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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Geoffrey Wall and Ning Ryan Zhao

The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate red tourism in China and, in doing so, shed light on the complex relationships between tourism, heritage and identity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate red tourism in China and, in doing so, shed light on the complex relationships between tourism, heritage and identity politics.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed methods – literature review, document analysis, interviews with government officials, travel agents and tourists.

Findings

Red tourism is an initiative to preserve, promote and pass down China’s communist past that is underpinned by political purposes. It has resulted in an imbalance between the government’s designation of communist heritage sites all over the country and the concentration of visitors in a small number of popular destinations. Red tourism fosters allegiance to the Communist Party of China. At the same time, it is expected to bring economic opportunities to remote locations through tourism spending and the branding opportunities that it provides. However, a different emphasis can be discerned at the national and local levels, whereby the former emphasizes political cohesion and the latter stresses local economic development.

Research limitations/implications

Four sites are investigated in detail out of the hundreds that might have been explored.

Practical implications

Recommendations are made to: diversify the product, increase stakeholder involvement, enhance heritage conservation plans, improve interpretation.

Social implications

Many implications for relationships between governments at all levels and the Chinese population. Also implications for the economic well-being of places and people adjacent to red tourism sites.

Originality/value

One of very few papers in either English or Chinese that addresses the red tourism policy in detail and with substantial empirical materials.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2022

Zhenshuang Wang, Yanxin Zhou, Xiaohua Jin, Ning Zhao and Jianshu Sun

Public-private partnership (PPP) projects for construction waste recycling have become the main approach to construction waste treatment in China. Risk sharing and income…

Abstract

Purpose

Public-private partnership (PPP) projects for construction waste recycling have become the main approach to construction waste treatment in China. Risk sharing and income distribution of PPP projects play a vital role in achieving project success. This paper is aimed at building a practical and effective risk sharing and income distribution model to achieve win–win situation among different stakeholders, thereby providing a systematic framework for governments to promote construction waste recycling.

Design/methodology/approach

Stakeholders of construction waste recycling PPP projects were reclassified according to the stakeholder theory. Best-worst multi–criteria decision-making method and comprehensive fuzzy evaluation method (BWM–FCE) risk assessment model was constructed to optimize the risk assessment of core stakeholders in construction waste recycling PPP projects. Based on the proposed risk evaluation model for construction waste recycling PPP projects, the Shapley value income distribution model was modified in combination with capital investment, contribution and project participation to obtain a more equitable and reasonable income distribution system.

Findings

The income distribution model showed that PPP Project Companies gained more transaction benefits, which proved that PPP Project Companies played an important role in the actual operation of PPP projects. The policy change risk, investment and financing risk and income risk were the most important risks and key factors for project success. Therefore, it is of great significance to strengthen the management of PPP Project Companies, and in the process of PPP implementation, the government should focus on preventing the risk of policy changes, investment and financing risks and income risks.

Practical implications

The findings from this study have advanced the application methods of risk sharing and income distribution for PPP projects and further improved PPP project-related theories. It helps to promote and rationalize fairness in construction waste recycling PPP projects and to achieve mutual benefits and win–win situation in risk sharing. It has also provided a reference for resource management of construction waste and laid a solid foundation for long-term development of construction waste resources.

Originality/value

PPP mode is an effective tool for construction waste recycling. How to allocate risks and distribute benefits has become the most important issue of waste recycling PPP projects, and also the key to project success. The originality of this study resides in its provision of a holistic approach of risk allocation and benefit distribution on construction waste PPP projects in China as a developing country. Accordingly, this study adds its value by promoting resource development of construction waste, extending an innovative risk allocation and benefit distribution method in PPP projects, and providing a valuable reference for policymakers and private investors who are planning to invest in PPP projects in China.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2009

Jifu Wang, Jinghua Zhao, Yixi Ning and Peng Yu

The impact of globalization and worldwide competition has become excruciatingly noticeable in China. The purpose of this study is to examine China’s transformation of…

Abstract

The impact of globalization and worldwide competition has become excruciatingly noticeable in China. The purpose of this study is to examine China’s transformation of state‐owned enterprises (SOEs) to competitive, capable organizations by identifying the dominant challenges and forces for change to State‐Owned Enterprises in China (SOE), the nature of SOE responses to those forces, and the degree of SOE success in making the necessary transformations to compete in a global business environment.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2022

Bingjun Li, Shuhua Zhang, Wenyan Li and Yifan Zhang

Grey modeling technique is an important element of grey system theory, and academic articles applied to agricultural science research have been published since 1985…

Abstract

Purpose

Grey modeling technique is an important element of grey system theory, and academic articles applied to agricultural science research have been published since 1985, proving the broad applicability and effectiveness of the technique from different aspects and providing a new means to solve agricultural science problems. The analysis of the connotation and trend of the application of grey modeling technique in agricultural science research contributes to the enrichment of grey technique and the development of agricultural science in multiple dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the relevant literature selected from China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Web of Science, SpiScholar and other databases in the past 37 years (1985–2021), this paper firstly applied the bibliometric method to quantitatively visualize and systematically analyze the trend of publication, productive author, productive institution, and highly cited literature. Then, the literature is combed by the application of different grey modeling techniques in agricultural science research, and the literature research progress is systematically analyzed.

