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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Binh T.T. Vuong, Thang V. Nguyen and Ngoc T. Phan

Drawing from institutional theory and organizational learning perspectives, the purpose of this paper is to examine how social norms of corruption in home countries and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from institutional theory and organizational learning perspectives, the purpose of this paper is to examine how social norms of corruption in home countries and those in host localities influence firm bribery behavior. It also investigates factors that moderate the influence of these norms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on survey data of foreign invested firms (FIFs) in Vietnam, conducted by the Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry between 2010 and 2018 along with Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index. The authors run ordinary least squares regressions to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The study provides evidence that social norms of corruption in both home countries and host localities influence firms’ bribery behavior, but their effects are moderated by different sets of factors. Specifically, the use of local leadership augments the impact of the host province’s corruption norms on the firm’s bribe payments. By contrast, the relationship between the home country’s corruption norms and a FIF’s bribe payment is weaker if local leadership is used, and stronger if the FIF’s home country belongs to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Research limitations/implications

Repeated cross-sectional data do not allow us to genuinely keep track of the changing roles of home country and host province corruption norms over time.[AQ2] In addition, the use of perception measures for corruption norms is subject to potential biases.

Practical implications

As the hiring of local executives weakens the impact of the home country’s norms which are embedded in the MNCs’ general practices, a stronger learning measure and regular review of the headquarters’ policies and practices is needed to ensure the overseas branch’s compliance. For policymakers, it is critical to recognize that local corruption plays a role in shaping FIFs’ bribery behavior.

Originality/value

While the effect of social norms of corruption on firm bribery behavior has been recognized, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that examines the learning processes FIFs may take to make sense of and cope with these norms, and also the first one to specify factors that moderate the influence of these norms.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2008

Phan Minh Ngoc

The purpose of this paper is to measure the contribution of capital formation, labor, and technological progress to the growth of the Vietnamese economy, the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the contribution of capital formation, labor, and technological progress to the growth of the Vietnamese economy, the impact of economic reforms (doi moi) since the end of 1986, and the rates of returns to capital and labor.

Design/methodologyapproach

Cobb‐Douglas production functions are built for Vietnam's economy and then estimated using annual data for 1975‐2005.

Findings

The two major findings are that: technological progress was statistically absent in the growth of the Vietnamese economy throughout the period studied; and the most important source of economic growth is capital accumulation, accounting for between 84 percent and 89 percent of Vietnamese economic growth throughout the period 1975‐2005, and between 85 percent and 90 percent in the reform period (1986‐2005).

Originality/value

This paper is the first of its kind in the Vietnamese literature that successfully sheds light on, among other things, the roles of capital and technological progress in the Vietnamese economy during the period 1975‐2005. It also makes clear that Vietnam's economic growth has been fueled mainly by foreign funds and, thus, the continued heavy reliance of the economy on this financial source will make its growth unsustainable. In order to achieve sustainable growth in the coming decades, Vietnam must shift to rely more on productivity growth, which has been absent so far, and less on factor accumulation growth.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2017

Ngoc Lan Thi Dang

This chapter explores the influences of Vietnamese culture coupled with national policies on gender equality on academic women’s advancement into senior leadership positions.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter explores the influences of Vietnamese culture coupled with national policies on gender equality on academic women’s advancement into senior leadership positions.

Methodology/approach

In-depth interviews with 20 mid-level women leaders and five top-level leaders were conducted at four different higher education institutions in the Mekong Delta (MD) in southern Vietnam. In addition, document analysis and participant observations contributed to the overall analysis, which allowed for the cross-check of data from multiple sources to investigate the participants’ understanding, perception, conceptualization, and interpretation of their experiences of advancing in their careers.

Findings

Findings show that there is a large gap between the policies and gender practices. Gender equality does not exist in reality, regardless of tremendous efforts from the Vietnamese government and policy makers to ensure it in all spheres of life. Additionally, patriarchal hierarchy remains dominant in the institutional administrative system, and Vietnamese Confucian ideology continues to confine and adversely affect both men’s and women’s perceptions of women’s social roles, status, and forms of social participation. Nevertheless, academic women still develop professionally and find their own ways to advance to a few key leadership positions at their institutions.

Research limitations

The sample of this study is limited to academic women in the MD in Vietnam. Future research should include more women and universities and colleges, from not only the southern part but also other regions of Vietnam. Further, international and comparative studies should be conducted to see differences in experiences of academic women from several Southeast Asian countries as they move up their career ladder.

Originality/value

Because there have not been any empirical studies about women and leadership in academia in the MD, this study serves as a resource and foundation for improving gender policies and practices as well as future research on this topic and gender issues of colleges and universities in Vietnam.

