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Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2012

Noel Longhurst

Over the last 30 years, a range of different complementary currency models have been developed and diffused across the world. Such currency systems have been researched…

Abstract

Over the last 30 years, a range of different complementary currency models have been developed and diffused across the world. Such currency systems have been researched from a variety of different perspectives, such as policy tools (Williams et al., 2001) and social movements (North, 2006). Many of these have explicit links to sustainability objectives and the green movement (Helleiner, 2000; Longhurst & Seyfang, 2011; North, 2010a; Seyfang, 2009), and some environmental writers argue that monetary reform and the development of multiple currency systems are critical factors in achieving environmental sustainability (Douthwaite, 1999). This chapter explains how such a ‘green’ currency emerged from within the environmentally focused Transition Town social movement. This movement has given rise to a range of locally based grassroots enterprises that deliver local services and goods. However, it is argued here that such enterprises can also act as instigators of radical innovations, such as complementary currencies. As such it conceptualises currencies as a form of technology and uses the empirical case of the Totnes Pound currency as an example of a technology that has emerged from civil society. Adopting this framing, the chapter draws on theory relating to the formation of innovative technological ‘niches’ to provide insights into the challenges that they have to overcome in order to survive and flourish. The chapter therefore argues that exploring complementary currencies through the lens of innovation theory can provide valuable insights into their development, and that such an approach may prove useful where grassroots enterprises are engaged in other forms of innovative activity.

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Enterprising Communities: Grassroots Sustainability Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-484-9

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Book part
Publication date: 24 March 2017

Marc-David L. Seidel

In this article, I propose a theory of network opportunity emergence. The core of the argument is that as an overall industry network structure becomes centralized…

Abstract

In this article, I propose a theory of network opportunity emergence. The core of the argument is that as an overall industry network structure becomes centralized, opportunities emerge for new entrants. As the institutional environment evolves toward a centralized network flow structure, innovators can identify newly emerged rich resource niches that serve as the perfect breeding ground for an entrepreneurial start-up. While the framework is an aggregate level conceptualization of market opportunities, it also identifies specific actionable opportunities at a very micro level. Examples from the networks of the airline industry illustrate the logic. I conclude by discussing the innovation and entrepreneurship implications for a wide variety of industries and network tie types, calling for utilization of the framework to answer a broad variety of research questions.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2020

Jake David Hoskins and Abbie Griffin

This study aims to focus on the role of niche brands in online retailer assortments and the general market positions of niche brands, no prior study has explicitly focused…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on the role of niche brands in online retailer assortments and the general market positions of niche brands, no prior study has explicitly focused on if and when brick-and-mortar retailers should include niche brands in their category assortments.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors empirically analyze the category performance implications of focusing assortments on niche brands, at the expense of mainstream brands, in two product categories that have significant niche brand presence, namely, coffee and beer. The empirical data include sales, distribution and marketing tactical information for 50 US geographic markets from 2001–2011.

Findings

This research finds that a mainstream brand focus has a generally positive impact on category performance. However, a store’s strategic shift toward niche brands is beneficial in certain cases such as when a store has higher average prices or product form variety or when they are part of a powerful chain. The authors also find that a niche brand focus strategy is becoming increasingly viable over time for brick-and-mortar retailers.

Originality/value

Little is known about the parameters that might make a brick-and-mortar retailer more or less likely to pursue a niche brand focus strategy and when doing so might improve category performance. This analysis helps clarify the conditions under which a brick-and-mortar retailer may experience category level sales increases from focusing assortments on niche brands.

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Abrar Faisal, Julia N. Albrecht and Willem J.L. Coetzee

This paper aims to respond to the strong calls for interdisciplinary solutions to address the many and varied challenges that major disasters create in urban (tourism…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to respond to the strong calls for interdisciplinary solutions to address the many and varied challenges that major disasters create in urban (tourism) spaces, and provide a holistic conceptualisation of organisational responses to disruptions in the external business environment. It argues that organisations need to actively (re)formulate a sustainable business proposition to passively adapt to environmental conditions and modify the selective environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a qualitative approach to introducing and examining the concepts and theoretical constructs underpinning the proposed conceptual schemata. The content-driven inductive approach used here is based on an extensive review of the disaster recovery, crisis management, entrepreneurial strategy and urban tourism literature with a focus on organisational perspectives. It systematically brings together the theories and research findings from these separate strands of literature.

