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Abstract

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Abstract

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

Article
Publication date: 26 February 2020

Allen Copenhaver, Andrew S. Denney and Victoria Rapp

The purpose of this study is to ascertain law enforcement cadet general knowledge of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and practical knowledge in how to apply various aspects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to ascertain law enforcement cadet general knowledge of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and practical knowledge in how to apply various aspects of their profession to persons with ASD.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 341 law enforcement cadet surveys administered across ten individual law enforcement cadet classes were analyzed via two individual ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models. These regression models were designed to predict changes in cadet scores on their (1) general knowledge of autism scale (i.e., general knowledge regarding autism spectrum disorder itself) and (2) interactional law enforcement knowledge of autism scale (i.e., how to apply various aspects of their job to persons with ASD).

Findings

Findings show that cadets who had a stronger confidence in their ability to interact with persons who have ASD actually knew less than their counterparts with lower reported overall confidence. However, one's confidence in their ability to identify persons with ASD was associated with having better overall general knowledge of ASD itself. Similarly, the greater one's overall confidence in interacting with persons with ASD was associated with lower interactional knowledge. In each model, general autism knowledge and interactional knowledge were positively associated.

Practical implications

The results of this study have implications for cadet and officer training on ASD as each need to be trained in both general knowledge of autism and interactional autism knowledge skills related to the job functions of being a LEO. Policy implications and directions for future research are discussed.

Originality/value

The literature is sparse on law enforcement knowledge of and interaction with persons who have ASD. As such, this study has the potential to make a strong impact on the literature regarding law enforcement and their knowledge and/or interactions with persons who have ASD.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Sarah Ashworth and Ruth J. Tully

Many in contact with the criminal justice system (CJS) have complex needs, including autism. The purpose of this paper is to present the development, design and evaluation of a…

Abstract

Purpose

Many in contact with the criminal justice system (CJS) have complex needs, including autism. The purpose of this paper is to present the development, design and evaluation of a training package designed to increase awareness that Youth Offending Team (YOT) staff members in the UK have of autism in the CJS (Talbot, 2010). Training quality and effectiveness was assessed. This paper aims to highlight the need for organisations/individuals providing training services relating to autism to be transparent, evidence based and open to sharing best practice. By evaluating practice, disseminating findings and hopefully providing mutual support, trainers can create networks to enhance the value of training provision, ultimately increasing the quality of support offered to individuals with autism.

Design/methodology/approach

A training package relating to autism in forensic systems was developed and delivered to staff working within a UK YOT. Levels of self-reported knowledge and confidence in working with individuals with autism are measured by evaluation questionnaires completed pre- and post-training.

Findings

Results demonstrate a significant increase in self-reported knowledge and confidence in working with individuals with autism within the CJS following training.

Originality/value

This highlights the potential for evidence-based staff training to enhance individuals’ practice working with individuals with autism within the CJS.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2022

Elliot Millington, Emma Hayashibara, Tom Arthur, Tammy-Ann Husselman, Sarune Savickaite and Rebecca Taylor

This paper aims to raise awareness of and argue for the use of participatory methods for the research and development of Virtual Reality (VR) applications designed for…

216

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to raise awareness of and argue for the use of participatory methods for the research and development of Virtual Reality (VR) applications designed for neurodivergent groups. This includes exploring why it is important to meaningfully include neurodivergent groups and the benefits their inclusion provide.

Design/methodology/approach

VR is becoming increasingly widespread as a consumer product and interventional tool. It is vital for researchers and developers to embrace best practices in these early stages of using the technology, making certain that neurodivergent people have the best possible outcomes.

Findings

The neurodivergent community is dissatisfied with many of the research directions currently being undertaken. This dissatisfaction arises from conflicting priorities between different stakeholders and the lack of input from the community. Participatory research brings neurodivergent people into the research process, whether as members of the research team or as consultants at key steps. Effective participatory research ensures that the priorities of the neurodivergent community are better incorporated in research, as well as enabling the development of more effective applications for VR.

Originality/value

Participatory methods are unutilised in the development of applications aimed for neurodivergent people. By describing their use and utility in other areas, this article aims to encourage other VR researchers to take neurodivergent people on board.

