cartoon videos which addressed a story of cyberbullying and, in teams, they chose different copying strategies. Children's verbalisations included expressions of positive feelings when connecting online, linked to socialising, creative and playful activities and they expressed a preference towards speaking to their parents and friends rather than their teachers when dealing with online challenges.

Research limitations/implications

Children not only enjoyed watching the cartoon story but had an interest to learn more about how other children deal with the pressures and challenges of the online world, how to manage their own digital footprint and, particularly, how easy it is to spread personal information online.

Practical implications

Cartoon animations present an opportunity to act as a basis for encouraging children to exchange ideas and engage in dialogue in class and at home by means of creating a point of reference which creates an environment, where pressure is taken away from the “self”. The cartoon character can be the focal point for discussion on issues that may be difficult to address directly and on a personal level because of insecurity or fear.

Social implications

Both teachers and parents have a responsibility to offer support and advice to children and ensure their online safety and resilience. Engaging with children in open further dialogue via fun and interactive cartoon-based activities may help to further explore and understand their perspectives.

Originality/value

The work addresses everyday life issues encountered online and aims to offer educators and parents an engaging and fun series of activities, harnessing the advantages of cartoon video animation as a didactical resource that can utilised as a supplementary learning tool inside the classroom and at home.

Details

Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-7604

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2021

Y.P. Tsang, C.H. Wu, W.H. Ip and Wen-Lung Shiau

Due to the rapid growth of blockchain technology in recent years, the fusion of blockchain and the Internet of Things (BIoT) has drawn considerable attention from…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the rapid growth of blockchain technology in recent years, the fusion of blockchain and the Internet of Things (BIoT) has drawn considerable attention from researchers and industrial practitioners and is regarded as a future trend in technological development. Although several authors have conducted literature reviews on the topic, none have examined the development of the knowledge structure of BIoT, resulting in scattered research and development (R&D) efforts.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigates the intellectual core of BIoT through a co-citation proximity analysis–based systematic review (CPASR) of the correlations between 44 highly influential articles out of 473 relevant research studies. Subsequently, we apply a series of statistical analyses, including exploratory factor analysis (EFA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), k-means clustering (KMC) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) to establish the intellectual core.

Findings

Our findings indicate that there are nine categories in the intellectual core of BIoT: (1) data privacy and security for BIoT systems, (2) models and applications of BIoT, (3) system security theories for BIoT, (4) frameworks for BIoT deployment, (5) the fusion of BIoT with emerging methods and technologies, (6) applied security strategies for using blockchain with the IoT, (7) the design and development of industrial BIoT, (8) establishing trust through BIoT and (9) the BIoT ecosystem.

Originality/value

We use the CPASR method to examine the intellectual core of BIoT, which is an under-researched and topical area. The paper also provides a structural framework for investigating BIoT research that may be applicable to other knowledge domains.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2006

Tefko Saracevic

In vol. 6, 1976, of Advances in Librarianship, I published a review about relevance under the same title, without, of course, “Part I” in the title (Saracevic, 1976). [A…

Abstract

In vol. 6, 1976, of Advances in Librarianship, I published a review about relevance under the same title, without, of course, “Part I” in the title (Saracevic, 1976). [A substantively similar article was published in the Journal of the American Society for Information Science (Saracevic, 1975)]. I did not plan then to have another related review 30 years later—but things happen. The 1976 work “attempted to trace the evolution of thinking on relevance, a key notion in information science, [and] to provide a framework within which the widely dissonant ideas on relevance might be interpreted and related to one another” (ibid.: 338).

Details

Advances in Librarianship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-007-4

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