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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

Nicholas J. Thompson and Keith E. Thompson

The purpose of this paper is to draw the attention of managers and academics to the extent of demographic changes now occurring in the European Union, specifically the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw the attention of managers and academics to the extent of demographic changes now occurring in the European Union, specifically the ongoing change from a young consumer base to one in which most adult consumers are aged over 50. It seeks to explain the nature of the challenge and highlight the need for further research.

Design/methodology/approach

Both academic and practitioner sources are synthesised in order to identify and describe the issues, and explore the actions that could be taken to adapt to and profit from the changing demographic environment.

Findings

Current marketing practice evolved against the background of the post‐war baby boom, a demographic aberration which resulted in an exceptional era during which consumer markets were dominated by youth, and marketing practice by advertising and other promotional activity. The paper also argues that the subsequent ageing of the consumer base will require businesses to place more emphasis on the customer‐centric model of marketing generally espoused by management scientists.

Practical implications

The paper identifies a major shift in the demographic base of consumer markets, outlines the implications for marketing practice and proposes ways in which businesses can adapt.

Originality/value

The overwhelming majority of discussion on, and research into, the phenomenon of population ageing and its impact on markets originates from the USA, despite the fact that Europe faces a far greater challenge. The paper alerts both academics and practitioners to the nature and scale of the demographic change occurring in the European Union, discusses appropriate corporate responses and calls for further research into the neglected area of older consumers.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 43 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

Nicholas J. Thompson and Keith E. Thompson

Observes that between 1985 and 1989 consumption of low‐alcohol and alcohol‐free beer grew by over 500 per cent, yet expectations of a large and expanding market into the…

Abstract

Observes that between 1985 and 1989 consumption of low‐alcohol and alcohol‐free beer grew by over 500 per cent, yet expectations of a large and expanding market into the 1990s were not fulfilled, partly because of economic downturn. Explains that as the economy recovers, some brewers are anticipating renewed growth. Reports an application of reasoned action theory to the roles of attitudes, norms, behavioural control and habit in predicting behavioural intention regarding consumption of alcohol‐free beer, in the very different market environment of the 1990s. Details how data were collected by means of a postal questionnaire, which revealed, unexpectedly, that not getting drunk was not found to be an important predictor of intention, and, instead, behavioural intention was chiefly determined by beliefs concerning taste and health. Also discovered that normative influences, especially friends for non‐users and family for users, were secondary predictors, and that neither habit nor perceived behavioural control added to the efficacy of the model. Concludes, however, that this does not necessarily negate the potential value of perceived behavioural control, and makes some suggestions for the practical application of the findings to marketing strategy.

Details

Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2538

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Arief Rahman

Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and…

Abstract

Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and information and communication technology usage, which is known as digital divide, however has been identified as one of the major obstacles to the implementation of e-government system. As digital divide inhibits citizen’s acceptance to e-government, it should be overcome despite the lack of deep theoretical understanding on this issue. This research aimed to investigate the digital divide and its direct impact on e-government system success of local governments in Indonesia as well as indirect impact through the mediation role of trust. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of digital divide, this study introduced a new type of digital divide, the innovativeness divide.

The research problems were approached by applying two-stage sequential mixed method research approach comprising of both qualitative and quantitative studies. In the first phase, an initial research model was proposed based on a literature review. Semi-structured interview with 12 users of e-government systems was then conducted to explore and enhance this initial research model. Data collected in this phase were analyzed with a two-stage content analysis approach and the initial model was then amended based on the findings. As a result, a comprehensive research model with 16 hypotheses was proposed for examination in the second phase.

In the second phase, quantitative method was applied. A questionnaire was developed based on findings in the first phase. A pilot study was conducted to refine the questionnaire, which was then distributed in a national survey resulting in 237 useable responses. Data collected in this phase were analyzed using Partial Least Square based Structural Equation Modeling.

