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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2022

Charlotte Clarke, Stephen Kellett and Nigel Beail

This paper aims to assess the quality of systematic reviews on the effectiveness of psychological therapy for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and mental health…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the quality of systematic reviews on the effectiveness of psychological therapy for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and mental health difficulties.

Design/methodology/approach

Four electronic databases were used: Cochrane, PsycINFO, PubMed and Scopus. Studies were included if they were a systematic review focused primarily on psychological therapy for adults with ID and mental health difficulties. Systematic reviews focused on anger were also considered for inclusion. These reviews were rated for quality on the Amstar-2, a quality rating tool designed to evaluate systematic reviews.

Findings

Twelve relevant systematic reviews were identified, which included seven reviews focused primarily on cognitive behavioural therapy, two on psychodynamic therapy and three on third-wave therapies. The AMSTAR-2 indicated that all 12 reviews were of “critically low” quality. Thus, there are significant problems with the evidence base.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first systematic review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of psychological therapies for people who have ID. It provides an overview of the quality of the evidence base into one place.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Nigel Beail

Over a decade ago “Psychotherapy and learning disabilities” was published by the UK Royal College of Psychiatrists. It was decided by the Royal College and British…

457

Abstract

Purpose

Over a decade ago “Psychotherapy and learning disabilities” was published by the UK Royal College of Psychiatrists. It was decided by the Royal College and British Psychological Society’s faculties for people who have ID to revise and update this report. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Experts in the field were invited to make a contribution on their approach covering method, adaptations, service user views and outcomes.

Findings

A great deal has changed in the last decade in terms of service development and research resulting in a much wider range of therapies being made available and there being a growing evidence base.

Research limitations/implications

Further work needs to be carried out to make such information accessible to carers and service users.

Practical implications

The report is a useful resource for professionals involved in the support of the mental health and emotional needs of people who have ID.

Social implications

The report should help expand the range of therapies available to people who have ID who need then so they can live more fulfilling lives.

Originality/value

The report provide extensive coverage of the range of psychological therapies available to people who have ID along with their evidence base.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 January 2021

Gregg Harry Rawlings, Christopher Gaskell, Keeley Rolling and Nigel Beail

The novel coronavirus and associated restrictions have resulted in mental health services across the UK having to adapt how they deliver psychological assessments and…

Abstract

Purpose

The novel coronavirus and associated restrictions have resulted in mental health services across the UK having to adapt how they deliver psychological assessments and interventions. The purpose of this paper is to explore the accessibility and prospective acceptability of providing telephone and videoconference-mediated psychological interventions in individuals with intellectual disabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

As part of a service evaluation, a mixed-methods questionnaire was developed and completed by clients who had been referred for psychological therapy at an adult intellectual disabilities’ community health service in the north of England. All clients were assessed using the Red/Amber/Green (RAG) system by a consultant clinical psychologist for risk and potential suitability for indirect service delivery given their ability and needs.

Findings

Overall, 22 clients were invited to take part, of which, only seven (32%) were accepting of telephone or videoconference-mediated psychological therapy. Most of the clients were unable to engage in video-conference therapy and therefore, only suitable for phone therapy. This paper presents the remaining findings and discusses the clinical implications and unique considerations for intellectual disability services drawing on the existing literature.

Originality/value

This is the first paper that the authors are aware of, examining videoconference-mediated psychological therapy in this population. It is hoped the data will be used to help inform practice or policy when using such therapeutic approaches in adults with an intellectual disability.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Sarah Hammond and Nigel Beail

There has been little empirical investigation into the theoretical relationship between moral reasoning and offending in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been little empirical investigation into the theoretical relationship between moral reasoning and offending in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of this paper is to compare offending and non-offending ID groups on a new measure of social-moral awareness, and on theory of mind (ToM).

Design/methodology/approach

A between groups design was used. The scores of 21 male offenders and 21 male non-offenders, all with ID and matched for IQ, were compared on the Social-Moral Awareness Test (SMAT) and on two ToM tasks.

Findings

There was no significant difference in SMAT scores or on first- or second-order ToM tasks between offending and non-offending groups. Better ToM performance significantly predicted higher SMAT scores and non-offending groups. Better ToM performance significantly predicted higher SMAT scores.

Research limitations/implications

Results were inconsistent with previous research. Further work is required to establish the validity and theoretical underpinnings of the SMAT. Development in the measurement of ToM for people with ID is also required.

Originality/value

This is the first use of the SMAT with a population of offenders who have ID. The findings suggest caution in its use in clinical settings.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2021

Gregg Harry Rawlings, Kevin Paul Wright, Keeley Rolling and Nigel Beail

Services are increasingly exploring the use of remote conferencing to deliver psychological interventions, which have become particularly important given the COVID-19…

Abstract

Purpose

Services are increasingly exploring the use of remote conferencing to deliver psychological interventions, which have become particularly important given the COVID-19 pandemic and infection control guidelines. This paper aims to explore the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of delivering psychological therapy remotely to adults with intellectual disabilities (ID).

