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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Nick Drydakis and Klaus F. Zimmermann

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Nick Drydakis

Economic pluralism proposes that economists and social planners should consider alternative theories to establish a range of policy actions. Neoclassical, Feminist and…

Abstract

Purpose

Economic pluralism proposes that economists and social planners should consider alternative theories to establish a range of policy actions. Neoclassical, Feminist and Marxian theories evaluate well-grounded causes of wage discrimination. However, a reluctance to consider less-dominant theories among different schools of economic thought restricts analysis and proposed policies, resulting in a monism method. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors provide a brief review of the theoretical literature on wage discrimination. The significance of a pluralistic analysis is demonstrated by addressing correspondence test patterns of wage discrimination.

Findings

In considering Neoclassical, Feminist and Marxian theories, racist attitudes, uncertainties regarding minority workers’ productivity and power relations in lower-status sectors might generate discriminatory wages. Each cause deserves corresponding policy action.

Research limitations/implications

Time is needed to provide a pluralistic evaluation of wage discrimination. In addition, pluralism requires rigorous investigations to avoid incoherencies. Pluralism might be jeopardised if there is a limited desire to engage with less-dominant theoretical frameworks. Also, pluralism might be misled with rejection of dominant theories.

Practical implications

Given pluralism, wage discrimination might be reduced by implementing equality campaigns, creating low-cost tests to predict workers’ productivity and abolishing power relations towards minority workers.

Originality/value

Little work has been on economic pluralism in the study of wage discrimination. The current study addresses the gap in the literature.

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Nick Drydakis, Katerina Sidiropoulou, Vasiliki Bozani, Sandra Selmanovic and Swetketu Patnaik

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether masculine personality traits in women generate better job market prospects, as compared to feminine personality traits.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether masculine personality traits in women generate better job market prospects, as compared to feminine personality traits.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors utilized a field experiment (correspondent test) to capture the way in which firms respond to women who exhibit masculine and feminine personality traits. In doing so, the authors minimized the potential for reverse causality bias and unobserved heterogeneities to occur.

Findings

Women who exhibit masculine personality traits have a 4.3 percentage points greater likelihood of gaining access to occupations than those displaying feminine personality traits. In both male- and female-dominated occupations, women with masculine personality traits have an occupational access advantage, as compared to those exhibiting feminine personality traits. Moreover, women with masculine personality traits take up positions which offer 10 percentage points higher wages, in comparison with those displaying feminine personality traits. Furthermore, wage premiums are higher for those exhibiting masculine personality traits in male-dominated occupations than for female-dominated positions.

Practical implications

Within the labor market, masculine personality traits may increase competency levels and leadership capability.

Social implications

As feminine personality traits are stereotypically attributed to women, and these characteristics appear to yield fewer rewards within the market, they may offer one of many plausible explanations as to why women experience higher unemployment rates, while also receiving lower earnings, as compared to men.

Originality/value

Masculine and feminine personality traits may be a probable outcome of wage-related differentials. The experimental study isolates spurious relationships and offers clear evaluations of the effect of masculine and feminine personality traits on occupational access and wage distribution. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first-field experiment to examine the effect of masculine and feminine personality traits on entry-level pay scales.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2019

Vasiliki Bozani, Nick Drydakis, Katerina Sidiropoulou, Benjamin Harvey and Anna Paraskevopoulou

The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical patterns regarding trans people’s self-esteem-oriented evaluations during observations of positive workplace actions. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical patterns regarding trans people’s self-esteem-oriented evaluations during observations of positive workplace actions. The case of a 2015 UK workplace guide is utilized to fulfil the aims. The guide provides suggestions to employers for recruiting and retaining trans people.

Design/methodology/approach

A new questionnaire is created which forms a 20-item scale capturing a variety of self-evaluations. Trans people provided their responses in a 2018–2019 survey and the study’s patterns were captured.

Findings

The outcomes suggest that trans people’s self-esteem and self-respect are enhanced by policy makers’ positive actions to promote inclusivity in the workplace. In addition, due to these actions trans people feel more accepted, valued and trusted by the government. The authors suggest that a lack of positive workplace actions may be detrimental to trans people’s self-esteem. However, if a workplace policy is perceived to be a recognition of trans people’s worth this may be internalized, resulting in positive self-evaluations. The authors suggest that the 2015 workplace guide aims to ensure that trans people’s self-expressions are not constrained in ways that could cause them self-esteem difficulties.

Practical implications

The study also finds that firms which have implemented the workplace guide have informed human resources strategies, affected corporate profiles and staff organizational behaviours, created a more inclusive workplace culture, and addressed LGBT business and trans staff members’ needs. The authors suggest that when employers utilize policy makers’ positive workplace policies they may be able to realize positive organizational outcomes in their firms.

