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Article

Duc Hong Vo and Ngoc Phu Tran

For the past two decades, intellectual capital has played an increasingly important role in firm performance around the world. However, the importance of intellectual…

Abstract

Purpose

For the past two decades, intellectual capital has played an increasingly important role in firm performance around the world. However, the importance of intellectual capital in Vietnam, and especially in the banking sector, has largely been ignored in the literature. This study is the first to examine the effect of intellectual capital on bank performance in Vietnam. In this paper, intellectual capital is decomposed into three components: (1) capital employed efficiency, (2) human capital efficiency and (3) structural capital efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses an unbalanced panel dataset on 14 listed banks in Vietnam for the period 2009–2018 for which required data are available, with the generalized method of moments.

Findings

The findings indicate that intellectual capital contributes significantly and positively to bank performance in Vietnam. In addition, bank performance is driven primarily by capital employed efficiency. Although human capital efficiency appears to contribute positively to bank performance, the effect on bank performance appears to be marginal.

Originality/value

The literature review indicates that the effect of intellectual capital on bank performance is mixed. This effect can be positive or negative or even show a U-shaped relationship. The effects of intellectual capital on firm performance are not consistent, depending on factors such as the quantitative technique and sample used. As such, this paper extends analysis of Vietnam to cover the 10-year period from 2009 to 2018. The literature review reveals that the contribution of intellectual capital to bank performance has largely been ignored in the context of Vietnam. Studies have been conducted on the Gulf countries, such as Buallay et al. (2020). However, because the context in Vietnam differs from that of the Gulf countries, their experience might not be relevant to Vietnam. Vietnam is an emerging market in Southeast Asia, whereas Gulf countries have high income levels. So, it is necessary to examine direct evidence on Vietnam.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article

Ngoc Phu Tran and Duc Hong Vo

In developed countries, banks are perceived to accumulate a higher level of intellectual capital than firms in other sectors. However, this perception has not been…

Abstract

Purpose

In developed countries, banks are perceived to accumulate a higher level of intellectual capital than firms in other sectors. However, this perception has not been considered or tested in the context of an emerging market such as Vietnam, which has one of the most dynamic economies in the Asian region. This study estimates and compares the level of accumulation of intellectual capital and its four components by financial and nonfinancial firms in Vietnam. Furthermore, this study examines the relationship between intellectual capital and its components and the performance of financial and nonfinancial firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data collected from the annual reports of 75 financial and 75 nonfinancial firms in Vietnam from 2011 to 2018. A modified value-added intellectual coefficient model is adopted to measure the level of intellectual capital at firms. Various aspects of intellectual capital are considered, including the efficiency of human capital, structural capital, capital employed and relational capital. In addition, the generalized method of moments is used to ensure the robustness of the findings.

Findings

Findings in this study indicate that financial firms in Vietnam have accumulated a higher level of intellectual capital than nonfinancial firms. In addition, intellectual capital contributes positively to financial firms' performance. Three components of intellectual capital – structural capital efficiency, capital employed efficiency and relational capital efficiency – positively affect performance by financial firms.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to financial and nonfinancial firms in Vietnam. Empirical studies in the future should incorporate the efficiency aspects of these types of firms because different industries might have different characteristics, in particular, their current efficiency level, which might cause differences in relation to the accumulation of intellectual capital.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide valuable evidence and implications for executives and policymakers in creating, managing and enhancing intellectual capital within the Vietnamese context, in particular in the financial sector.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first empirical study conducted in the context of Vietnam, with the following two objectives: (1) to measure and compare the level of accumulation of intellectual capital by financial and nonfinancial firms in Vietnam; and (2) to examine the contribution of intellectual capital and its components to the performance by financial and nonfinancial firms in Vietnam.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Ngoc Phu Tran, Loan Thi-Hong Van and Duc Hong Vo

This paper aims to examine the relationship between corporate governance and intellectual capital in the context of Vietnam. In this paper, corporate governance is proxied…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between corporate governance and intellectual capital in the context of Vietnam. In this paper, corporate governance is proxied by various characteristics, including board size, a number of independent members in the board, board remuneration, major shareholder holding more than 20 per cent of the outstanding shares and duality of the CEO. In addition, intellectual capital is measured using the modified value-added intellectual coefficient model (MVAIC).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data of 45 Vietnamese listed firms during 2011-2018. The MVAIC model is used incorporating four components, namely, human capital, structural capital, capital used and relational capital. In addition, GMM regression technique is used in this paper.

Findings

Empirical findings from this paper indicate that key characteristics of corporate governance, except for board remuneration, may provide a negative effect on the efficient use of intellectual capital.

Research limitations/implications

Intellectual capital emerges as a new field of research that has not been widely examined in emerging countries such as Vietnam. As such, there have not been many studies focusing on understanding intellectual capital and its role in the performance of enterprises. Further studies can evaluate the relationship between intellectual capital and corporate performance, capital structure, corporate value and social responsibility. This study is limited to listed companies in Vietnam because of data limitations in an emerging market. Studies in the future should extend the sample and/or compare differences between manufacturing enterprises and financial institutions, or between countries.