Details

Discourses on Gender and Sexual Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-197-3

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Anh Ngoc Cao and Tanya Wyatt

Unsustainable logging and illegal logging for domestic and international trade and trafficking continue to lead to deforestation. It is crucial that Sustainable…

Abstract

Unsustainable logging and illegal logging for domestic and international trade and trafficking continue to lead to deforestation. It is crucial that Sustainable Development Goal 15 ‘Sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, halt biodiversity loss’ is achieved to maintain the livelihoods of people and protect the planet. This is the case in Vietnam as well, where many people, including indigenous groups, rely on the forest for their survival. Drawing on semistructured interviews in Vietnam and a literature review, we investigate how the abuse of forest policies leads to human insecurity. From this, we propose solutions to (1) end unsustainable harvesting and illegal logging (SDG 15.7), (2) integrate the value of forests (culturally and economically) into national and local planning, the development process and poverty elimination strategies (SDG 15.9) and (3) improve the use of forest protection funding provided by international donors.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Crime, Justice and Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-355-5

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2020

Vladislav Spitsin, Darko Vukovic, Sergey Anokhin and Lubov Spitsina

The paper analyzes the effects of the capital structure on company performance (return on assets). The analysis is conducted in a large sample of high-tech manufacturing…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper analyzes the effects of the capital structure on company performance (return on assets). The analysis is conducted in a large sample of high-tech manufacturing and service companies in the transition economy (Russian Federation). In addition to the aggregated analysis, separate investigations are conducted to scrutinize the impact of company age, size and location factors (the effects of agglomerations). This research postulates the existence and variability of the optimal capital structure and its dependence on economic crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

We utilized a large sample that includes 1,826 enterprises over the period from 2013 to 2017. The estimation was performed using the panel-corrected standard error estimation technique (Prais–Winsten regression) to account for the panel nature and distributional properties of our data. The existence of the optimal capital structure was assessed based on a curvilinear (quadratic) function.

Findings

The results are consistent with the Static Trade-off Theory and show that this theory is applicable to countries with transition economy. They demonstrate that effective management of the capital structure can increase return on assets by 16–22%. The optimal share of borrowed capital is higher for small businesses compared to larger ones and for enterprises located in agglomerations compared to those located in other regions. A greater increase in profitability can be achieved by larger firm companies compared to smaller ones. High share of borrowed capital leads to negative profitability, i.e. to losses by enterprises. No significant differences in profitability growth were identified between young and mature enterprises. The optimal share of borrowed capital that maximizes return on assets is in the range of 0–21%.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the SPARK policies, our access to the data has been limited to a five-year window, which imposed certain limitations on the choice of econometric methods we could have employed and somewhat limited our ability to contrast the effect of the crisis period with the period of stability. In this sense, although our results pertaining to the effect of the crisis could be treated as conservative, future research should consider extending the panel to include more years into consideration.

Practical implications

We identified significant differences between optimal capital structures and actual capital structures for high-tech enterprises. The contribution of this study is that the calculations were made for a country with a transition economy under crisis conditions. Countries with transition economies and developing countries tend to be characterized by a high level of interest rates on loans and a high proportion of borrowed capital in total assets. This poses difficulties for companies relying on borrowed capital to finance their operations. At the same time, our results demonstrate that in transition economies, enterprises in high-tech industries do have an optimal capital structure that allows maximizing firm performance. That is, Static Trade-off Theory is applicable to transition economies characterized by high interest rates on loans.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study lies in the detailed analysis of high-tech industries in Russian Federation. This analysis makes use of sophisticated econometric techniques for the first time in this context.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Van Cang Nguyen and Ngoc Tuan Chau

The purpose of this paper is to apply a more accurate competitive advantage construct to study the impact of total quality management on firms’ competitive advantage in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply a more accurate competitive advantage construct to study the impact of total quality management on firms’ competitive advantage in the context of the weakening of the competitive advantage of firms that are renowned for the excellent quality management. It also aims to find a better explanation for the source of competitive advantage through mediating constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use iterative methodology by reviewing, analyzing, synthesizing and refining the current state of the literature and propose a research framework which allows for overcoming the limitation encountered in previous empirical research.

Findings

The use of two second-order constructs including the incremental innovation performance and radical innovation performance which enable the researchers to have a better explanation about the mediating role of innovation performance.

Practical implications

This study is seeking to contribute to the practice of total quality management area of research. Specifically, this study applies two second-order measurement scales of innovation in use, actualize the use of the new measurement scale of competitive advantage and explain clearly the role of total quality management on competitive advantage in the current context.

Originality/value

This is one of the few papers investigating the impact of total quality management on competitive advantage, developing the conceptual model that examines the mediating role of innovation performance.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2018

Ha Ngoc Pham

This chapter describes how public sector reform (PSR) became important following the ‘Doi Moi’ (renovation) programme in 1986. Restructuring of state-owned sector was…

Abstract

This chapter describes how public sector reform (PSR) became important following the ‘Doi Moi’ (renovation) programme in 1986. Restructuring of state-owned sector was regarded as crucial for ensuring the quality of economic growth, and the Vietnamese government (www.chinhphu.vn/portal/page/portal/English) put considerable effort in PSR. The 8th Party Congress (1996) emphasized the urgent need for a more transparent, capable and modern public sector, including efforts to improve law-making process and capacity, reducing burdensome bureaucracy, fighting corruption, increasing leadership by senior officials and improving public service delivery. The government specifies the national PSR Master programme, and the Ministry of Home Affairs coordinates its implementation among ministries, central agencies and provincial governments. Local political leaders (party leaders) determine reforms based on guidelines of the party and government. The author writes that in spite of ambitious public service reform programmes and some positive achievements, the quality of public sector remains poor. The professional capacity of civil service is low, pay is low, corruption is high and processes and structures seem ill-fitted for the market economy. Reform scope is too broad, the capacity of public agencies and civil servants is limited and existing monitoring, evaluation and reporting systems are weak. In some successes, leaders use appointment and promotion to encourage lower level to implement reforms and training to increase understanding. They believe that Vietnamese leadership has become less proactive and vigorous in practicing or embracing bold reform experiments.

