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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2021

Nir Kshetri

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in human resource management (HRM) in the Global South.

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1268

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in human resource management (HRM) in the Global South.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple case studies of AI tools used in HRM in these countries in recruiting and selecting as well as developing, retaining and productively utilizing employees have been used.

Findings

With AI deployment in HRM, organizations can enhance efficiency in recruitment and selection and gain access to a larger recruitment pool. With AI deployment in HRM, subjective criteria such as nepotism and favoritism are less likely to come into play in recruitment and selection of employees. AI deployment in HRM also has a potentially positive impact on the development, retainment and productive utilization of employees.

Research limitations/implications

AI is an evolving technology. Most HRM apps have not gained enough machine learning capabilities with real-world experience. Some of them lack a scientific basis. AI in HRM thus currently affects only a tiny proportion of the population in the GS.

Practical implications

The paper explores the roles of AI in expanding recruitment pools. It also advances our understanding of how AI-based HIRM tools can help reduce biases in selecting candidates, which is especially important in the Global South. It also delves into various mechanisms by which AI helps in the development, retainment and productive utilization of employees.

Originality/value

We provide details of various mechanisms by which AI brings input and output efficiencies in recruitment and selection in these countries.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 44 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2022

Nir Kshetri

The purpose of this paper is to examine blockchain's roles in promoting ethical sourcing in the mineral and metal industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine blockchain's roles in promoting ethical sourcing in the mineral and metal industry.

Design/methodology/approach

It analyzes multiple case studies of blockchain projects in the mineral and metal industry.

Findings

It gives detailed descriptions of how blockchain-based supply chain networks' higher density of information flow and high degree of authenticity of information can increase supply chain participants' compliance with sustainability standards. It gives special consideration to blockchain systems' roles in overcoming the deficits in the second party and the third-party trust. It also demonstrates how blockchain-based supply chain networks include outside actors and configure the supply chain networks in a way that enhances the empowerment of marginalized groups.

Practical implications

It suggests various mechanisms by which blockchain-based supply chain networks can give a voice to marginalized groups.

Originality/value

It demonstrates how blockchain is likely to force mineral and metal supply chains to become more traceable and transparent.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2020

Ravi Sharma, Charcy Zhang, Stephen C. Wingreen, Nir Kshetri and Arnob Zahid

The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of soft systems methodology (SSM) to address the problematic situation of low opt-in rates for Precision Health-Care (PHC).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of soft systems methodology (SSM) to address the problematic situation of low opt-in rates for Precision Health-Care (PHC).

Design/methodology/approach

The design logic is that when trust is enhanced and compliance is better assured, participants such as patients and their doctors would be more likely to share their medical data and diagnosis for the purpose of precision modeling.

Findings

The authors present the findings of an empirical study that confronts the design challenge of increasing participant opt-in to a PHC repository of Electronic Medical Records and genetic sequencing. Guided by SSM, the authors formulate design rules for the establishment of a trust-less platform for PHC which incorporates key principles of transparency, traceability and immutability.

Research limitations/implications

The SSM approach has been criticized for its lack of “rigour” and “replicability”. This is a fallacy in understanding its purpose – theory exploration rather than theory confirmation. Moreover, it is unlikely that quantitative modeling yields any clearer an understanding of complex, socio-technical systems.

Practical implications

The application of Blockchain, a platform for distributed ledgers, and associated technologies present a feasible approach for resolving the problematic situation of low opt-in rates.

Social implications

A consequence of low participation is the weak recall and precision of descriptive, predictive and prescriptive analytic models. Factors such as cyber-crime, data violation and the potential for misuse of genetic and medical records have led to a lack of trust from key stakeholders – accessors, participants, miners and regulators – to varying degrees.

Originality/value

The application of Blockchain as a trust-enabling platform in the domain of an emerging eco-system such as precision health is novel and pioneering.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 120 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 1 July 2011

Nir Kshetri

International Business, International Entrepreneurship, International Marketing.

Abstract

Subject area

International Business, International Entrepreneurship, International Marketing.

Study level/applicability

Advanced undergraduate and graduate students are the primary audience. The case can also be used in executive classes with emerging economies as a focus.

Case overview

Kaspersky Lab is a provider of information technology (IT) security products such as anti-virus, anti-spam and network security software. It is Russia's largest software company and the only Russian firm that ranked among the world's top 100 software companies. This case presents several interesting features of the company and its environment. The foci of the case are on potential barriers facing firms based in emerging economies in their internationalization initiatives and negative country of origin effects associated with emerging economies.

Expected learning outcomes

The learning objectives of this case include:

  • To identify internal and external sources of competitive advantage for a developing world originated successful entrepreneurial firm.