Social implications

The World Health Organization perceives self-esteem as a public matter and this study suggests that inclusive workplace strategies can positively affect the psychological states of a highly marginalized population group.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge this is the first attempt to quantify how a workplace guide impacts on self-esteem-oriented evaluations among trans people. Each one of the 20 items in the scale brings new insights into the subject matter.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2019

Katerina Sidiropoulou, Nick Drydakis, Benjamin Harvey and Anna Paraskevopoulou

The purpose of this paper is to examine associations between: family support during the school-age period, and school-age bullying (short-term associations); and family…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine associations between: family support during the school-age period, and school-age bullying (short-term associations); and family support during the school-age period and workplace bullying (long-term associations) for lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults in Britain.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ retrospective questions regarding family support for LGB children and school-age bullying and questions regarding workplace bullying in the respondents’ present jobs. A 2016 data set was utilized which was created by attending events during the UK LGBT History Month.

Findings

The empirical investigation demonstrates that supportive family environments toward LGB children reduce both school-age and workplace bullying.

Practical implications

Given the increasing number of people self-identifying as LGB, the significant percentages of school and workplace bullying incidents and the corresponding negative effects on people’s lives, it is important to examine the benefits of family support with regards to reducing school and workplace victimization. This study also reports that family support could have an enduring influence on the experiences of LGB children and adults.

Originality/value

No known research has considered the possible developmental benefits of family support on reducing future workplace bullying for LGB children. In addition, this might be the first study which simultaneously examines family support toward LGB children, school-age and workplace bullying.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Nick Drydakis

Sexual orientation and employment bias is examined in Cyprus by implementing an experiment for the period 2010-2011. The design is aimed at answering three main questions…

Abstract

Purpose

Sexual orientation and employment bias is examined in Cyprus by implementing an experiment for the period 2010-2011. The design is aimed at answering three main questions. Do gay males and lesbians face occupational access constraints and entry wage bias than comparable heterosexuals? Do gay males and lesbians benefit from providing more job-related information? Does the differential treatment between gay male/lesbian and heterosexual applicants disappear as the information of the applicants increases? The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The author sent applications to advertised vacancies and experimented with two information sets the “sexual orientation” and “information” of the potential applicants.

Findings

The estimations suggest that gay male and lesbian applicants face significant bias than heterosexual applicants. Moreover, both heterosexual and gay male/lesbian applicants gain by providing more job-related information. However, the estimations suggest that the informational premium for sexual orientation minorities could not reduce the discriminatory patterns.

Practical implications

The current results indicate that discrimination against sexual orientation minorities in the Cypriot labour market is a matter of preference, not the result of limited information. One strategy the Cypriot government may employ is to try to affect public opinion and people's attitudes towards sexual orientation minorities.

Originality/value

This is the first nationwide field experiment in the Cypriot labour market and contributes to the literature as it is the first field study on sexual orientation which tries to disentangle statistical from taste-based discrimination in the labour market.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2012

Nick Drydakis

This study seeks to investigate the differences in three aspects of job satisfaction – total pay, promotion prospects, and respect received from one's supervisor – between…

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3487

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to investigate the differences in three aspects of job satisfaction – total pay, promotion prospects, and respect received from one's supervisor – between male heterosexual and gay employees in Athens, Greece.

Design/methodology/approach

To determine whether a job satisfaction gap exists, the job satisfaction of gay employees is compared to the job satisfaction of heterosexual employees after accounting for various asymmetries. The data were gathered as part of the Athens Area Study conducted by the University of Piraeus, University of Central Greece, and Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences.

Findings

Gay employees are found to be less satisfied according to all job satisfaction measures. Affect theory proposes that the extent to which one values a given facet of work moderates how dissatisfied one becomes when one's expectations are not met. Furthermore, the data enable us to estimate that gay employees’ job satisfaction is not associated more (as compared with heterosexuals’ job satisfaction) with adverse mental health symptoms. This finding is crucial given the rising interest between job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Finally, wage gaps against gay employees are found after accounting for basic asymmetries. Interestingly, however, the wage gaps grow for very dissatisfied employees and shrink for very satisfied employees.

Practical implications

As long as, the general patterns in Greece suggest that homosexual employees face labor market discrimination, gay employees will report being less satisfied at work. Actually, in this study, job satisfaction is associated with wage inequality.

Originality/value

This research initiates efforts to compare job satisfaction based on sexual orientation.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

Nick Drydakis

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the long-term correlates of bullying in school with aspects of functioning in adult employment outcomes.

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1099

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the long-term correlates of bullying in school with aspects of functioning in adult employment outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Bullying is considered and evaluated as a proxy for unmeasured productivity, and a framework is provided that outlines why bullying might affect employment outcomes through differences in skills and traits. Using Bivariate and Heckit models the paper employs a variety of specifications and finds several interesting patterns.