Findings

The results show that grey model technology has broad prospects in the field of agricultural science research. Agricultural universities and research institutes are the main research forces in the application of grey model technology in agricultural science research, and have certain inheritance. The application of grey model technology in agricultural science research has wide applicability and precise practicability.

Originality/value

By analyzing and summarizing the application trend of grey model technology in agricultural science research, the research hotspot, research frontier and valuable research directions of grey model technology in agricultural science research can be more clearly grasped.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2009

Ning Zhao, Hai‐tao Ma and Lai Wang

The paper aims to investigate the interfacial reactions between two Sn‐Cu based multicomponent Pb‐free solders, Sn‐2Cu‐0.5Ni and Sn‐2Cu‐0.5Ni‐0.5Au (wt per cent), and Ni…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate the interfacial reactions between two Sn‐Cu based multicomponent Pb‐free solders, Sn‐2Cu‐0.5Ni and Sn‐2Cu‐0.5Ni‐0.5Au (wt per cent), and Ni substrates during soldering and aging.

Design/methodology/approach

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed to measure the melting behaviors of the solders and determine the temperature of soldering. DSC tests showed that the onset temperature were 227.47 and 224.787°C for Sn‐2Cu‐0.5Ni and Sn‐2Cu‐0.5Ni‐0.5Au, respectively. Two intermetallic compounds (IMCs), Cu6Sn5 and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5, were formed in Sn‐2Cu‐0.5Ni solder. While the IMCs detected in Sn‐2Cu‐0.5Ni‐0.5Au matrix were (Cu,Ni)6Sn5, (Cu,Au)6Sn5 and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5. The IMC layer formed at the both solder/Ni interfaces was (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 with stick‐lick morphology after soldering at 260°C.

Findings

The interfacial IMC layers became planar when aged at 170°C for 500 h. However, cracks were found in the IMC layers at both joints when the aging time reached 1,000 h, that implies reliability problem may exist in the joints. Moreover, Au‐containing IMCs were found on the top of the IMC layer in Sn‐2Cu‐0.5Ni‐0.5Au/Ni joint after for 1,000 h.

Originality/value

This study focuses on the interfacial reactions of Sn‐2Cu‐0.5Ni/Ni and Sn‐2Cu‐0.5Au/Ni during soldering and isothermal aging.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Dong Wang, Guoyu Lin, Wei-gong Zhang, Ning Zhao and Han Pang

One of the major shortcomings in the data process of the traditional wheel force transducers (WFTs) is the theoretical errors of initial value determination. A new method…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the major shortcomings in the data process of the traditional wheel force transducers (WFTs) is the theoretical errors of initial value determination. A new method to identify the initial values of the WFT for the solution of this problem is proposed in this paper. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

With this method, the initial values can be obtained by equations which are established based on multiple stops on horizontal road.

Findings

The calibration and contrast tests on the MTS calibration platform illustrate the better performance with the new method. Moreover, the real vehicle test confirms the effectiveness in practice.

Originality/value

The test results show that the new method of initial calibration has an advanced performance compared to the traditional one. In addition, it is effective in the brake test with a real vehicle.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Ning Zhao, David C. Yen and I‐Chiu Chang

Financial statements are not as important to investors as they once were, as technology has changed the way companies create value today. While these changes pose serious…

6724

Abstract

Financial statements are not as important to investors as they once were, as technology has changed the way companies create value today. While these changes pose serious threats to the economic viability of auditing, they also create new opportunities for auditors to pursue. Both the American Institute of Certified of Public Accountants and the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA) Task Force on Assurance Services have identified continuous auditing as a service that should be offered. Continuous auditing is significantly different from an annual financial statement audit. A latest research report produced by the CICA defines a continuous audit as: “a methodology that enables independent auditors to provide written assurance on a subject matter using a series of auditors’ reports issued simultaneously with, or a short period of time after, the occurrence of events underlying the subject matter.” However, continuous auditing would present significant technical hurdles. These technical hurdles could be overcome if certain conditions exist. Computer‐assisted audit tools (CAATs) are one of the conditions that must exist in order to conduct the continuous auditing. CAATs are defined as computer‐assisted tools that permit auditors to increase their productivity, as well as that of the audit function. Therefore, with the real‐time accounting and electronic data interchange popularizing, CAATs are becoming even more necessary. The demand for timely and forward‐looking information hints that the continuous audit will eventually replace the traditional audit report on year‐end results.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 November 2018