Findings

While the extant literature focuses on the importance of effective adaptability to survive and thrive in environmental uncertainties, some aspects of the relevant evolutionary processes are not addressed in the context of urban tourism. Indeed, a systematic approach that questions how urban tourism and hospitality businesses react to crises has been long overdue. This paper, therefore, introduces niche construction theory (NCT) as an alternative and proposes an integrated framework to understand the environmental conditions of urban tourism and organisational evolution during post-disaster turbulence.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed model emerging from a multidisciplinary literature review acknowledges boundary conditions in the tourism industry-specific interpretation of a crisis situation. The tenets of NCT need to be adopted flexibly rather than as part of a strictly prescriptive process to allow for all aspects of the related business responses to play out and become exposed to the emerging selection pressures.

Practical implications

The argument underpinned by the theoretical constructs of niche construction encourages and offers a framework for practitioners to actively (re)formulate business proposition and (re)construct organisational niche to survive post-disaster turbulence in the business environment and exert influence over their own evolution.

Originality/value

This paper offers different angles, filters and lenses for constructing and interpreting knowledge of organisational evolution in the context of crisis management. The conceptual schema (Figure 2) emerged as a novel contribution itself providing a necessary lens to interpret the empirical data and understand the complexities of the organisational responses to the disruptive post-disaster turbulence in an urban tourism business environment.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Book part
Publication date: 26 June 2007

Russ Marion and Mary Uhl-Bien

The current strategic leadership literature tends to advocate a leader-centric (upper-echelon) approach to strategy, one in which the leader positions the organization…

Abstract

The current strategic leadership literature tends to advocate a leader-centric (upper-echelon) approach to strategy, one in which the leader positions the organization competitively within an environment. Based on complexity theory, we argue that strategic leadership in a fast-paced environment works to organize both the environment and the organization in ways that enhance the firm's adaptability, innovativeness, and fitness. We propose a two-pronged strategy: Foster cooperative relationships with the organization's environment, and enable adaptive organizations that are “partners” in the strategic leadership function.

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Being There Even When You Are Not
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-6-6110-4908-9

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Shintaro Okazaki and Jaime Romero

This study aims to identify distinct online media user segments on the basis of three media theories, namely media displacement theory, media complementarity theory and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify distinct online media user segments on the basis of three media theories, namely media displacement theory, media complementarity theory and media richness theory.

Design/methodology/approach

A large‐scale, mobile‐based web survey was conducted in Japan to assess behavioural variables (media time allocation, media richness perceptions, and media access motives) and demographics.

Findings

The latent class model reveals four distinct media user segments: dual media users (i.e. users of the internet on both the mobile and the PC); mobile internet users; PC internet users; and passive online users. Dual media users are likely to: spend more time on information searching; perceive greater levels of media richness in online media; and share common motives for accessing internet media via both mobile and PC. The findings are consistent with our theoretical expectations.

Research limitations and implications

Any exploratory clustering of consumers is by definition a snapshot that depends on time and place. Consequently the findings would very likely have been different if the underlying data had been sampled at another time or in different locations. Despite this limitation the findings corroborate some of the basic tenets of theories of media competition and complementarity.

Practical implications

The fact that almost a third of online media users access internet content via both mobile and PC suggests the increasing importance of cross‐media strategies.

