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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1999

Nicholas Alexander and Hayley Myers

Considers the interest shown by European retailers in the markets of South East Asia and places this interest within the wider context of East Asian markets. European…

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7066

Abstract

Considers the interest shown by European retailers in the markets of South East Asia and places this interest within the wider context of East Asian markets. European retailers’ interest in the region has been a feature of recent developments in international retailing. Charts the growing interest in the region and the relative attractions of different markets and critically evaluates the assumptions that are made about East Asian markets and suggests that a far more rigorous set of criteria should be employed when evaluating markets in the region. Evaluates the implications of the recent financial and economic crises on European retail investment in the region.

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European Business Review, vol. 99 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Nicholas Alexander and Marcelo de Lira e Silva

This paper considers the development of emerging retail markets with particular reference to Brazil. The South American region has only relatively recently seen the level…

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7045

Abstract

This paper considers the development of emerging retail markets with particular reference to Brazil. The South American region has only relatively recently seen the level of international retail interest previously seen in other global regions such as East Asia. The paper considers the development of retailing in Brazil and the impact of internationally derived innovation and direct international retail activity in the market. It considers concepts of retail internationalisation in the light of the Brazilian experience. The paper highlights important issues with respect to South America’s place in the evolution of global retailing.

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International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Barry Quinn and Nicholas Alexander

Franchising has become a major driving force in the globalisation of service businesses. Likewise, international retailing has become an important feature of global…

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11995

Abstract

Franchising has become a major driving force in the globalisation of service businesses. Likewise, international retailing has become an important feature of global distribution systems. This has been brought about through changing socio‐economic patterns, favourable political and cultural environments, and a shift from manufacturing to service based economies. Both developments have contributed to the globalisation of marketing activity. However, there remain fundamental conceptual inconsistencies in the literatures that explain the development of international retailing and the internationalisation of franchise operations. This paper considers the use of franchising in the internationalisation of retail operations and places the experience of retail operations that use the market entry strategy within the context of other franchising activity. The paper evaluates the literature on the internationalisation of retailing alongside the literature on franchising. It identifies the different perspectives that have emerged within the two literatures and conceptually reconciles the contradictions that exist.

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International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Lindsey Bass, Nicholas Alexander Meisel and Christopher B. Williams

Understanding how material jetting process parameters affect material properties can inform design and print orientation when manufacturing end-use components. This study…

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1791

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding how material jetting process parameters affect material properties can inform design and print orientation when manufacturing end-use components. This study aims to explore the robustness of material properties in material jetted components to variations in processing environment and build orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors characterized the properties of six different material gradients produced from preset “digital material” mixes of polypropylene-like (VeroWhitePlus) and elastomer-like (TangoBlackPlus) materials. Tensile stress, modulus of elasticity and elongation at break were analyzed for each material printed at three different build orientations. In a separate ten-week study, the authors investigated the effects of aging in different lighting conditions on material properties.

Findings

Specimens fabricated with their longest dimension along the direction of the print head travel (X-axis) tended to have the largest tensile strength, but trends in elastic modulus and elongation at break varied between the rigid and flexible photopolymers. The aging study showed that the ultimate tensile stress of VeroWhitePlus parts increased and the elongation decreased over time. Material properties were not significantly altered by lighting conditions.

Research limitations/implications

Many tensile specimens failed at the neck region, especially for the more elastomeric parts. It is hypothesized that this is due to the material jetting process approximating curves with a pixelated droplet arrangement, instead of curved contour as seen in other additive manufacturing processes. A new tensile specimen design that performs more consistently with elastomer-like materials should be considered. The aging component of this study is focused solely on polypropylene-like (VeroWhitePlus) material; additional research into the effects of aging on multiple composite materials is needed.

Originality/value

The study provides the first known description of orientation effects on the mechanical behavior of photopolymers containing varied concentrations of elastomeric (TangoBlackPlus) material. The aging study presents the first findings on how time affects parts made via material jetting.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Nicholas Alexander and Barry Quinn

The divestment of international retail operations is an under‐explored area of research. Conceptual and theoretical developments within retailing have tended to focus on…

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8595

Abstract

The divestment of international retail operations is an under‐explored area of research. Conceptual and theoretical developments within retailing have tended to focus on those organisations that have sustained international development rather than on those organisations who have experienced market failure and strategic withdrawals from international markets. The paper discusses two prominent UK cases where market withdrawal has been a feature of international activity. A cross‐case analysis is then used to identify issues for further research activity. In particular, the cross‐case analysis uses the existing constructs that have emerged from the general literature to explain divestment activity while highlighting the limitations of using these constructs within the retail sector. The paper concludes by noting the limitations of existing frameworks that seek to explain the internationalisation process without due consideration of the divestment process.

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International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

Nicholas Alexander

Discusses the internationalization of retail operations within the European Union (EU) and the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Discusses the determining…

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4532

Abstract

Discusses the internationalization of retail operations within the European Union (EU) and the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Discusses the determining factors behind the internationalization process and the influence this has on the flow of international investment. Places the motivations behind internationalization indicated by the survey results presented within the debate on the internationalization process. Analyses and uses to illustrate these determining factors, the particular experiences and attitudes of UK retailers towards international expansion. As a group, large UK retailers provide an interesting indicator of changing perceptions and underlying factors that determine the nature of international organizational growth and development. The EU and NAFTA provide useful market comparisons when assessing this process. Presents and discusses observable trends and survey results. Considers current and future developments in the internationalization process.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 96 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Rohan Prabhu, Jordan Scott Masia, Joseph T. Berthel, Nicholas Alexander Meisel and Timothy W. Simpson

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in numerous innovative engineering design solutions, several of which leverage the rapid prototyping and manufacturing capabilities of…

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in numerous innovative engineering design solutions, several of which leverage the rapid prototyping and manufacturing capabilities of additive manufacturing. This paper aims to study a subset of these solutions for their utilization of design for AM (DfAM) techniques and investigate the effects of DfAM utilization on the creativity and manufacturing efficiency of these solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study compiled 26 COVID-19-related solutions designed for AM spanning three categories: (1) face shields (N = 6), (2) face masks (N = 12) and (3) hands-free door openers (N = 8). These solutions were assessed for (1) DfAM utilization, (2) manufacturing efficiency and (3) creativity. The relationships between these assessments were then computed using generalized linear models to investigate the influence of DfAM utilization on manufacturing efficiency and creativity.

