This article assesses the impact of Cyprus' agreement of association on the development and maintenance of trade with the EEC and Britain. It begins with a description of Cyprus' economic and trading structure and the agreement of association. The analysis is carried out by examining the growth rates of trade to and from the EEC and Britain at an aggregate and disaggregated level. Comparisons are made between these and those for other Mediterranean and less‐developed countries. Ex‐post income elasticities are also examined in a similar way. The study concludes that the agreement hindered the development of trade between the EEC and Cyprus.
Public and private policy responses to the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops have differed across countries and regions, resulting in market fragmentation…
Public and private policy responses to the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops have differed across countries and regions, resulting in market fragmentation that is in conflict with the entry mode strategy of standardisation that has dominated the food distribution system for a century. To deal with the new market reality, an alternative entry mode strategy must be established which is capable of segregation – or identity preservation (IP) – of the commodity supply system. A multi‐mode strategy is presented that combines the economic transaction cost perspective with the institutional theory perspective. A seemingly paradoxical result emerges: standardisation is the solution to market differentiation. That is, an IP entry mode strategy must first be built on a foundation of standardised norms and protocols, which then makes it easier to target specific entry mode strategies to meet the divergent export market access rules resulting from the differential public policy and private strategies in various countries and regions.