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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/00035590810913132. When citing…

Abstract

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/00035590810913132. When citing the article, please cite: Nivin M. Ahmed, (2008), “Modified zinc oxide-phosphate core-shell pigments in solvent-based paints”, Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Vol. 55 Iss: 6, pp. 333 - 340.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 56 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Nivin M. Ahmed, Walaa M. Abd El-Gawad, Ahmed A. El_Shami and Eglal M.R. Souaya

This study aims to synthesize a series of new anticorrosive pigments using a new technique called “core-shell”. This technique is based on depositing thin surface layer of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to synthesize a series of new anticorrosive pigments using a new technique called “core-shell”. This technique is based on depositing thin surface layer of expensive, efficient anticorrosive pigment on a cheap extender. This extender forms the bulk of the new pigments. The new pigments were constructed on cores of either waste silica fume or kaolin comprising 80-85 per cent of their chemical structure, and the ferrite shell was about of 20-15 per cent. Electrochemical studies were undertaken on two series of pigments for comparison between ferrites/silica fume and ferrites/kaolin pigment to show their performance, as the shells are different.

Design/methodology/approach

The different ferrites/silica fume and ferrites/kaolin pigments were characterized using different analytical and spectrophotometric techniques, such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Immersion test and electrochemical impedance measurements were done in 3.5 per cent NaCl.

Findings

The tests revealed that paint films containing Sr ferrite/silica and Ca ferrite/kaolin were the most effective in corrosion prevention.

Practical implications

Silica fumes have a large array of uses. These pigments can be applied in various industries such as painting, wooding coating, anti-corruption coating, powder coating, architectural paint and waterproof paints. Treated kaolin can be applied in many industries besides pigment manufacture and paint formulations; it can be applied as a reinforcing filler in rubber, plastics and ceramic composites.

Originality/value

The new pigments are considered ecofriendly materials, because using them converts a waste product and a natural ore to useful marketable product, leading to reducing cost and saving the environment at the same time.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Nivin M. Ahmed, Walaa M. Abd El-Gawad and Eglal M.R. Souaya

Core-shell is structured particles having several chemical compositions. The advantage of these particles arise from their specific design, to be used in decreasing costs…

Abstract

Purpose

Core-shell is structured particles having several chemical compositions. The advantage of these particles arise from their specific design, to be used in decreasing costs by using inexpensive material (natural ore or waste material) as carrier for thin shell of active material. This study aims to prepare ferrites/silica core-shell pigments and compare their inhibition efficiency to original ferrites. These pigments have shells of different ferrites that comprise 10-15 per cent of the prepared pigments on silica fume. Silica fume which is the core is a byproduct in the ferro–silicon industry; this core comprises 85-90 per cent of the prepared pigments.

Design/methodology/approach

The prepared core-shell pigments were characterized using transmission electron microscopy analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and sequential wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence. These pigments were integrated in epoxy-based paint formulations, and the physical, mechanical and corrosion properties of dry films were examined. The corrosion properties were studied by using immersion test in 3.5 per cent NaCl for 28 days.

Findings

This study showed that these new eco-friendly and inexpensive pigments are similar to ferrites in their inhibition performance, i.e. they exhibited high corrosion prevention.

Research limitations/implications

Domestic waste materials were reused in paints and only simple modification was used, and then, their effectiveness showed similar performance to that of the original pigments.

Originality/value

Ferrite and ferrite/silica pigments are environmentally friendly pigments that can replace other hazardous pigments (e.g. chromates) with almost the same quality in their performance; also, they can be used in industries other than paints (e.g. paper, rubber and plastics composites).

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2018

Mostafa G. Mohamed, Nivin M. Ahmed and Walaa M. Abd El-Gawad

Using organic coatings serves as a key method to protect metal structures against corrosion. Attempts have been made to improve the corrosion inhibition of the coatings…

Abstract

Purpose

Using organic coatings serves as a key method to protect metal structures against corrosion. Attempts have been made to improve the corrosion inhibition of the coatings using novel types of pigments. This study aims to study the application of organic coatings containing rice straw (RS) waste as anticorrosive pigment for corrosion protection of reinforced steel. The RS was used by precipitating a thin layer of ferrite pigments on its surface to improve their characteristics and corrosion resistance activity.

Design/methodology/approach

The evaluation of corrosion behavior of coated reinforced steel with paints containing these novel pigments is reported using different electrochemical methods.

Findings

The coatings containing the new prepared RS-ferrite pigments offered good corrosion protection, and coatings containing RS-ZnFe showed the best protection performance.