Design/methodology/approach

As part of routine practice within an adult ID community health service, this paper develops a six-session programme based on compassion-focused therapy (CFT) and delivered it to six clients. Clients completed the psychological therapy outcome scale for ID 2nd edition, at assessment, pre- and post-therapy, as well as a feasibility and acceptability measure.

Findings

Six clients engaged in telephone therapy; four clients individually, while the remaining two were supported by their caregiver. Most clients found the intervention helpful, enjoyable and were pleased that they received telephone-delivered psychological therapy. A reduction was observed at post-therapy in distress (g = 0.33) and risk (g = 0.69). No difference was reported in psychological well-being. Five clients were subsequently discharged from psychological therapy.

Originality/value

To the knowledge, this is the first study examining the use of telephone therapy (including CFT) for individuals with ID. Findings add to the growing evidence suggesting individuals with ID can benefit from receiving adapted psychological therapies. Research is required to further explore the effectiveness of remote-therapies, who would most likely benefit from this approach and how remote treatments could be used within existing pathways.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Jack Purrington and Nigel Beail

The novel coronavirus and associated mitigation efforts have produced barriers to accessing services for adults with intellectual disabilities. This paper aims to evaluate…

Abstract

Purpose

The novel coronavirus and associated mitigation efforts have produced barriers to accessing services for adults with intellectual disabilities. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of Covid-19 on access to psychological services. The paper evaluates monthly referral rates and psychological distress scores for service users awaiting therapy.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative service evaluation was completed in a psychology service based in the North of England which specialises in supporting adults with intellectual disabilities. A single case experimental design was used to examine the impact of events in March 2020 on referral rates. Descriptive statistics and effect size calculations were used to examine the impact of prolonged waiting times on psychological distress scores.

Findings

Referral rates were examined comparing a 5-year rolling average monthly referral rate for the 12 months prior to March 2020 with the 12 months following. Findings demonstrate that events starting in March 2020 have had a considerable impact on referral rates and rates have not recovered. Eight service users were contacted to determine the impact of prolonged waiting times with results demonstrating increases in psychological distress of large effect size.

Originality/value

This is the only paper the authors are aware of examining the impact of the coronavirus on access to services and psychological distress for adults with intellectual disabilities. It is hoped that these findings will be able to inform both policy and practice as services continue to navigate the pandemic.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2013

Nigel Beail

Offenders who have intellectual disabilities like any one else may deny their offence. This paper reports a case study of a man who admitted his offence and them accepted…

Abstract

Purpose

Offenders who have intellectual disabilities like any one else may deny their offence. This paper reports a case study of a man who admitted his offence and them accepted probation with a condition of treatment. However, when he attended treatment he denied the offence. Thus do those providing treatment send them back into the criminal justice system or work with them try and help them accept what they have done and provide appropriate treatment to help them reduce future risk of offending.

Design/methodology/approach

In this case study the assimilation model was used to understand the process of change and monitor change through exploratory psychotherapy. The psychotherapeutic model was psychodymnamic.

Findings

The client demonstrated gains through the stages of the model toward acceptance of his problematic behaviour and continued to work on this through further psychotherapy.

Originality/value

The assimilation model offers a useful approach to monitor change in psychotherapy; but especially when the client does not accept the problem the rest of the world feels they have.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2021

Jack Purrington, Arthur Nye and Nigel Beail

The novel coronavirus and associated mitigation efforts have caused significant increases in stress for adults with intellectual disabilities. Such increases in life…

Abstract

Purpose

The novel coronavirus and associated mitigation efforts have caused significant increases in stress for adults with intellectual disabilities. Such increases in life stress predict an increased risk of relapse following psychological therapy. This contributes to the high global disease burden of common mental health difficulties. Therefore, this paper aims to explore service user experiences of maintaining gains following therapy within the context of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-methods evaluation was completed in a psychology service based in the North of England which specialises in supporting adults with intellectual disabilities. Descriptive statistics and effect size calculations were used to examine therapeutic outcomes pre-therapy, post-therapy, and at follow-up. These findings informed a framework analysis of eight semi-structured interviews.

Findings

Overall, outcome results improved post-therapy and regressed at follow-up. The framework analysis revealed facilitators to maintenance include a recollection of specific aspects of therapy and the regular utilisation of strategies and resources. Conversely, barriers to maintenance include a recollection focussed on personal outcome, a reliance on social support and an inability to remember therapy.

Originality/value

This is the only study to the authors’ knowledge examining service user experiences of maintaining gains following therapy within the context of Covid-19. It is hoped that these findings will inform further research and be useful for services in preparing service users for discharge as the Covid-19 pandemic continues and moves towards the post-pandemic phase.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2013

Nigel Beail

78

Abstract

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2010

Nigel Beail

The randomised control trial is regarded as the gold standard among the methods used in treatment outcome studies, whatever the treatment. This method imposes the highest…

Abstract

The randomised control trial is regarded as the gold standard among the methods used in treatment outcome studies, whatever the treatment. This method imposes the highest level of control over other factors that may influence outcome so that the true effects of the treatment can be tested. In this paper the key features of an RCT are examined, along with potential challenges that emerge when applied to evaluations of psychotherapeutic interventions with people who have learning disabilities.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-0180

Keywords

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