The results of quantitative analysis confirmed 13 hypotheses. All direct influences of the variables of digital divide on e-government system success were supported. The mediating effects of trust in e-government in the relationship between capability divide and e-government system success as well as in the relationship between innovativeness divide and e-government system success were supported, but was rejected in the relationship between access divide and e-government system success. Furthermore, the results supported the moderating effects of demographic variables of age, residential place, and education.

This research has both theoretical and practical contributions. The study contributes to the developments of literature on digital divide and e-government by providing a more comprehensive framework, and also to the implementation of e-government by local governments and the improvement of e-government Readiness Index of Indonesia.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1930

WE write on the eve of an Annual Meeting of the Library Association. We expect many interesting things from it, for although it is not the first meeting under the new…

Abstract

WE write on the eve of an Annual Meeting of the Library Association. We expect many interesting things from it, for although it is not the first meeting under the new constitution, it is the first in which all the sections will be actively engaged. From a membership of eight hundred in 1927 we are, in 1930, within measurable distance of a membership of three thousand; and, although we have not reached that figure by a few hundreds—and those few will be the most difficult to obtain quickly—this is a really memorable achievement. There are certain necessary results of the Association's expansion. In the former days it was possible for every member, if he desired, to attend all the meetings; today parallel meetings are necessary in order to represent all interests, and members must make a selection amongst the good things offered. Large meetings are not entirely desirable; discussion of any effective sort is impossible in them; and the speakers are usually those who always speak, and who possess more nerve than the rest of us. This does not mean that they are not worth a hearing. Nevertheless, seeing that at least 1,000 will be at Cambridge, small sectional meetings in which no one who has anything to say need be afraid of saying it, are an ideal to which we are forced by the growth of our numbers.

Details

New Library World, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Book part
Publication date: 6 November 2015

David Norman Smith

Max Weber called the maxim “Time is Money” the surest, simplest expression of the spirit of capitalism. Coined in 1748 by Benjamin Franklin, this modern proverb now has a…

Abstract

Purpose

Max Weber called the maxim “Time is Money” the surest, simplest expression of the spirit of capitalism. Coined in 1748 by Benjamin Franklin, this modern proverb now has a life of its own. In this paper, I examine the worldwide diffusion and sociocultural history of this paradigmatic expression. The intent is to explore the ways in which ideas of time and money appear in sedimented form in popular sayings.

Methodology/approach

My approach is sociological in orientation and multidisciplinary in method. Drawing upon the works of Max Weber, Antonio Gramsci, Wolfgang Mieder, and Dean Wolfe Manders, I explore the global spread of Ben Franklin’s famed adage in three ways: (1) via evidence from the field of “paremiology” – that is, the study of proverbs; (2) via online searches for the phrase “Time is Money” in 30-plus languages; and (3) via evidence from sociological and historical research.

Findings

The conviction that “Time is Money” has won global assent on an ever-expanding basis for more than 250 years now. In recent years, this phrase has reverberated to the far corners of the world in literally dozens of languages – above all, in the languages of Eastern Europe and East Asia.

Originality/value

Methodologically, this study unites several different ways of exploring the globalization of the capitalist spirit. The main substantive implication is that, as capitalism goes global, so too does the capitalist spirit. Evidence from popular sayings gives us a new foothold for insight into questions of this kind.

Details

Globalization, Critique and Social Theory: Diagnoses and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-247-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1949

It has often been said that a great part of the strength of Aslib lies in the fact that it brings together those whose experience has been gained in many widely differing…

Abstract

It has often been said that a great part of the strength of Aslib lies in the fact that it brings together those whose experience has been gained in many widely differing fields but who have a common interest in the means by which information may be collected and disseminated to the greatest advantage. Lists of its members have, therefore, a more than ordinary value since they present, in miniature, a cross‐section of institutions and individuals who share this special interest.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Nicholas J. Beutell, Jeffrey W. Alstete, Joy A. Schneer and Camille Hutt

The purpose of this paper is to test a model predicting self-employment (SE) personal growth (learning opportunities and creativity) and SE exit intentions (exiting to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test a model predicting self-employment (SE) personal growth (learning opportunities and creativity) and SE exit intentions (exiting to work for someone else and exit likelihood) based on the job demands-resources model.

