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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2019

Nirmal Kumar and Ajeya Jha

Pharmaceuticals supply chain management (SCM) requires special expertise to transport the medicinal products because of weird features of their demand, supply and…

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Abstract

Purpose

Pharmaceuticals supply chain management (SCM) requires special expertise to transport the medicinal products because of weird features of their demand, supply and sensitivity towards quality. The purpose of this study is to establish the linkage of pharmaceutical quality system requirements with the SCM principles. The study enables the collaborative approach of technical, transport, logistics and supply chain teams within the pharmaceutical industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology followed for this study is literature review and survey. The study is supplemented with data obtained through the structured questionnaire.

Findings

Through this study, an exclusive perspective for pharmaceutical good transportation practice (GTP) has been propagated in alignment with seven principles of SCM by Anderson. This study offers guidance to pharmaceutical industry for transportation of products by conceptualizing basic supply chain features such as segmentation, customization of requirement, market signals, differentiation, technology orientation and channel spanning performance.

Research limitations/implications

Here is limited information available about the transportation failures in the pharmaceutical industry. Application of supply chain principles to pharmaceutical transportation is sometimes affected by technical knowledge bias of the researcher.

Practical implications

The study has successfully expounded the practical aspects of pharmaceutical GTP for supply chain professionals.

Social implications

The study facilitates the patients and pharmaceutical consumers to get quality products in a timely manner across the globe.

Originality/value

The application of SCM principles to the pharmaceutical GTP is the result of novel research and has not been studied earlier.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2021

Nirmalendu Biswas, Nirmal Kumar Manna, Dipak Kumar Mandal and Rama Subba Reddy Gorla

This study aims to investigate thermo-bioconvection of oxytactic microorganisms occurring in a nanofluid-saturated porous lid-driven cavity in the presence of the magnetic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate thermo-bioconvection of oxytactic microorganisms occurring in a nanofluid-saturated porous lid-driven cavity in the presence of the magnetic field. The heating is provided through a bell-shaped curved bottom wall heated isothermally. The effects of the peak height of the curved bottom wall, bioconvection Rayleigh number (Rb), Darcy number (Da), Hartmann number (Ha), Peclet number (Pe), Lewis number (Le) and Grashof number (Gr) on the flow structure, temperature and the iso-concentrations of oxygen and microorganisms are examined and explained systematically. The local and global, characteristics of heat transfer and oxygen concentration, are estimated through the Nusselt number (Nu) and Sherwood number (Sh), respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and additionally consisting of species transport equations for oxygen concentration and population density of microorganisms, are discretized by the finite volume method. The evolved linearized algebraic equations are solved iteratively through the alternate direction implicit scheme and the tri-diagonal matrix algorithm. The computation domain has meshed in non-uniform staggered grids. The entire computations are carried out through an in-house developed code written in FORTRAN following the SIMPLE algorithm. The third-order upwind and second-order central difference schemes are used for handling the advection and diffusion terms, respectively. The convergence criterion for the iterative process of achieving the final solution is set as 10–8 and 10–10, respectively, for the maximum residuals and the mass defect.

Findings

The results show that the flow and temperature distribution along with the iso-concentrations of oxygen and microorganisms are markedly affected by the curvature of the bottom wall. A secondary circulation is developed in the cavity that changes the flow physics significantly. The Nu increases with the peak height of the curved bottom wall and Da; however, it decreases with Ha and Rb. The Sh increases with Da but decreases with Ha and the peak height of the curved wall.

Research limitations/implications

A similar study of bioconvection could be extended further considering thermal radiation, chemical attraction, gravity, light, etc.

Practical implications

The outcomes of this investigation could be used in diverse fields of multi-physical applications such as in food industries, chemical processing equipment, fuel cell technology and enhanced oil recovery.

Originality/value

The insights of bioconvection of oxytactic microorganisms using a curved bottom surface along with other physical issues such as nanofluid, porous substance and magnetic field are addressed systematically and thoroughly.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Nirmal Kumar Mandal and Francis Robert Edwards

As part of the Co-Operative Education Program (CEP) under study, a Work-integrated Learning (WIL) student engagement framework is presented. The framework focusses on the…

Abstract

Purpose

As part of the Co-Operative Education Program (CEP) under study, a Work-integrated Learning (WIL) student engagement framework is presented. The framework focusses on the effectiveness of the WIL program with real-world assessment tasks to prepare students for graduate employment. In order to evaluate the level at which the engineering graduates are work-ready, an analysis of qualitative and quantitative survey data from CQU students, employers and data from other sources was undertaken. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

WIL is an effective pedagogical strategy employed in engineering curriculum to engage students with workplace partners and engineering practices. However, little is known about the problems exist in the WIL processes including insufficient resources and support for mentoring students. On overcoming the problems, an effective collaboration between students, universities and engineering workplaces provides an enhanced engagement experience and enables students’ work-ready skills. Central Queensland University (CQU)’s Bachelor of Engineering (Honours) and Diploma of Professional Practice (Co-op) students participate in two 6-month WIL placements over the course of their university studies.