  • To assess the potential barriers facing an emerging economy-based firm in the internationalization process and analyse whether such barriers differ across economies of various characteristics.

  • To evaluate whether the natures of obstacles and challenges faced by an emerging economy-based firm is different in a newly evolving industry.

  • To analyze how an emerging economy-based firm can overcome some of the barriers to internationalization.

To identify internal and external sources of competitive advantage for a developing world originated successful entrepreneurial firm.

To assess the potential barriers facing an emerging economy-based firm in the internationalization process and analyse whether such barriers differ across economies of various characteristics.

To evaluate whether the natures of obstacles and challenges faced by an emerging economy-based firm is different in a newly evolving industry.

To analyze how an emerging economy-based firm can overcome some of the barriers to internationalization.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

Amulya Gurtu and Jestin Johny

The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature on blockchain technology, present some trends and consider its potential value in supply chain management (SCM).

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3472

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature on blockchain technology, present some trends and consider its potential value in supply chain management (SCM).

Design/methodology/approach

Papers that contained the word “blockchain” in their titles, keywords or abstracts were selected for conducting trend analyses.

Findings

The blockchain technology is rapidly making inroads in many industries and there is tremendous potential to eliminate intermediaries and to make SCM more efficient.

Research limitations/implications

This analysis is limited to 299 papers from the EBSCO database through December 2018.

Practical implications

This paper highlights the imperative role of blockchain technology that has created a discourse in the world of innovation and technology. This work will help academics to further the understanding of blockchain technology.

Social implications

Blockchain technology will provide transparency to consumers.

Originality/value

This paper presents the first review of blockchain technology and delves into its value in SCM. This work will help researchers in identifying the areas where blockchain is the most desirable and can be implemented.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 49 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Nir Kshetri

There are strong similarities and striking differences in Estonia's and South Korea's entrepreneurial ecosystems. The purpose of this paper is to seek to compare and…

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1627

Abstract

Purpose

There are strong similarities and striking differences in Estonia's and South Korea's entrepreneurial ecosystems. The purpose of this paper is to seek to compare and contrast these two economies in terms of key indicators related to impacts, performance measures and determinants of entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach of this study can be described as theory building from multiple case studies. The analysis is based on secondary data from a number of sources related to impacts, performance measures and determinants of entrepreneurship.

Findings

Among the major findings is that in order to shift to a higher gear, South Korea's entrepreneurial weakness must be addressed through broad institutional reforms that include the corporate governance, and policies and attitudes toward immigrants and immigration. In Estonia's case, while continuing attention must be paid to institutional reforms, immediate action is needed to improve policies that affect basic economic, technological and infrastructural conditions.

Research limitations/implications

A crucial lesson from a comparison of these two economies is that multiple paths of entrepreneurial success exist.

Practical implications

The lessons each can learn from the other to improve the entrepreneurial ecosystem are suggested. Other emerging, developing and less developed economies also have much to learn from the success paths of these two economies.

Originality/value

This paper provides unique insights into alternative ways that emerging economies can follow to develop successful entrepreneurial ecosystems and achieve entrepreneurial success as well as advantages and limitations of the alternatives.

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2010

Nir Kshetri

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, theoretically and empirically, how entrepreneurial firms' perceptions of formal institutions differ across Central and Eastern…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, theoretically and empirically, how entrepreneurial firms' perceptions of formal institutions differ across Central and Eastern European (CEE) economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses data from the World Bank Group's World Business Environment Survey (WBES) compare entrepreneurial firms' perceptions of changes in different components of regulative institutions in Latin and orthodox CEE economies. The data used in this paper capture a decade's progress in the development of regulative institutions in these economies.

Findings

It was found that the state's regulatory, participatory, and supportive roles are more favorable to businesses in the Latin countries than in the orthodox countries. The findings provide support for the notion that informal institutions influence the degree of generalizeability and replicability of Western political and economic institutions' success in driving firms' entrepreneurial behavior in emerging economies.

Research limitations/implications

The first limitation is that the data used were collected about a decade ago. Another limitation relates to a lack of coverage of many former Soviet republics and some other CEE countries in the WBES.

Practical implications

The findings point to the need of strategic planning and various degrees of adaptation of business strategies across the CEE economies. Second, businesses may differ in terms of the relative importance of regulatory, participatory, and supportive roles of the government in their operations. Finally, some CEE economies can be influenced more than others by international pressures.