Practical implications

Findings from this paper provide a valuable framework for executives, managers and policymakers in managing corporate governance and intellectual capital within the Vietnamese context.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical study that has been conducted to examine the relationship between corporate governance and intellectual capital in the context of Vietnam.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

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Article

Duc Hong Vo and Ngoc Phu Tran

A very few studies have been conducted to measure a degree of national intellectual capital for selected groups of countries. This paper is conducted to construct a new…

Abstract

Purpose

A very few studies have been conducted to measure a degree of national intellectual capital for selected groups of countries. This paper is conducted to construct a new index of national intellectual capital (INIC) which is simple, quantifiable, relevant and comparable for countries around the globe.

Design/methodology/approach

The styudy’s new INIC uses various indicators which are proxies for fundamental aspects of intellectual capital, including (1) human capital, (2) structural capital and (3) relational capital. These indicators are publicly available for many countries. The principal component analysis is utilized to derive the INIC. Various tests have also been conducted to ensure that the new index is appropriate and fit for purpose.

Findings

Findings from this paper confirm that the new INIC has a strong correlation of 0.80 with an index developed by Lin et al. (2014) (the LECB index), an advanced INIC to date. The LECB index has been infrequently updated and covered selected countries due to data and information unavailability. In addition, the study’s tests indicate that a high correlation of 0.75 is observed between the study’s index and GDP per capita. The new INIC represents an advancement in relation to its simplicity, quantification, relevance and international comparison across nations.

Practical implications

The estimates of national intellectual capital using the approach in this study will open a new strand of theoretical and empirical studies in relation to national intellectual capital and other economic and social issues of interests. This novel and innovative approach will provide policymakers with a valuable framework to formulate and implement relevant policies to enhance and improve national intellectual capital.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first study of its type, which is conducted to measure national intellectual capital based on publicly available data. Required data cover an extended period of years and a majority of countries. As such, an INIC will enhance transparency and feasibility for international comparison across countries.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Hai Hong Dinh

The purpose of this paper is to trace the way in which a popular ritual became one of Vietnam’s most important festivals, elevated as a celebration of national heroism and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to trace the way in which a popular ritual became one of Vietnam’s most important festivals, elevated as a celebration of national heroism and charts its gradual transformation in modern society.

Design/methodology/approach

This research focuses on the combination of a fertility rite and narratives of St Gióng based on nationalism or heroism created a special festival reflecting many traditional cultural characteristics of Vietnam and the Việt people and the transformation of St Gióng from a mythological to a national symbol of heroism in anti-invader history was recorded in texts.

Findings

The paper casts light on the mythologization and historicization of St Gióng in Vietnam’s particular historical context by decoding the Gióng symbol as a core element of the folktales and myths about St Gióng to understand the formation and development of St Gióng in the cultural history of Vietnam.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is not exploring the Gióng symbol within a larger cultural context of nationalism and ethnosymbolic approach in a comparison of national symbolism and heroism.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for advised scholars to conduct further exploration of the symbol and myth of not only St Gióng in Vietnam but also Kubera in India and Vaisravana in China to connect Kubera, Vaisravana and St Gióng under the connection of literal myth and heroic symbol.

Social implications

The paper shows how processes of historicizing myth and mythologizing history are important features of Vietnamese socio-historical research.

Originality/value

The paper shows how a fertility rite became a historical festival and the figure of St Gióng became a symbol of patriotic heroism.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Expert briefing

The presidency following Tran Dai Quang's death.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB239034

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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Case study

Sang Kim Tran and Le Ngoc Hoang Yen

Decision-making seems simple, but, in reality, it is not an easy task to decide the cause for its profound result or consequence, leading to inevitable failures…

Abstract

Subject area

Decision-making seems simple, but, in reality, it is not an easy task to decide the cause for its profound result or consequence, leading to inevitable failures. Therefore, a leader must recognize whether there is something incorrect so as to avoid bad results. A good leader is a person who carefully reviews and analyzes aspects of a problem, knows the strengths and weaknesses of his organization and evaluates what the advantages or risks are. It cannot be denied that the appropriate options will reap many benefits to the business. For such important things, this paper will discuss the dilemma of Viettire, a tire distributor company in Vietnam. Accordingly, its CEO was worried about what strategic option he should adopt to approach the Myanmar market while ensuring a strategic fit to its company’s resources and capabilities and also to the overall market demands of the tire industry environment in both countries. However, with different ideas, the expansion strategies in this new market become controversial. The General Director and Founder of Viettire were wondering how Viettire could expand its existing business into Myanmar. To expand the company to new emerging market in Myanmar, Hoang Nguyen – CEO of Viettire – had conducted a strategic analysis of external environment factors to define the opportunities and threats when doing business in Myanmar by using Porter’s five forces model, S.W.O.T and competitive advantages analysis. The results indicated that Myanmar’s business environment is highly risky for foreign investors because of uncertain political, economic, social reforms in the process. Among three options, namely, exporting, licensing and wholly owned, however, Option 2 is illustrated as the best strategy for its dilemma.

Study level/applicability

Postgraduate/Graduate Business level.