Findings

By utilising the 2008 Greek Behavioural Study data set the regression outcomes suggest that labour force participation, employment rate and hourly wages are negatively affected by bullying. In addition, men, homosexuals, immigrants, unmarried people, those having higher negative mental health symptoms, and those having lower human capital are more negatively affected by bullying in terms of labour force participation, employment probability and hourly wages. Moreover, Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions suggest that labour force participation gaps, employment gaps and hourly wage gaps between minority and majority groups, especially for gay men and the disabled, can be explained by bullying incidents.

Practical implications

It seems likely that having been a victim of bullying also has economic implications later in life due to withdrawal from the labour market and lower wages.

Originality/value

The retrospective bullying index used in the current study measured the combined and ordered effect of the duration and intensity of bullying, which generates 17 outcomes that ultimately capture a large range of alternative options. In addition, the author suggested that bullying might be understood as a productivity trait that provides a direct input into the production process, which might drive abilities or traits and influence adult employment outcomes. Contemporary economic analysis suggests that cognitive and non-cognitive skills are important factors that affect labour productivity through reasoning ability and productivity.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Nick Drydakis

The purpose of this paper is to estimate whether job applicants who have obtained a BSc in economics from 15 UK universities face different labour market prospects. The…

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2015

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate whether job applicants who have obtained a BSc in economics from 15 UK universities face different labour market prospects. The author examines whether university entry standards and Russell Group membership affect UK economics applicants’ occupational access and entry-level annual salaries when unobserved heterogeneities, such as ability, motivation, family characteristics and networks, are minimized.

Design/methodology/approach

The author evaluate the research question by recording the job search processes of 90 British economics applicants from randomly selected universities. The key elements of the approach are as follows: third-year undergraduate students apply for early career jobs that are relevant to their studies. Applications are closely matched in terms of age, ethnicity, experience and other core characteristics. Differential treatment in the access to vacancies and entry-level annual salaries per university applicant are systematically measured.

Findings

By observing as much information as a firm does, the estimations suggest that both entry standards and Russell Group membership positively affect applicants’ labour market prospects. Although the firms cannot evaluate by themselves whether graduates from highly reputable universities are more or less capable and motivated than graduates from less reputable universities, it appears that the university attended affects firms’ recruitment policies. Importantly, valuable variables that capture firms’ and jobs’ heterogeneities, such as occupational variation, regions, workplace size, establishment age, and the existence of trade unions and human resources, are also considered and provide new results.

Practical implications

Understanding the impact of entry standards and university reputation on students’ labour market outcomes is critical to understanding the role of human capital and screening strategies. In addition, obtaining accurate estimates of the payoff of attending a university with a high entry threshold and reputation is of great importance not only to the parents of prospective students who foot tuition bills but also to the students themselves. Furthermore, universities will be interested in the patterns estimated by this study, which will allow recent UK economists to evaluate the current employment environment. In addition, universities should be keen to know how their own graduates have fared in the labour market compared with graduates of other universities.

Originality/value

In the current study, the author attempt to solve the problem of firms’ seeing more information than econometricians by looking at an outcome that is determined before firms see any unobservable characteristics. In the current study, ability, motivation, family characteristics and networks cannot affect applicants’ access to vacancies and entry-level salaries. The current study can estimate the effect of university enrolment on applicants’ occupational access and entry-level salaries, controlling for unobserved characteristics that would themselves affect subsequent outcomes in the labour market.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Nick Drydakis

The purpose of this paper is to estimate whether sexual activity is associated with wages, and also to estimate potential interactions between individuals…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate whether sexual activity is associated with wages, and also to estimate potential interactions between individuals’ characteristics, wages and sexual activity.

Design/methodology/approach

The central hypothesis behind this research is that sexual activity, alike health indicators and mental well-being, may be thought of as part of an individual’s set of productive traits that affect wages. Using two-stage estimations the author examines the relationship between adult sexual activity and wages.

Findings

The author estimates that there is a monotonic relationship between the frequency of sexual activity and wage returns, whilst the returns to sexual activity are higher for those between 26 and 50 years of age. In addition, heterosexuals’ sexual activity does not seem to provide higher or lower wage returns than that of homosexuals, but wages are higher for those health-impaired employees who are sexually active. Over-identification tests, robustness checks, falsification tests, as well as, decomposition analysis and sample selection modelling enhance study’s strength.

Social implications

Contemporary social analysis suggests that health, cognitive and non-cognitive skills and personality are important factors that affect wage level. Sexual activity may also be of interest to social scientists, since sexual activity is considered to be a barometer for health, quality of life, well-being and happiness.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the literature on the importance of unobserved characteristics in determining labour market outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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