Originality/value

This is a pioneering study that examines media competition and complementarity between the mobile internet and the PC internet.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Mayank Sadana and Dipasha Sharma

This paper aims to analyse how the top over-the-top (OTT) platform is becoming a preferred source of entertainment amongst young consumers over traditional Pay TV service…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse how the top over-the-top (OTT) platform is becoming a preferred source of entertainment amongst young consumers over traditional Pay TV service (Cable TV/DTH) in India and what factors play a vital role in such preferences along with gamification of content. The study follows the theoretical framework of use and gratifications theory and Niche analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The study establishes a conceptual framework of understanding the preference of consumers, which triggers the shift from old media to new. This research develops an approach to understanding the relevant implications in responses of consumers through a structured online survey conducted amongst different age groups by applying exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. To further comprehend the relations between measured variables and constructs, the statistical technique is incorporated, i.e. logistic regression.

Findings

Empirical results and discussion insinuated the five factors which affect consumers’ choices concerning entertainment i.e. content and viewing behaviour, expenses incurred on services, shifts influenced by offerings/incentives, convenience and telecom. Logistic regression validated the strength of these factors which made content and viewing behaviour, expenses incurred on services and convenience the three most important factors.

Research limitations/implications

This study analyses the driving factors that are revolutionising the entertainment industry and can be applied in designing a comfortable and engaging experience for a consumer in the future.

Originality/value

This research is original in nature and the findings of this study are valuable for online streaming services, video-on-demand services, Cable TV operators and entertainment content producers.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Emi Moriuchi

Abstract

Details

Cross-Cultural Social Media Marketing: Bridging Across Cultural Differences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-176-1

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Junyun Liao, Jiawen Chen and Xuebing Dong

This study aims to examine the increasingly widespread phenomenon of brand community-swinging, which refers to a user's routine use of multiple brand communities of a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the increasingly widespread phenomenon of brand community-swinging, which refers to a user's routine use of multiple brand communities of a brand across different social media. Drawing from channel complementarity theory, this study examines whether the complementarity of gratifications in four values (i.e. information value, entertainment value, social interaction value and self-presentation value) influences brand community-swinging and, in turn, cultivates brand loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was developed to collect relevant data from users of a well-known smartphone brand. The survey yielded a total of 351 useable responses, and a structural equation model approach was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results indicate that three types of gratification complementarity (information value, social interaction value and self-presentation value) have a significantly positive impact on consumers' brand community-swinging, which further fosters brand loyalty.

Originality/value

Previous research predominantly focused on the motivations and outcomes of consumers' participation within a single-brand community, but little is known about the antecedents and outcomes of brand community-swinging in a poly-social-media context. This study contributes to the brand community literature by addressing this research gap.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Ying-Wei Shih, Ya-Ling Wu, Yi-Shun Wang and Chiung-Liang Chen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the post-adoption stage of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephony diffusion, examining usage behavior based on Shih and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the post-adoption stage of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephony diffusion, examining usage behavior based on Shih and Venkatesh’s use-diffusion (UD) model.

Design/methodology/approach

The research model incorporates technology sophistication, complementary technologies, personal innovativeness, self-efficacy, trust propensity, media exposure, subjective norms, and word-of-mouth (WOM) referrals as UD determinants; rate of use and variety of use as usage variables; intense use, specialized use, nonspecialized use, and limited use as UD patterns; and satisfaction and intention to use future-related technologies as UD outcomes. Data used to test the research model were collected using a web-based online questionnaire form; 360 valid responses were obtained. Partial least squares, multinomial logistic regression, and analysis of variance were used to analyze data.

Findings

The results reveal that variety of use, self-efficacy, propensity to trust, media exposure, subjective norms, and WOM referrals increase rate of use, while complementary technologies, personal innovativeness, self-efficacy, media exposure, and subjective norms widen variety of use; variety of use is essential in predicting UD outcomes; when choosing limited use as the reference category, more than half of the UD determinants are capable of predicting UD patterns; and generally, intense users are more satisfied with VoIP telephony, while limited users have less intention to use future-related technologies.

Originality/value

The present study focuses on the post-adoption stage, thereby extending the frontiers of research on the diffusion of VoIP telephony. Academics can obtain some evidence of the explanatory power of the UD model in the context of VoIP telephony use, and practitioners can obtain fresh insights into the dynamics of VoIP telephony usage behavior.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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