Details

Journal of Enabling Technologies, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6263

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2020

Quentin Kevin Gautier, Thomas G. Garrison, Ferrill Rushton, Nicholas Bouck, Eric Lo, Peter Tueller, Curt Schurgers and Ryan Kastner

Digital documentation techniques of tunneling excavations at archaeological sites are becoming more common. These methods, such as photogrammetry and LiDAR (Light Detection and…

Abstract

Purpose

Digital documentation techniques of tunneling excavations at archaeological sites are becoming more common. These methods, such as photogrammetry and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), are able to create precise three-dimensional models of excavations to complement traditional forms of documentation with millimeter to centimeter accuracy. However, these techniques require either expensive pieces of equipment or a long processing time that can be prohibitive during short field seasons in remote areas. This article aims to determine the effectiveness of various low-cost sensors and real-time algorithms to create digital scans of archaeological excavations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a class of algorithms called SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) along with depth-sensing cameras. While these algorithms have largely improved over recent years, the accuracy of the results still depends on the scanning conditions. The authors developed a prototype of a scanning device and collected 3D data at a Maya archaeological site and refined the instrument in a system of natural caves. This article presents an analysis of the resulting 3D models to determine the effectiveness of the various sensors and algorithms employed.

Findings

While not as accurate as commercial LiDAR systems, the prototype presented, employing a time-of-flight depth sensor and using a feature-based SLAM algorithm, is a rapid and effective way to document archaeological contexts at a fraction of the cost.

Practical implications

The proposed system is easy to deploy, provides real-time results and would be particularly useful in salvage operations as well as in high-risk areas where cultural heritage is threatened.

Originality/value

This article compares many different low-cost scanning solutions for underground excavations, along with presenting a prototype that can be easily replicated for documentation purposes.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 June 2015

Alexandra Lewis, Robert Pritchett, Clare Hughes and Kim Turner

The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of a southern English young offenders institution in developing and implementing standards to improve awareness and care of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of a southern English young offenders institution in developing and implementing standards to improve awareness and care of prisoners with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).

Design/methodology/approach

Some contextual factors driving the project are discussed, the multi-agency process involved in the development and implementation of the standards is described and recommendations are made regarding implementation of the standards in other settings.

Findings

It is expected that successful implementation of the standards will reduce the level of distress and difficulty experienced by people with ASD who find themselves in custody, it will also improve the prison’s ability to meet the needs of prisoners with ASD and thereby improve rehabilitation and reduce any adverse impact on everyday operational processes. Demonstrating success in meeting the standards will enable the prison to achieve accreditation by the National Autistic Society. In March 2015 the prisons minister encouraged all prisons to follow this approach and this will have practice and resource implications.

Originality/value

This paper describes a clear framework which prisons can use to work systematically towards achieving good practice in addressing the needs of prisoners with ASD. It will enable prisons to meet the duties imposed on them by the Autism Act, 2009 and the Equalities Act, 2010.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 March 2022

Nigel Newbutt and Ryan Bradley

The potential of head mounted displays based virtual reality (HMD-based VR) for autistic groups has been well documented. However, the deployment and application of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The potential of head mounted displays based virtual reality (HMD-based VR) for autistic groups has been well documented. However, the deployment and application of this technology, especially in schools, has been extremely limited. One of the main criticisms in this field has been the lack of involvement from practitioners in research on educational approaches for autistic populations and the gap between research and practice in real-life settings.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual article focuses on our research in a UK-based special needs school that sought to examine the effects and potential use of VR-HMDs, while seeking to establish best practices for safe and ethical application using this technology. This draws upon ethical and participatory research guidance, including British Educational Research Association and Autism Participatory Research.

Findings

The authors make recommendations on planning and implementing a participatory, safe and ethical approach to researching the use of VR-HMDs in special needs schools and engaging with the priorities of autistic children and young people and their teachers.

Originality/value

This conceptual article provides an initial first consideration of ways we can better include autistic people and their views in research that is with and about them. The value in this will mean we are able to better support autistic groups moving ahead using VR HMD-based technologies. Without this paradigm shift and including autistic people (and their stakeholders) the field might continue to build initiatives around medical-based models of disabilities rather that what the community need/want.

Details

Journal of Enabling Technologies, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6263

Keywords

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