Design/methodology/approach

SEM was used to examine SE demands and resources, strain, and engagement predicting growth, exit intentions, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction. SE type (owners with employees and independent owners without employees) was a moderator variable. Data were analyzed from a national probability sample (n=464 self-employed respondents for whom SE was their primary work involvement), the National Study of the Changing Workforce.

Findings

Overall support for the model was found. Work–family conflict (demand) and work–family synergy (resource) had the strongest relationships with strain and engagement. Strain was positively related to both growth and exit intentions while engagement was inversely related to exit intentions but positively related to growth. The model was significantly different for business owners and independently self-employed.

Practical implications

These results provide guidance to researchers and educators regarding the challenges of self- employment engagement and strain with implications for selecting business types that minimize exit likelihood while maximizing work engagement and personal growth potential.

Originality/value

This study breaks new ground by testing a structural model of engagement and growth for self-employed individuals while also investigating two types of exit intentions. The authors report findings for growth and exit decisions that have received scant attention in the literature to date. Type of SE was a significant variable.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2019

Nicholas Thompson

Special guardianship order (SGO) assessments require social workers to make plans and recommendations for ongoing post-SGO contact between the child and the parents…

Abstract

Purpose

Special guardianship order (SGO) assessments require social workers to make plans and recommendations for ongoing post-SGO contact between the child and the parents. However, there is very little policy to inform and guide practitioners on how these duties should be undertaken, and no studies that describe current practice. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the recommending of contact in special guardianship cases is currently working, by holding focus groups with social workers and special guardians. This paper reports on the results of a study to examine what contact plans social workers are recommending, the thinking behind their decisions and the views of the special guardians who have to make those plans work.

Design/methodology/approach

The research involved a mixed methods approach comprising of an online questionnaire, two focus groups for social workers and two focus groups for special guardians. This paper describes the second part of the study and reports on the qualitative results from the four focus groups. The methodology was based on a pragmatist theoretical position, and used an interpretivist approach and elements of the analytical procedure of grounded theory in order to generate inductive research. The focus group method was chosen as the best way to gather rich information on the opinions and ideas of practitioners who are recommending contact and the carers who are managing it.

Findings

Participants provided a wide range of views on the issues, with practitioners describing the challenges of planning contact, and special guardians explaining the problems they faced with the parents. Involving special guardians in the study gave a chance to include the different perspectives of the people who have to make the contact recommendations work, and contrast their views on contact planning with those of the professionals. The study makes recommendations for practice, which recognise the difficulty of preparing an initial contact plan that will remain relevant for years ahead.

Research limitations/implications

The number of focus groups the author held was limited by the author’s own personal resources and the time the author had available, and one group only had three social workers on the day. The author’s involvement affected the responses, and the author’s questions dictated the issues that were commented on, but the answers were the opinions that the participants wanted to express. The nature of the approach means that no two sets of focus group results would ever be the same. And as the direction of the discussions was largely dictated by the participants, the coverage of all aspects of contact was probably inconsistent.

Practical implications

This research sheds light on a crucial area of social work permanency planning, that has suffered from a lack of previous research, in order to better inform future practice. The paper reports on what contact plans social workers are recommending, the thinking behind their decisions and the views of the special guardians who have to make those plans work. It concludes with recommendations for improving future special guardianship policy and practice.

Social implications

The research clearly raises a number of specific difficulties faced by special guardians and problems with current policy and practice. These include the special guardians’ lack of understanding about contact, the difficulty for social workers of long-term planning, the challenge posed by uncooperative parents who behave badly, the view of carers for the need for a greater emphasis on the quality and reliability of contact, and the challenge to careful contact planning posed by the adversarial court process.

