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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Ikenna Uzuegbunam, Yin-Chi Liao, Luke Pittaway and G. Jason Jolley

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of human and intellectual capital on start-ups’ attainment of government venture capital (GVC). It is theorized that as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of human and intellectual capital on start-ups’ attainment of government venture capital (GVC). It is theorized that as a result of government predisposition toward enhancing knowledge spillover and certifying underinvested start-ups, different types of human and intellectual capital possessed by start-ups will distinctly affect GVC funding.

Design/methodology/approach

The Kauffman Firm Survey, a panel data set of 4,928 new US firms over a five-year period (2004-2008), serves as the data source. Ordinary least squares regression, coupled with generalized estimating equations to check for robustness, is used to determine the effect of human and intellectual capital on GVC funding.

Findings

Founders’ educational attainment has a greater impact than their occupational experience in GVC funding. While the number of patents owned by the start-up increases GVC funding, the number of trademarks and copyrights negatively influence GVC funding.

Originality/value

By distinguishing between different aspects of human and intellectual capital, this study provides a more nuanced understanding of the influence of new venture resources in the context of GVC.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2012

Andrew Atherton

This paper seeks to understand the dynamics of new venture financing across 20 business start‐ups.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to understand the dynamics of new venture financing across 20 business start‐ups.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 20 cases were explored, via initial discussions with the founder(s), and follow‐up contact to confirm sources of financing acquired during new venture creation. This approach was adopted because of the challenges associated with acquiring full details of start‐up financing, and in particular informal forms of new venture financing.

Findings

Significant variation in, and scale of, new venture financing was identified. In multiple cases, funding patterns did not tally with established explanations of small business financing.

Research limitations/implications

The primary limitation of the analysis is the focus on a small number of individual cases. Although this allowed for more detailed analysis, it does not make the findings applicable across the small business population as a whole. New ventures acquired very different forms of finance, and in different configurations or “bundles”, so creating a wide range of start‐up financing patterns and overall levels of capitalisation. This suggests that multiple factors influence founder decisions on start‐up funding acquisition. It also indicates the wide divergence between highly capitalised and under‐capitalised start‐ups.

Practical implications

Many of the new ventures were started with low levels of capitalisation, which as the literature suggests is a strong determinant of reduced prospects for survival. This suggests a possible “financing deficit”, rather than gap, for a proportion of business start‐ups.

Originality/value

The paper provides an alternative methodology for considering new venture financing, and as a result concludes that standard, rational theories of small business financing may not always hold for new ventures.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2014

Haemin Dennis Park and H. Kevin Steensma

We explore factors determining board membership of venture capitalists (VCs) in a syndicate in privately held entrepreneurial ventures. We suggest that board membership is…

Abstract

We explore factors determining board membership of venture capitalists (VCs) in a syndicate in privately held entrepreneurial ventures. We suggest that board membership is determined by the bargaining process between VCs and new ventures in governing those ventures. Specifically, VCs are more likely to become board members in new ventures if they are highly reputable due to the success of their prior new venture investees, whereas VCs are less likely to gain board rights in new ventures with greater bargain power from superior innovation or marketing track records. Our empirical analysis using 1,812 dyads of investment ties formed between VCs and new ventures support our predictions.

Details

Finance and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-493-0

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

Wing Lam

The aim of this paper is to make sense of the “funding gap” by exploring how and why informal entrepreneurial finance is made available to entrepreneurs. By challenging…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to make sense of the “funding gap” by exploring how and why informal entrepreneurial finance is made available to entrepreneurs. By challenging the epistemological and ontological assumptions of the “funding gap”, an enactment perspective of entrepreneurial finance, supported by a social constructionist stance, is proposed in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

The study on which this paper reports was conducted through a longitudinal fieldwork process. Networks in two Chinese cities, Shanghai and Hong Kong, were chosen because of their differences in institutional context yet exceptionally high level of entrepreneurial activities.

Findings

This paper highlights the active role entrepreneurs play in managing their financial needs in the process of new venture creation. The results show that entrepreneurs are actively managing the demand as well as supply of entrepreneurial finance to narrow the “funding gap”. Furthermore, individuals work to fill the funding gap by creating required start‐up capital. In other words, the “funding gap” is not static or concrete; rather it is dynamic, manageable and in many cases is within individuals' power and ability to overcome.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper are particularly important to all stakeholders, including policy makers, educators, researchers, entrepreneurs and nascent entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the conceptual, methodological and practical knowledge in advancing understanding of the “funding gap”. First, it provides insight into the relationship between entrepreneurs and their environment that shapes the “funding gap”. Second, the findings suggested that a positive, supportive enterprise culture can be particularly useful in driving individuals towards entrepreneurship. Third, in terms of methodology, the author argues that an “inside‐looking‐lout”, interpretive, multi‐stage fieldwork and network as unit of analysis is particularly distinctive in revealing the complex process of managing entrepreneurial finance in the process of new venture creation.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Alexandra Moritz, Joern Block and Eva Lutz

This study’s aim is to investigate the role of investor communication in equity-based crowdfunding. The study explores whether and how investor communication can reduce…

Abstract

Purpose

This study’s aim is to investigate the role of investor communication in equity-based crowdfunding. The study explores whether and how investor communication can reduce information asymmetries between investors and new ventures in equity-based crowdfunding, thereby facilitating the crowd’s investment decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper follows an exploratory qualitative research approach based on semi-structured interviews with 23 market participants in equity-based crowdfunding: 12 investors, 6 new ventures and 5 third parties (mostly platform operators). After analyzing, coding and categorizing the data, this paper developed a theoretical framework and presented it in a set of six propositions.