Findings

It is observed that (1) unique and original designs scored lower in their AM suitability, (2) solutions with higher complexity scored higher on usefulness and overall creativity and (3) solutions with higher complexity had higher build cost, build time and material usage. These findings highlight the need to account for both opportunistic and restrictive DfAM when evaluating solutions designed for AM. Balancing the two DfAM perspectives can support the development of solutions that are creative and consume fewer build resources.

Originality/value

DfAM evaluation tools primarily focus on AM limitations to help designers avoid build failures. This paper proposes the need to assess designs for both, their opportunistic and restrictive DfAM utilization to appropriately assess the manufacturing efficiency of designs and to realize the creative potential of adopting AM.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Nicholas Alexander Hayes, Steffanie Triller Fry and Kamilah Cummings

The purpose of this paper is to describe, reflect on, and problematize the curricula and student support created by the Writing Program at DePaul University’s School for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe, reflect on, and problematize the curricula and student support created by the Writing Program at DePaul University’s School for New Learning. This case study discusses the challenges and considerations that the authors have used to develop writing classes and support for non-traditional adult students.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative case study emerges from the practical experience and theoretical knowledge of the three authors. The experience includes development, implementation, and revision of curricula and support services to fit the changing needs of the non-traditional student population.

Findings

The growing majority of students demonstrate at least one non-traditional characteristic: delayed postsecondary education enrollment, lack of high school diploma, part-time enrollment, full-time employment, multiple dependents besides a spouse, etc. In the face of institutional indifference, these populations frequently fail to receive the support that meets their particular needs.

Practical implications

Using their own experience of creating a Writing Program that meets the needs of adult non-traditional students, the authors discuss practical strategies for and possible pitfalls of providing writing support that can be adapted for similarly underserved student populations.

Originality/value

The paper does present interesting approaches for educating adult students. It covers the unique challenges in this population, and the the approaches that are specifically tailored toward meeting their needs.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2018

Nicholas Alexander Meisel, David A. Dillard and Christopher B. Williams

Material jetting approximates composite material properties through deposition of base materials in a dithered pattern. This microscale, voxel-based patterning leads to…

Abstract

Purpose

Material jetting approximates composite material properties through deposition of base materials in a dithered pattern. This microscale, voxel-based patterning leads to macroscale property changes, which must be understood to appropriately design for this additive manufacturing (AM) process. This paper aims to identify impacts on these composites’ viscoelastic properties due to changes in base material composition and distribution caused by incomplete dithering in small features.

Design/methodology/approach

Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is used to measure viscoelastic properties of two base PolyJet materials and seven “digital materials”. This establishes the material design space enabled by voxel-by-voxel control. Specimens of decreasing width are tested to explore effects of feature width on dithering’s ability to approximate macroscale material properties; observed changes are correlated to multi-material distribution via an analysis of ingoing layers.

Findings

DMA shows storage and loss moduli of preset composites trending toward the iso-strain boundary as composition changes. An added iso-stress boundary defines the property space achievable with voxel-by-voxel control. Digital materials exhibit statistically significant changes in material properties when specimen width is under 2 mm. A quantified change in same-material droplet groupings in each composite’s voxel pattern shows that dithering requires a certain geometric size to accurately approximate macroscale properties.

Originality/value

This paper offers the first quantification of viscoelastic properties for digital materials with respect to material composition and identification of the composite design space enabled through voxel-by-voxel control. Additionally, it identifies a significant shift in material properties with respect to feature width due to dithering pattern changes. This establishes critical design for AM guidelines for engineers designing with digital materials.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2018

Swapnil Sinha and Nicholas Alexander Meisel

This paper aims to identify and quantify the effects of additive manufacturing (AM) process interruption on the tensile strength of material extrusion parts, and to find…

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227

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify and quantify the effects of additive manufacturing (AM) process interruption on the tensile strength of material extrusion parts, and to find solutions to mitigate it.

Design/methodology/approach

Statistical analysis was performed to compare the tensile strength of specimens prepared with different process interruption time durations and different embedding methods. Subsequently, specimens were reheated at the paused layer before resuming, and tensile strengths were analyzed to observe any improvements.

Findings

Process interruption significantly reduced the tensile strength of printed parts by 48 per cent compared to non-interrupted specimens. Reheating the paused layer immediately before resuming the print improved part strength significantly by 47 per cent compared to regular process interrupted specimens and by 90 per cent compared to specimens with embeds.

Practical implications

The layer-by-layer deposition of material in AM introduces the capability for in situ embedding of functional components into printed parts. This paper shows that tensile properties are degraded during embedding due to the need for process interruption. These effects can be addressed by reheating the paused layer, providing process guidance for embedding with AM.

Originality/value

This paper provides an understanding of process interruption and embedding effects on mechanical properties of the parts, and how to improve them. The results from this experimental analysis provide crucial information toward design guidelines for multi-functional AM with embedded components.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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