Originality/value

Special guardianship has had a major impact on permanency planning since its introduction 12 years ago. However, apart from one DfE study in 2014, very little research has been produced to inform policy and practice. There have been no studies specifically on contact in special guardianship cases, despite contact being one of the two major factors in determining the success of SGO placements. This study has provided the first in-depth evaluation of social worker contact planning in special guardianship, and the first investigation of special guardians’ views on contact.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2019

Nicholas Thompson

An integral feature of Special Guardianship Orders (SGO) is that the children should have some contact with their parents after the order is granted. Local authority…

Abstract

Purpose

An integral feature of Special Guardianship Orders (SGO) is that the children should have some contact with their parents after the order is granted. Local authority social workers have a duty to plan and recommend levels and types of contact. But there is no policy guidance provided on how to undertake these duties, and little is known about the process that practitioners undertake. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the recommending of contact in special guardianship cases, and to provide data on what contact social workers are recommending the factors they take into consideration and the reasons for their decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The research involved a mixed-methods approach comprising of a questionnaire and focus groups. This part of the study comprised of an online questionnaire that was completed by 102 local authority social workers. Responses were downloaded into SPSS Statistics v22 for data analysis and a content analysis was conducted.

Findings

Quantitative results from the questionnaire are reported in this paper. Respondents provided comprehensive details on what they include in their recommendations, including levels of contact frequency and specific directions. Practitioners rated the factors they considered in reaching their decisions, and gave their general views on special guardianship contact. Results indicated that practitioners are recommending less contact for fathers than for mothers, and may feel less positively about paternal contact. Bivariate analysis suggests that some older and more experienced social workers are recommending lower levels of contact.

Research limitations/implications

The statistical significance of the results was limited by the relatively small sample size. It was therefore decided to limit bivariate analyses to consideration of just three independent variables: the social worker’s age and number of years in practice, and the age of the child at the time of their SGO, against dependent variables concerning the levels of contact that had been recommended for mothers and fathers and how positive these were considered to be. Because of the limited sample size, most of the results were above this level, and so were not statistically significant.

Practical implications

Special guardianship has been in place for 12 years now, but apart from Jim Wade’s 2014 study there has been no major research to guide and inform practice. Such major changes in child welfare require substantiating research, and this study is an attempt to begin filling that gap. The questionnaire part of this study has for the first time provided data on the views, motivations and practice of social workers across the country making recommendations on special guardianship contact.

Social implications

The study provides a picture of the type of contact being recommended for birth parents. This information will be useful for practitioners, who might otherwise not know what their colleagues in other local authorities are recommending, and it is hoped that this will encourage further debate on the subject.

Originality/value

Special guardianship has so far been poorly served by research. To the author’s knowledge, apart from Wade’s study there is very little research on the subject, and no significant research at all on special guardianship contact. This questionnaire, alongside the four focus groups that formed the second part of the study, provides the first picture of current practice across the country.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Linus Dahlander, Lars Bo Jeppesen and Henning Piezunka

Crowdsourcing – a form of collaboration across organizational boundaries – provides access to knowledge beyond an organization’s local knowledge base. Integrating work on…

Abstract

Crowdsourcing – a form of collaboration across organizational boundaries – provides access to knowledge beyond an organization’s local knowledge base. Integrating work on organization theory and innovation, the authors first develop a framework that characterizes crowdsourcing into a main sequential process, through which organizations (1) define the task they wish to have completed; (2) broadcast to a pool of potential contributors; (3) attract a crowd of contributors; and (4) select among the inputs they receive. For each of these phases, the authors identify the key decisions organizations make, provide a basic explanation for each decision, discuss the trade-offs organizations face when choosing among decision alternatives, and explore how organizations may resolve these trade-offs. Using this decision-centric approach, the authors continue by showing that there are fundamental interdependencies in the process that makes the coordination of crowdsourcing challenging.

Details

Managing Inter-organizational Collaborations: Process Views
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-592-0

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