Details

Leadership and Public Sector Reform in Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-309-0

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Le Trung Ngoc Phat and Nguyen Kim Hanh

The purpose of this paper is to employ the computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach to examine how the European–Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EVFTA) impacts on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to employ the computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach to examine how the European–Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EVFTA) impacts on the Vietnamese economy in the case of the removal of industrial tariffs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors construct a social accounting matrix based on the latest data of the Vietnam input-output Table for the year 2012 and then apply the CGE model to simulate the economic scenarios when the tariff rate of the industrial sector reduces to 0 percent.

Findings

The first simulation results demonstrate that the elimination of tariffs in the industrial sector will lead to a 9.13 percent increase in household consumption, together with an increase in the factors of production of the agricultural, industrial and service sectors by 9.61, 9.74 and 8.21 percent, respectively. The EVFTA also causes a deficit in the trade balance because the value of imports increases by 12.54 percent, while exports’ value slightly increases by 2.71 percent. Furthermore, there has been a drop of 2.29 percent in the total government income; nevertheless, social welfare witnesses a gain of 9.13 percent. The second scenario simulation draws crucial attention to policymakers that a small fluctuation in the production tax rate will cause a significant change in the economy.

Practical implications

The reduction of tariff in the industrial sector will increase the social welfare and strengthen the whole economy regarding the growth of household consumption, factors of production and trade value. On the unfavorable side, the EVFTA causes a national budget deficit and puts pressure on domestic production. This paper is a valuable reference for governments and policymakers when they decide to reduce tariffs or adjust production taxes once Vietnam integrates into the world economy.

Originality/value

This study differs from previous research works by utilizing a static CGE model to investigate the impact of removing the industrial tariff on the economy under EVFTA.

Details

Journal of Economics and Development, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-5330

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2020

Ngoc Phu Tran, Loan Thi-Hong Van and Duc Hong Vo

This paper aims to examine the relationship between corporate governance and intellectual capital in the context of Vietnam. In this paper, corporate governance is proxied…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between corporate governance and intellectual capital in the context of Vietnam. In this paper, corporate governance is proxied by various characteristics, including board size, a number of independent members in the board, board remuneration, major shareholder holding more than 20 per cent of the outstanding shares and duality of the CEO. In addition, intellectual capital is measured using the modified value-added intellectual coefficient model (MVAIC).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data of 45 Vietnamese listed firms during 2011-2018. The MVAIC model is used incorporating four components, namely, human capital, structural capital, capital used and relational capital. In addition, GMM regression technique is used in this paper.

Findings

Empirical findings from this paper indicate that key characteristics of corporate governance, except for board remuneration, may provide a negative effect on the efficient use of intellectual capital.

Research limitations/implications

Intellectual capital emerges as a new field of research that has not been widely examined in emerging countries such as Vietnam. As such, there have not been many studies focusing on understanding intellectual capital and its role in the performance of enterprises. Further studies can evaluate the relationship between intellectual capital and corporate performance, capital structure, corporate value and social responsibility. This study is limited to listed companies in Vietnam because of data limitations in an emerging market. Studies in the future should extend the sample and/or compare differences between manufacturing enterprises and financial institutions, or between countries.

Practical implications

Findings from this paper provide a valuable framework for executives, managers and policymakers in managing corporate governance and intellectual capital within the Vietnamese context.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical study that has been conducted to examine the relationship between corporate governance and intellectual capital in the context of Vietnam.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Nguyen To Lan

This article traces the transformation of hát bội, a form of traditional opera in Southern Vietnam, from its primary role as entertainment into a religious activity after…

Abstract

Purpose

This article traces the transformation of hát bội, a form of traditional opera in Southern Vietnam, from its primary role as entertainment into a religious activity after the Reform (Đổi Mới) were enacted in 1986.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on ethnological fieldwork complemented by a review of historical documents and of the available literature on hát bội, cultural policies and on data collected from interviews with artists and spectators at the festival at the shrine to the Lady of the Realm.

Findings

Before 1986, hát bội was performed either as a stand-alone entertainment during the fair portion of community festivals or as part of religious ceremonies. The Reform and the accompanying relaxation of state control over religion and culture promoted the resurgence of popular religious fairs across the nation. New opportunities for hát bội to revive opened, artists left state-sponsored troupes to join private companies that catered to religious festivals. But almost exclusive involvement in religious rites has led to artistic stasis for private hát bội troupes.

Originality/value

This research constitutes novel insights of how the Reform in Vietnam affects the transformation of a traditional performance form.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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