Fuda Ning, Yingbin Hu and Weilong Cong

The purpose of this paper is to identify if the implementation of ultrasonic vibration in laser engineered net shaping (LENS) process can help to reduce internal…

491

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify if the implementation of ultrasonic vibration in laser engineered net shaping (LENS) process can help to reduce internal weaknesses such as porosity, coarse primary TiB whisker and heterogeneous distribution of TiB reinforcement in the LENS-fabricated TiB reinforced Ti matrix composites (TiB-TMC) parts.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental investigation is performed to achieve the results for comparative studies under different fabrication conditions through quantitative data analysis. An approach of microstructural characterization and mechanical testing is conducted to obtain the output attributes. In addition, the theoretical analysis of the physics of ultrasonic vibration in the melting materials is presented to explain the influences of ultrasonic vibration on the microstructural evolution occurred in the part fabrication.

Findings

Because of the nonlinear effects of acoustic streaming and cavitation induced by ultrasonic vibration, porosity is significantly reduced and a relatively small variation of pore sizes is achieved. Ultrasonic vibration also causes the formation of smaller TiB whiskers that distribute along grain boundaries with a homogeneous dispersion. Additionally, a quasi-continuous network (QCN) microstructure is considerably finer than that produced by LENS process without ultrasonic vibration. The refinements of both reinforcing TiB whiskers and QCN microstructural grains further improve the microhardness of TiB-TMC parts.

Originality/value

The novel ultrasonic vibration-assisted (UV-A) LENS process of TiB-TMC is conducted in this work for the first time to improve the process performance and part quality.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2020

Saznizam Sazmee Sinoh, Faridah Othman and Zainah Ibrahim

This paper aimed to identify critical success factors (CSFs) of building information modeling (BIM) implementation among architectural, engineering and construction (AEC…

1422

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aimed to identify critical success factors (CSFs) of building information modeling (BIM) implementation among architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) firms in Malaysia using quantitative statistical methods.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was conducted on the population of all AEC firms in Malaysia to rank the relative importance of 15 success factors (SFs) for BIM implementation in the firm on a 5-point Likert scale. The sampling frame consisted of all members registered with the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) from which 184 responses were received. The distinction between SFs and CSFs was achieved by a normalized mean cutoff value. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the relative groupings of the CSFs and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to examine the underlying relationships between the CSF groupings.

Findings

Results of this study validated 11 previously identified CSFs for successful implementation of BIM among Malaysian AEC firms. Non-technical factors such as management, leadership and coordination were found to have higher relevance compared to technical factors such as software and hardware. Ranking analysis of the CSFs found internal coordination factors to have more importance compared to external coordination factors. PCA revealed 4 principal components (PCs) from the 11 CSFs. Together, these four PCs explain 74.3% of the variance in the data. Also, six hypothesized relationships between these groupings were supported using PLS-SEM.

Research limitations/implications

This study found an interaction between internal and external coordination factors for the implementation of BIM. Future research could explore the dynamics of both intra- and inter-firm coordination, which may create an environment suitable for BIM implementation.

Practical implications

This study provides Malaysian AEC firms with a general strategy on how to approach the implementation of BIM within the firm. In addition, government initiatives should focus on increasing BIM competency of graduates entering the workforce. This can be achieved through the development of a national BIM curriculum. Apart from that, the implementation of BIM requires a radical shift in the traditional building delivery process, not just simply acquiring new software and hardware.

Originality/value

This study revealed that the interactions between different firms at the industry level can influence successful implementation of BIM at the firm level. CSFs for BIM implementation at the firm level have been extensively studied. However, few studies exist which explore the inter-firm collaborations at the industry level that facilitate successful BIM implementation.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 February 2017

Yiming Hu, Ying Yang and Pengfei Han

The purpose of this paper is to examine the difference of credit enhancement of variously secured bonds issued by local government financing platform bond (LGFPB).

1084

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the difference of credit enhancement of variously secured bonds issued by local government financing platform bond (LGFPB).

Design/methodology/approach

The approaches to secure the bonds usually include mortgage, collateral, guarantee, etc.

Findings

Using a sample of LGFPBs issued during the 2007-2013 period, the authors find that all of the approaches to secure the bonds would increase the bond rating and that compounded approaches have a higher credit enhancement effect than single approaches. Among these approaches, the requirement of collateral has the strongest enhancement effect. Moreover, the authors find that the guarantee provided by a state-owned bank or enterprise increases the bond rating more than the guarantee provided by other local government financing platforms.

Research limitations/implications

The findings in this study suggest that the credit enhancement would be deeply affected by the approach used to secure the bond.

Practical implications

These results can help the local government make better decisions when issuing bond.

Originality/value

This study empirically analyzes the different credit enhancement approaches for securing LGPFBs for the first time and contributes to the literature regarding credit ratings of local government bonds.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

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