Originality/value

This paper's greatest value stems from the fact that it uses internationally comparable firm‐level data to empirically examine entrepreneurial firms' perceptions of regulative institutions in CEE economies.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2011

Nir Kshetri and Nikhilesh Dholakia

The issue of offshore outsourcing of healthcare services is a critical but little‐examined problem in healthcare research. The purpose of this study is to contribute to…

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1599

Abstract

Purpose

The issue of offshore outsourcing of healthcare services is a critical but little‐examined problem in healthcare research. The purpose of this study is to contribute to filling this void.

Design/methodology/approach

A library‐based study was carried out of the development of the Indian medical transcription offshoring industry.

Findings

Cost‐saving potential and the degree of outsourceability are higher for medical transcription compared with most services. Offshoring experience, typically in a low‐value BPO, helps to enhance productivity and international linkages required for the success of medical transcription.

Research limitations/implications

An important area of future research concerns comparing India's factor endowments in medical transcription outsourcing with other services. Further research is also needed to examine how India differs from its regional competitors in terms of factors endowments associated with these services. Another extension would be to investigate the drivers of offshoring of higher value services such as radiological readings.

Practical implications

ICT infrastructures needed for outsourcing require much less investment compared with leading capital‐intensive industries. The development patterns of the Indian medical and offshoring industries indicate that India may attract higher skilled medical functions in the future. The Indian offshoring industry is shifting its focus from BPO to knowledge process outsourcing (KPO). Developing countries need to shift to greater automation and greater levels of skill training to retain and reinforce their comparative advantages.

Originality/value

This paper's greatest value stems from the fact that it examines the drivers of a new but rapidly growing healthcare industry.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Nir Kshetri

Industrialized world‐based healthcare providers are increasingly off‐shoring low‐end healthcare services such as medical transcription, billing and insurance claims…

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2652

Abstract

Purpose

Industrialized world‐based healthcare providers are increasingly off‐shoring low‐end healthcare services such as medical transcription, billing and insurance claims. High‐skill medical jobs such as tele‐imaging and tele‐pathology are also being sub‐contracted to developing countries. Despite its importance, little theory or research exists to explain what factors affect industry growth. The article's goals, therefore, are to examine economic processes associated with developing economies' shift from low‐ to high‐value information technology enabled healthcare services, and to investigate how these differ in terms of legitimacy from regulative, normative and cognitive institutions in the sending country and how healthcare services differ from other services.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is conceptual and theory‐building. Broadly, its approach can be described as a positivistic epistemology.

Findings

Anti off‐shoring regulative, normative and cognitive pressures in the sending country are likely to be stronger in healthcare than in most business process outsourcing. Moreover, such pressures are likely to be stronger in high‐value rather than in low‐value healthcare off‐shoring. The findings also indicate that off‐shoring low‐value healthcare services and emergent healthcare industries in a developing economy help accumulate implicit and tacit knowledge required for off‐shoring high‐value healthcare services.

Research limitations/implications

The approach lacks primary data and empirical documentation.

Practical implications

The article helps in understanding industry drivers and its possible future direction. The findings help in understanding the lens through which various institutional actors in a sending country view healthcare service off‐shoring.

Originality/value

The article's value stems from its analytical context, mechanisms and processes associated with developing economies' shift to high‐value healthcare off‐shoring services.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2009

Nir Kshetri

This paper seeks to examine the growth of the Chinese online gaming industry and disentangle the mechanisms behind the emergence of unique online gaming culture in China.

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4135

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the growth of the Chinese online gaming industry and disentangle the mechanisms behind the emergence of unique online gaming culture in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a review paper that provides a detailed and state‐of‐the‐art overview of the development of the Chinese online gaming Industry.

Findings

The findings indicate that online gaming is a remarkable example of an industry that is rapidly growing due to innovative business models of Chinese companies. Chinese companies are also working with the government to improve formal institutions to promote the growth of online gaming. Furthermore, we also found that Chinese online gaming industry resembles other technology industries in the country such as those related to handset and PC. Although Chinese companies were traditionally weak in creating new technologies, they have demonstrated success in some modern technologies in recent years. In the early stage of the growth, foreign players dominated the Chinese gaming industry. In recent years, this industry is characterized by the dominance of domestic players in the ecosystem catering to the full value chain of the industry.

Research limitations/implications

A lack of primary data and empirical documentation and a lack of in‐depth treatment of some of the key issues are major limitations here.

Practical implications

The paper examines the implications of China's rapidly growing online gaming industry for high‐technology businesses all over the world. The findings of this paper would help understand the opportunities for foreign multinational companies to enter the Chinese technology market or to intensify their operations in the country as well as the risks associated with China's unique institutions.

Originality/value

This paper's greatest value stems from the fact that it analyzes demand conditions, industry structure and transfer and export conditions from the standpoint of the Chinese online gaming industry and market.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

Keywords

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