Findings

To identify the impact of the co-operative education model on graduate outcomes, an analysis of student assessment data from 2016 to 2018 showed that the student employability indicators were consistently above the national average of graduate engineering students. All areas such as knowledge base, engineering ability and professional attributes, students’ performance were rated at or above the average of a graduate engineer by employers.

Originality/value

As part of practice assessment, engineering workplace employers provide an evaluation of students’ performance against the Engineers Australia (EA) Stage 1 Competency Standard for Professional Engineers, involving sixteen mandatory elements in the areas of knowledge and skill base, engineering application ability, and professional and personal attributes.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 June 2019

Nirmal Kumar Manna, Nirmalendu Biswas and Pallab Sinha Mahapatra

This study aims to enhance natural convection heat transfer for a porous thermal cavity. Multi-frequency sinusoidal heating is applied at the bottom of a porous square…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to enhance natural convection heat transfer for a porous thermal cavity. Multi-frequency sinusoidal heating is applied at the bottom of a porous square cavity, considering top wall adiabatic and cooling through the sidewalls. The different frequencies, amplitudes and phase angles of sinusoidal heating are investigated to understand their major impacts on the heat transfer characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

The finite volume method is used to solve the governing equations in a two-dimensional cavity, considering incompressible laminar flow, Boussinesq approximation and Brinkman–Forchheimer–Darcy model. The mean-temperature constraint is applied for enhancement analysis.

Findings

The multi-frequency heating can markedly enhance natural convection heat transfer even in the presence of porous medium (enhancement up to ∼74 per cent). Only the positive phase angle offers heat transfer enhancement consistently in all frequencies (studied).

Research limitations/implications

The present research idea can usefully be extended to other multi-physical areas (nanofluids, magneto-hydrodynamics, etc.).

Practical implications

The findings are useful for devices working on natural convection.

Originality/value

The enhancement using multi-frequency heating is estimated under different parametric conditions. The effect of different frequencies of sinusoidal heating, along with the uniform heating, is collectively discussed from the fundamental point of view using the average and local Nusselt number, thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layers and heatlines.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 19 August 2022

Dimple Dimple, Deepak Datta Nirmal, Manoj Kumar and Veerma Puri

This case enables students to understand the nature of a typical crisis and manage a crisis drawing insights from the protagonist handling of the crisis and from the…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

This case enables students to understand the nature of a typical crisis and manage a crisis drawing insights from the protagonist handling of the crisis and from the various crisis management models in the literature. The rich description of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the world in this case enables students to understand the nature of a typical external crisis. The critical appraisal of the protagonist’s plans and actions to overcome the crisis enables students to appreciate the various crisis management frameworks or models. In addition, students get perspectives about the leadership skills and competencies required during a crisis. In this way, students will not only learn about the theoretical concepts related to the crisis but also the practical know-how to effectively handle the crisis.

Case overview/synopsis

This case study describes the functioning of the International Delhi Public School (IDPS) Akhnoor, Jammu, and Kashmir, India, through the COVID-19 global crisis. The IDPS academic operations were disrupted because of the COVID-19 global crisis in March 2020. The protagonist, KCS Mehta, the school principal of IDPS, faced with the crisis, takes various steps to ensure the smooth transition of school’s academic operations from the physical mode to the online mode. This case explains the nature of an external crisis that completely crippled the organization’s day-to-day operations and how the organization’s leader tried to manage the crisis to revitalize the organization’s operations. The case can be used for teaching of alternate Models of Crisis Management and Change Management.

Complexity academic level

The case is developed to teach the courses of Executive training programs and MBA programs in business schools.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 11: Strategy.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 August 2009

Nirmal Kumar, Rajendra Prasad, Ravi Shankar and K.C. Iyer

Technological intervention for housing construction in rural areas in India is very low. The purpose of this paper is to understand the mutual influences of the variables…

Abstract

Purpose

Technological intervention for housing construction in rural areas in India is very low. The purpose of this paper is to understand the mutual influences of the variables influencing technology transfer in the rural housing sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Using interpretive structural modeling, the research presents a hierarchy‐based model and the mutual relationships among the variables of innovative and cost‐effective technology transfer.

Findings

The outcome of the research is a framework for technology transfer in rural India. The research shows that there exists a group of variables having a high driving power and low dependence requiring maximum attention. Another group consists of those variables which have high dependence and are the resultant actions.