Originality/value

This paper introduces novel method to prepare treated RS without any burning and to play the role of pigments in anticorrosive paint formulations based on its silica content.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Nivin M. Ahmed, Mostafa G. Mohamed and Walaa M. Abd El-Gawad

New types of phosphate pigments which are appropriate alternatives for hazardous chromate pigments have been prepared and evaluated. These new pigments were prepared via a…

Abstract

Purpose

New types of phosphate pigments which are appropriate alternatives for hazardous chromate pigments have been prepared and evaluated. These new pigments were prepared via a new technique named core-shell. The core-shell materials consist of at least two separate phases with different chemical compositions. Recently, these materials have become more significant because they have the advantage of gathering the properties of both cores and shells that help to overcome the defects that they might possess individually. The purpose of this research is to develop a modified silica fume-phosphate core-shell pigment that contains 80-90 per cent of waste material (silica fume) and at the same time can offer promoted mechanical and anticorrosive properties than silica fume and they can also be compared with phosphates. The pigments have shells of Zn, Mn, Zn.Mn phosphates comprising about 10-20 per cent.

Design/methodology/approach

The prepared core-shell pigments have been characterized using several methods, which have then been integrated in alkyd paint formulations. The physical and mechanical properties of dry films and their corrosion prevention using accelerated laboratory test in 3.5 per cent NaCl for 28 days are estimated.

Findings

This study showed that the performance of these new pigments is highly efficient in corrosion protection, and it can be a suitable alternative to phosphate pigments despite containing phosphates which does not exceed 20 per cent of the composition.

Practical implications

Waste materials were reused in paints and only simple modification was used; their effectiveness was high and can be compared with well-known pigments.

Originality/value

Silica-phosphate core-shell pigments are environmentally friendly pigments that can replace other hazardous pigments (e.g. chromates and phosphates) with almost the same quality in their performance.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2018

Nivin M. Ahmed, Mostafa G. Mohamed, Reham H. Tammam and Mohamed R. Mabrouk

This study aims to apply novel anticorrosive pigments containing silica fume-phosphates (Si-Ph), which were prepared using core-shell technique by covering 80-90 per cent…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to apply novel anticorrosive pigments containing silica fume-phosphates (Si-Ph), which were prepared using core-shell technique by covering 80-90 per cent silica fume (core) with 10-20 per cent phosphates (shell) previously, to play dual functions simultaneously as anticorrosive pigments in coating formulations and as an anticorrosive admixture in concrete even if it is not present in the concrete itself. Two comparisons were held out to show the results of coatings on rebars containing core-shell pigments in concrete, and concrete admixtured with silica fume can perform a dual function as anticorrosive pigment and concrete admixture. The evaluation of corrosion protection efficiency of coatings containing core-shell pigments and those containing phosphates was performed.

Design/methodology/approach

Simple chemical techniques were used to prepare core-shell pigments, and their characterization was carried out in a previous work. These pigments were incorporated in solvent-based paint formulations based on epoxy resin. Different electrochemical techniques such as open-circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to evaluate the anticorrosive efficiency of the new pigments.

Findings

The electrochemical measurements showed that concrete containing coated rebars with core-shell pigments exhibited almost similar results to that of concrete admixtured with silica fume. Also, the anticorrosive performance of coatings containing Si-Ph pigments offered protection efficiency almost similar to that of phosphates, proving that these new pigments can perform both roles as anticorrosive pigment and concrete admixture.

Originality/value

Although the new Si-Ph pigments contain more than 80 per cent waste material, its performance can be compared to original phosphate pigments in the reinforced concrete.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2018

Walaa M. Abd El-Gawad and Nivin M. Ahmed

The purpose of this paper is to prepare new economical thermal resistant coatings containing white sand (WS) and kaolin (K) fillers, which are cheap natural ores in Egypt…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare new economical thermal resistant coatings containing white sand (WS) and kaolin (K) fillers, which are cheap natural ores in Egypt and are sources for ceramic materials such as SiO2 and Al2O3.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates the effect of heat at 500°C on the durability of mild steel samples coated with silicon coatings. The coated plates were exposed to elevated temperatures according to ASTM D 2485 to determine their stability. Thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the thermal stability of the modified films.

Findings

It was revealed that the composite fillers can enhance the thermal stability of silicon coatings. Another advantage of using the prepared composite fillers is promoting the dryness of silicon resin without heat.

Research limitations/implications

Different natural ores were used as ceramic filler to enhance the thermal stability of silicon coatings.

Originality/value

New economical thermal-resistant coatings containing white sand and kaolin were prepared to replace the expensive thermal coatings; also, they can be used in industries other than coatings, e.g. paper, rubber and plastics composites.

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Salwa H. El-Sabbagh, Nivin M. Ahmed, Doaa Samir Mahmoud and Wael S. Mohamed

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of commercial silica, silica fume-waste (SF) and modified silica fume-waste (mSF) as reinforcing filler in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of commercial silica, silica fume-waste (SF) and modified silica fume-waste (mSF) as reinforcing filler in acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) through the mixing process of rubber. The composites were prepared using different loadings of silica fume and commercial silica in EPDM and NBR composites. Structural characterization of silica and SF was done using X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface of silica fume waste was modified using poly methyl methacrylate/butyl acrylate through emulsion polymerization to increase the interaction between silica and rubber, then consequently better dispersion in rubber matrix was obtained. The mSF waste was characterized using FT-IR spectra and transmission electron microscopy.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigated rubber mixes and vulcanizates were evaluated by measuring the curing characteristics, mechanical testing, thermogravimetric analysis and morphological studies (SEM). The mechanical properties of composites including tensile strength, elongation at break and modulus were estimated and analyzed.