Case overview

As for a market mechanism, what produces, how and for whom, is not the business’s demand but the consumer’s demand. The business sells only what the market needs, not what it has. In the period of increasingly competitive conditions, stabilizing and expanding markets are a prerequisite for survival. If stability is seen as a “defensive” way, expansion is a “defensive attack” like trying to hold on the “pie” that the market gives to itself. This strategic action is to strengthen regular, close relationships with existing customers and establish new customers. As a result, the potential market is transformed into a target market. Hence, decision-making of which market, which method is the issue that a leader has to think the choice to avoid risks. Mr Hung, Viettire’s co-owner, suggests that Myanmar should be taken into account as a company’s new entry, thus exploring this potential market to increase the company’s growth and profitability. In the progress, Viettire’s marketing team had been doing a thorough tire market investigation in Myanmar. It was concluded that this emerging country, especially Yangon City, was the most suitable for those who were willing to embark on an overseas investment expansion. They believe this was a good opportunity to gain market share compared with other entrants and competitive rivals; if Viettire hesitated to invest, others definitely had jumped in with a first-mover advantage. However, the CEO, Mr Hoang, was worried about what strategic option he should adopt to approach this new market while ensuring a strategic fit to its company’s resources and capabilities and also to the overall market demands of the tire industry environment in both countries.

Expected learning outcomes

Understand the basic decisions that firms contemplating foreign expansion must make: which markets to enter, when to enter those markets and at what scale. Recognize the current strategic decisions an organization is facing: positioning, portfolio and market expansion approach. Learn how to develop an effective strategic plan. Be familiar with different strategies for competing globally and their pros and cons. Evaluate various strategic options and decisions in accordance with a company’s resources and capabilities.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject Code

CSS 11: Strategy.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Book part

Ngoc Lan Thi Dang

This chapter explores the influences of Vietnamese culture coupled with national policies on gender equality on academic women’s advancement into senior leadership positions.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter explores the influences of Vietnamese culture coupled with national policies on gender equality on academic women’s advancement into senior leadership positions.

Methodology/approach

In-depth interviews with 20 mid-level women leaders and five top-level leaders were conducted at four different higher education institutions in the Mekong Delta (MD) in southern Vietnam. In addition, document analysis and participant observations contributed to the overall analysis, which allowed for the cross-check of data from multiple sources to investigate the participants’ understanding, perception, conceptualization, and interpretation of their experiences of advancing in their careers.

Findings

Findings show that there is a large gap between the policies and gender practices. Gender equality does not exist in reality, regardless of tremendous efforts from the Vietnamese government and policy makers to ensure it in all spheres of life. Additionally, patriarchal hierarchy remains dominant in the institutional administrative system, and Vietnamese Confucian ideology continues to confine and adversely affect both men’s and women’s perceptions of women’s social roles, status, and forms of social participation. Nevertheless, academic women still develop professionally and find their own ways to advance to a few key leadership positions at their institutions.

Research limitations

The sample of this study is limited to academic women in the MD in Vietnam. Future research should include more women and universities and colleges, from not only the southern part but also other regions of Vietnam. Further, international and comparative studies should be conducted to see differences in experiences of academic women from several Southeast Asian countries as they move up their career ladder.

Originality/value

Because there have not been any empirical studies about women and leadership in academia in the MD, this study serves as a resource and foundation for improving gender policies and practices as well as future research on this topic and gender issues of colleges and universities in Vietnam.

Details

Discourses on Gender and Sexual Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-197-3

Keywords

Content available
Article

Nhat Lam Duyen Tran, Roberto F. Rañola,, Bjoern Ole Sander, Wassmann Reiner, Dinh Tien Nguyen and Nguyen Khanh Ngoc Nong

In recent years, climate-smart agriculture (CSA) was introduced to Vietnam to enhance farmers’ resilience and adaptation to climate change. Among the climate-smart…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, climate-smart agriculture (CSA) was introduced to Vietnam to enhance farmers’ resilience and adaptation to climate change. Among the climate-smart agricultural technologies (CSATs) introduced were water-saving techniques and improved stress tolerant varieties. This study aims to examine the determinants of farmers’ adoption of these technologies and the effects of their adoption on net rice income (NRI) in three provinces as follows: Thai Binh (North), Ha Tinh (Central) and Bac Lieu (South).

Design/methodology/approach

Determinants of adoption of CSATs and the adoption effects on NRI are analyzed by using a multinomial endogenous switching regression framework.

Findings

The results showed that gender, age, number of family workers, climate-related factors, farm characteristics, distance to markets, access to climate information, confidence on the know-how of extension workers, membership in social/agricultural groups and attitude toward risk were the major factors affecting the decision to adopt CSATs. However, the effects of these factors on the adoption of CSATs varied across three provinces. These technologies when adopted tend to increase NRI but the increase is much greater when these are combined.

Practical implications

It is important to consider first the appropriateness of the CSA packages to the specific conditions of the target areas before they are promoted. It is also necessary to enhance the technical capacity of local extension workers and provide farmers more training on CSATs.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to identify key determinants of adoption of CSATs either singly or in combination and the adoption effects on NRI in Vietnam.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Content available
Article

Abstract

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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