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The issue explored is whether incentive regulation of local exchange carriers in the USA has resulted in an increase in efficiency. After providing an overview of the…
The issue explored is whether incentive regulation of local exchange carriers in the USA has resulted in an increase in efficiency. After providing an overview of the nature of incentive regulation, the methodology for measuring the effects of incentive regulation on efficiency is reviewed. This methodology is data envelopment analysis and allows for the measurement of both technical efficiency and allocative efficiency of individual local exchange carriers. The results of empirically implementing the data envelopment approach (DEA) approach indicate that there is little change in technical efficiency. In fact average technical efficiency in 1988 was the same as in 2001. Next, while outputs continued to grow at about their historical rate across LECs, the sizeable increase in the two types of capital increased inputs well above their historical average rates for some LECs leading to short run allocative inefficiency. On average, however, allocative efficiency shows no identifiable trend between 1988 and 2001. Finally, in the aggregate, total economic efficiency does not demonstrate any trend between 1988 and 2001.
Investigates the doctrine of Relative Purchasing Power Parity.Mixed evidence is found supporting the concept when using a methodanalogous to that used by Lucas in testing…
Investigates the doctrine of Relative Purchasing Power Parity. Mixed evidence is found supporting the concept when using a method analogous to that used by Lucas in testing the quantity theory of money. Relative Purchasing Power Parity is not consistently rejected in the long run between Canada and the United States and between Japan and the United States using quarterly data covering two separate periods: 1957 QI‐1973 QII, and 1973 QIII‐1989 QIV. Given the inconclusive results associated with relying on the methodology of Lucas, considers two alternatives: first, where the requisite smoothed time series are obtained via appropriate autoregressive integrated moving average filters and, second, where cointegration techniques are employed. In these instances, the results are unequivocal. Relative Purchasing Power Parity does not hold.
Incentive regulation has become an important regulatory tool in the telecommunications industry in the USA. The issue explored here is whether incentive regulation has…
Incentive regulation has become an important regulatory tool in the telecommunications industry in the USA. The issue explored here is whether incentive regulation has resulted in an increase in productive efficiency. After providing an overview of the nature of incentive regulation, a methodology for measuring technical efficiency and its change is introduced. This is a multiple‐output/multiple‐input distance function approach to measuring technical efficiency. The results of implementing this approach for 19 local exchange carriers for the 1988‐1999 period indicate that, in the production of local service, intrastate toll/access service, and interstate access to local loops, there was no change in technical efficiency between the 1988‐1990 and the 1991‐1999 periods, something that incentive regulation was specifically designed to promote.
Examines the impact of the sugar tariff‐rate import quota programme onthe United States economy. Uses a computable general equilibrium modelcomposed of 14 producing…
Examines the impact of the sugar tariff‐rate import quota programme on the United States economy. Uses a computable general equilibrium model composed of 14 producing sectors, 14 consuming sectors, six household categories classified by fincome, and a government. Examines the effects of abolishing the tariff‐rate import quota on sugar prices and quantities. Suggests that a complete elimination of the sugar programme would result in lower output by all producing sectors (by about $2.85 billion) but, for all producing sectors besides the agriculture programme crops, crude oil, and petroleum refining sectors, output would actually increase (by about $2.98 billion). There would also be an increase in the consumption of goods and services (by about $197 million), and an increase in welfare (by about $121 million). The government would realize a reduction in revenue of about $15 million. When subjected to a sensitivity analysis, the study′s results are reasonably robust with regard to the assumption of the value of the own‐price elasticity of demand for sugar – i.e., while the model′s equilibrium values do vary in response to different assumptions of the values of this elasticity, the fluctuations are not so enormous as to suggest that the model is unrealistically sensitive to these parameters.
In 1999 the Federal Communications Commission adopted an order granting complete deregulation of the rates for special access service for specific metropolitan statistical…
In 1999 the Federal Communications Commission adopted an order granting complete deregulation of the rates for special access service for specific metropolitan statistical areas based on an objective showing that there was potential competition in that market. This was done in an environment where the local exchange carriers (LECs) subject to price caps were earning a rate of return in excess of 22 percent, with the rate of return on an upward trend. By 2002, the average rate of return across all price cap LECs topped 35 percent. The question that is investigated in this paper is whether the price cap LECs have market power in supplying special access service and whether they have taken advantage of this. The data clearly show that this is the case. Given the prevailing situation, there is a clear need to revisit the pricing flexibility order. First, the product market for special access service needs to be more carefully examined. Second, the metrics used to define the potential for competition need to be revamped.
Addresses whether the grain quality factors used by the Federal Grain Inspection Service of the US Department of Agriculture in determining the quality grades of wheat…
Addresses whether the grain quality factors used by the Federal Grain Inspection Service of the US Department of Agriculture in determining the quality grades of wheat exported by the USA including test weight, dockage, moisture content, percentage of foreign material, percentage of shrunken and broken kernels, and protein content, are characteristics that influence the price of wheat for export. Using data on the transactions price for hard red winter wheat, hard red spring wheat, and soft white wheat and the associated quality characteristics, exported between January 1990 and October 1991 to 63 countries, finds that only the test weight and the protein content are characteristics consistently valued by the market.
Survey data on expected and actual prices received by individualvegetable growers in Florida, Michigan and Texas in 1990 are used totest the rational expectations…
Survey data on expected and actual prices received by individual vegetable growers in Florida, Michigan and Texas in 1990 are used to test the rational expectations hypothesis. The use of individual grower data overcomes many of the issues that have limited previous tests of this hypothesis in agriculture. Overall, finds that price expectations of vegetable growers are inconsistent with the rational expectations hypothesis for the majority of vegetable/state combinations studied.
Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of…
Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of globalization on work and employment in contemporary organizations. Covers the human resource management implications of organizational responses to globalization. Examines the theoretical, methodological, empirical and comparative issues pertaining to competitiveness and the management of human resources, the impact of organisational strategies and international production on the workplace, the organization of labour markets, human resource development, cultural change in organisations, trade union responses, and trans‐national corporations. Cites many case studies showing how globalization has brought a lot of opportunities together with much change both to the employee and the employer. Considers the threats to existing cultures, structures and systems.
Barack Obama has had considerable support among scholarly circles since his win in the Iowa primary in early 2008. A segment of the Association of Black Sociologists…
Barack Obama has had considerable support among scholarly circles since his win in the Iowa primary in early 2008. A segment of the Association of Black Sociologists (ABS), “Black and Progressive Sociologists Obama Working Group (BPSOWG),” was particularly active during the 2008 campaign. The purpose of this chapter was to determine if the level and type of activism among this group differed from other progressive groups of sociologists.
The data for this study were collected from a web-based survey administered to approximately 800 professional sociologists in the United States. The survey consisted of items that focused on the extent to which respondents supported the Obama campaign for the presidency and the extent to which they were satisfied with and/or agreed with his policies during first two years of his presidency.
The response rate for the survey was 40% (N=305) and 96% of respondents (N=293) submitted surveys with complete information. Over two-thirds of participants were members of the American Sociological Association Section on Race and Ethnic Relations and 5.5% of respondents identified themselves as members of the BPSOWG. A slight majority (53.6%) of study participants were females and the largest two racial groups making up the study population were whites (47.1%) and African Americans (36.1%). Most of the respondents provided support for President Obama during his first campaign, including financial contributions (66%).
Sociologists who responded to the survey were generally positive about Barack Obama as a candidate and a President. However, the subtle differences between groups about Obama administration policies and the use Presidential power highlighted key areas in which diverse coalitions for progressive change are needed.