Findings

The results revealed that the composites (NBR and EPDM) containing mSF as filler exhibited better rheological and mechanical properties compared to unmodified silica waste and commercial silica. The SEM analysis indicated that the mSF was homogeneously dispersed through the surface of NBR and EPDM composites. Also, results showed that (NBR and EPDM) composites exhibited remarkable improvements in tensile strength, elongation at break and hardness in the presence of mSF; they also showed an increase in the thermal stability. This means that the treatment of surface SF can improve its dispersion in rubber.

Research limitations/implications

Silica cannot be applied in rubber matrix without surface modification because of their incompatibility; their dispersion is not good without surface modification.

Practical implications

The modified silica surface is considered as effective reinforcing filler which can replace other fillers because of its lower surface energy and enhanced intercalating behavior in rubber.

Social implications

This study is just a start in establishing rubber projects with wide applications in the industry and providing a cheap local product while preserving the quality and that is the use of factory waste, which helps in protecting the environment from pollution.

Originality/value

mSF is cheap with relatively high purity, which make rubber/mSF composites appear as new grade of material that can be used in different media rather than rubber.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Essam Mossalam, Nivin M. Ahmed, Eglal M.R. Souaya and Basil El-Sabbagh

The purpose of this research is to study the physical and mechanical properties beside the durability of concrete as well as corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to study the physical and mechanical properties beside the durability of concrete as well as corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete by replacing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with different ratios of silica fume and meta-kaolin and applying two paint formulations to enhance corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In this work, modified concrete mixes containing pozzolanic materials of industrial wastes such as silica fume (SF) with ratios ranging between (0, 10 and 15%) and calcined raw material such as meta-kaolin (MK) with ratios (0, 3, 5 and 10%), were introduced using water binder ratio (w/b) 0.45 to study their effect on the physico-mechanical properties and durability of concrete as well as corrosion protection performance of reinforced concrete. Two paint formulations containing the same ingredients except that one of them is free from talc (G1) and the other contains talc (G2) were applied on the rebars embedded in these modified mixes. Talc is known to offer high pH to the surrounding media.

Design/methodology/approach

Modified concrete mixes containing the coated reinforced concrete steel with the different paint formulations in presence and absence of talc were tested, and the corrosion behavior was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl, and the concrete mixes were also tested through their compressive strength, chloride permeability, scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and bond strength.

Findings

The results revealed that the hardened reinforced concrete mix containing 10% SF with 5% MK with embedded rebars coated with G2 (paint containing talc) was the best concrete system which offers concrete sustainability besides high corrosion protection performance, i.e. presence of talc in the paints combined with the effect of cement blended with SF and MK showed positive effect on the reinforced concrete properties that leads to more durability and workability.

Originality/value

The integrity of using two efficient methods of corrosion protection beside the effect of the different replacements in concrete mixes containing coated reinforced concrete steel with paint formulations free from talc (G1) and others containing talc (G2), which lead to fatal changes in the pH of the surrounding media (i.e. concrete which has high alkaline pH) to achieve good concrete properties aside with convenient paint formulations together.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Walaa M. Abd El-Gawad, Nivin M. Ahmed, Mohamed M. Selim, E. Hamed and Eglal R. Souaya

In recent years, zeolites have been highlighted as a new component in many industrial applications owing to their unique properties. The purpose of this study is to apply…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, zeolites have been highlighted as a new component in many industrial applications owing to their unique properties. The purpose of this study is to apply three prepared types of zeolites Na-X, Na-Y and hydroxysodalite (Na-HS) in anticorrosive paint formulations to be evaluated as a partial replacement to zinc phosphate in anticorrosive paint formulations to protect carbon steel.

Design/methodology/approach

The three types of zeolites were characterized using different instrumental analysis such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence. Evaluation of zeolites was done using American society for material and testing. Then, they were incorporated in paint formulations based on medium oil-modified soya-bean dehydrated castor oil alkyd resin in the presence and absence of zinc phosphate. Their corrosion behavior was estimated using both immersion test and electrochemical impedance measurements in 3.5% NaCl.

Findings

Generally, the prepared zeolites exhibited good corrosion protection performance, but in presence of zinc phosphate the performance was better. This proves that, zeolites by themselves can resist corrosion but not efficiently, while in presence of zinc phosphate and owing to a synergistic effect between them, the performance was better. This opens the way to partial replacement of zinc phosphate with another safer and cheaper ingredient, which is zeolite.

Practical implications

The three zeolites can be applied in many industries besides the paint industry, such as reinforcing filler in rubber, plastics and ceramic composites, also can be applied in paper filling, paper coatings and electrical insulation.

Originality/value

The three zeolites are environmentally friendly materials that can partially replace other expensive anticorrosive pigments (e.g. zinc phosphate).

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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