Practical implications

This framework provides a useful tool to understand the mutual relationships among different variables in effective technology transfer.

Originality/value

Presentation of variables in a hierarchy and the classification into driver and dependent categories is unique in the area of technology transfer in the rural housing sector.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Archana Soni‐Jaiswal, Nadiah Parry and Nirmal Kumar

The published evidence in support of a tonsillectomy is equivocal relying on historical studies using objective outcome measures. Based on this, NICE have suggested that…

Abstract

Purpose

The published evidence in support of a tonsillectomy is equivocal relying on historical studies using objective outcome measures. Based on this, NICE have suggested that tonsillectomy is a “low clinical value treatment” and its funding curtailed by PCTs. This paper aims to prospectively evaluate the effect of a tonsillectomy on quality of life (QOL) of children affected by recurrent infective tonsillitis using a qualitative patient reported outcome measure (PROM).

Design/methodology/approach

Parents of children under the age of 16, undergoing a tonsillectomy, were enrolled. Parents completed a paediatric throat disorders outcome (PTDO) test prior to their child's surgery and then six months post‐operatively. Results were analysed using the Mann‐Whitney U test. The power of the study was 0.8 to detect a difference of 10 in a total score of 70.

Findings

A total of 63 children participated and an 86 per cent response rate was received at six months. The mean total score improved from 31.29 pre‐op to 7.41 post‐op (p<0.001). The mean score for the first two subgroups remained static but for the remaining 12 sub‐groups significantly improved post‐op.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates that performing tonsillectomies in a carefully selected cohort of children, significantly improves their QOL. It adds to a growing body of evidence that tonsillectomy is not a “low clinical value procedure” and has a substantial impact on the patients' symptoms.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Rajeev Advani, Nicola Marie Stobbs, Neil Killick and B Nirmal Kumar

The implementation of the European Working Time Directive and its subsequent impact on the hours worked by doctors in training has resulted in shift-working rotas being…

3697

Abstract

Purpose

The implementation of the European Working Time Directive and its subsequent impact on the hours worked by doctors in training has resulted in shift-working rotas being the norm and greater cross-cover between specialties. As such, the need for continuity of information and comprehensiveness of handover between shifts has become more important than ever. The purpose of this paper is to show how handover can be improved by the implementation of an electronic handover system and subsequent Quality Improvement Rapid Cycle Change Model of clinical audit.

Design/methodology/approach

Initial data were collected using a standardised questionnaire collected prospectively from all junior doctors within the surgical division. Following the first audit cycle, changes were implemented in a Quality Improvement Rapid Cycle Change Model of clinical audit and a Surgical Division Electronic Handover Shared Drive was developed. Three further prospective cycles of clinical audit were carried out over a period of 12 months.

Findings

The results show a more effective handover system to be in place. Effects of change measured as an 80 per cent standard was achieved in all categories and maintained throughout all cycles of re-audit.

Practical implications

A surgical division shared electronic handover drive was developed and subsequent audits have shown improved handover practice in a foundation trust. This has positive benefits on patient safety and quality of care.

Originality/value

This work is of interest to those looking to set up an electronic handover system and additionally to all those working in specialities where cross-cover is required.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Nirmal Kumar Acharya, Young Dai Lee and Hae Man Im

The purpose of this article is to identify and explore pertinent conflicting factors in construction projects; which would be helpful for project planners and implementers…

4274

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to identify and explore pertinent conflicting factors in construction projects; which would be helpful for project planners and implementers in assessing and taking proactive measures for reducing the adverse effect of conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the study objectives, a 43‐item questionnaire survey in a five‐point Likert scale was carried out to collect professionals' experience on conflicting activities in Korean construction projects. Responses from 124 professionals working for owners, consultants and contractors were analyzed. Furthermore, ten face‐to face interviews were also carried out to ratify the findings from the field survey. Later, analytical hierarchical process method was employed to find out the importance weighting as well as responsible party for the perceived conflicts.

Findings

This study has found out six critical construction conflicting factors pertinent in Korean context. These factors with importance weighting are: differing site condition (24.1 percent), public interruption (22.5 percent), differences in change order evaluation (21 percent), design errors (17.1 percent), excessive contract quantities variation (8.2) and double meaning of specifications (7.1 percent). The study has revealed that owner (35.6 percent) and consultant (34.18 percent) are mostly responsible parties for conflicts in construction projects.

Originality/value

As the previous researches have been indicating increase in conflicts in construction field, this paper is very topical at the moment. This work has tried to explore the underlying problems of the construction field. The study provides field level experiences from which the inexperience construction site professionals could learn the instances of conflicts and not repeat the mistakes in their projects.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 January 2012

361

Abstract

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

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