Findings

The results indicate that the venture’s overall impression – especially perceived sympathy, openness and trustworthiness – is important to reduce perceived information asymmetries of investors in equity-based crowdfunding. To communicate these soft facts, personal communication seems to be replaced by pseudo-personal communication over the Internet (e.g. videos, investor relations channels and social media). In addition, the communications of third parties (e.g. other crowd investors, professional and experienced investors and other external stakeholders) influence the decision-making process of investors in equity-based crowdfunding. Third-party endorsements reduce the perceived information asymmetries and lower the importance of pseudo-personal communications by the venture.

Originality/value

Prior research shows that investor communication reduces information asymmetries between companies and investors. Currently, little is known about the role of investor communication in equity-based crowdfunding. This study focuses on the role of investor communication to reduce the perceived information asymmetries of investors in equity-based crowdfunding.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

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Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2016

Denis Frydrych, Adam J. Bock and Tony Kinder

This study examines how narratives and legitimacy formation affect crowdfunding capital assembly from distributed, heterogeneous investors.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines how narratives and legitimacy formation affect crowdfunding capital assembly from distributed, heterogeneous investors.

Methodology/approach

The study explores a dataset of 80,181 projects from Kickstarter, a rewards-based crowdfunding platform, between 2009 and 2013. We explore the link between project-related variables, legitimacy formation and outcomes.

Findings

Entrepreneurs design narratives and create project legitimacy by exploiting crowdfunding platform-specific features. First, lower funding targets and shorter campaign durations confer positive project legitimacy. Second, entrepreneurs exploit reward-levels as narrative tools that encourage funders to engage with the project. Third, visual pitches transmit a broader sociocultural narrative, leveraging emotional rather than financial reasoning. We also note certain gender effects.

Research implications

Crowdfunding platforms allow entrepreneurs to pitch business ideas to a broad online audience. We show that project legitimacy, including both structural and narrative elements, is linked to crowdfunding outcomes. In particular, legitimacy is co-created through the generation of a persuasive narrative linking the entrepreneur and investor cohort.

Practical implications

Entrepreneurs use crowdfunding platforms to generate a coherent narrative around unfamiliar business models. Generic platform tools may be set and manipulated in online crowdfunding pitches to support project legitimacy. Ultimately, these are less important than establishing an affinity-based narrative that engages and exploits investor participation. Successful crowdfunding pitches co-author the project story with investors.

Originality/value

Crowdfunding has been traditionally understood as simply an online-mediated venture resource assembly tool. A narrative framework highlights the critical role of legitimacy formation in a disintermediated investment system.

Details

International Perspectives on Crowdfunding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-315-0

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Benjamin Patrick Foster, Robert P. Garrett, Jr and Trimbak Shastri

This paper aims to examine whether the ability of early-stage ventures to obtain external funding and the amount of additional information provided to potential investors…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether the ability of early-stage ventures to obtain external funding and the amount of additional information provided to potential investors are affected by the level of assurance (audit, review or compilation) received from independent accountants on the ventures’ historical financial statements. The assurance level provided should differently impact potential investors’ willingness to invest in a new venture and need for additional information during due diligence evaluation of the organization and entrepreneur.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine the relative effects of the signal provided by these levels of assurance on investment decisions, a survey is administered to collect data regarding an investment-related decision scenario. The three levels of assurance in independent accountant’s reports (audit, review or compilation) is manipulated when eliciting participants’ responses.

Findings

Results indicate that respondents perceive the signal provided by compilation reports, review reports and audit reports as increasing in reliability and are more likely to invest in a venture providing reports with that increasing reliability. Audited financial statements are viewed as the most reliable and provide a positive signal to potential investors and lenders. Consequently, potential investors may require less additional information from entrepreneurs with audited financial statements when conducting due diligence investigations.

Research limitations/implications

Subjects used (Master of Business Administration students, with an average work experience of over six years, including some with investing experience) may not be the best proxies for early-stage investors.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the relative effectiveness of signals provided by the independent accountant’s audit, review and compilation reports in assisting early-stage business ventures and entrepreneurs raising funds, and dealing with due diligence requests for additional information. Results indicate that engaging an auditor for independent assurance on financial statements can benefit entrepreneurs by increasing the likelihood of obtaining necessary funds and decreasing the amount of additional information needed by potential investors.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 31 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

John T. Perry, Gaylen N. Chandler, Xin Yao and James Wolff

Among nascent entrepreneurial ventures, are some types of bootstrapping techniques more successful than others? We compare externally oriented and internally oriented…

Abstract

Among nascent entrepreneurial ventures, are some types of bootstrapping techniques more successful than others? We compare externally oriented and internally oriented techniques with respect to the likelihood of becoming an operational venture; and we compare cash-increasing and cost-decreasing techniques with respect to becoming operational. Using data from the first Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics, we find evidence suggesting that when bootstrapping a new venture, the percentage of cash-increasing and cost-decreasing externally oriented bootstrapping techniques that a ventureʼs owners use are positive predictors of subsequent positive cash flow (one and two years later). But, internally oriented techniques are not related to subsequent cash flow.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

James O. Fiet and Donald R. Fraser

This study explores the potential benefits and costs of bank entry into venture capital investing. Data are obtained from a survey of banking organizations regarding their…

Abstract

This study explores the potential benefits and costs of bank entry into venture capital investing. Data are obtained from a survey of banking organizations regarding their perceptions of the effects of such venture capital investing. Also, evidence on the portfolio diversification effects of such investments is provided using stock price data. These data are consistent with the existence of net benefits from bank entry into this industry. The implications for entrepreneurs are also discussed. Venture capital firms (professionally managed organizational investors) and business angels (private individual investors) invest in new and growing businesses. Their aim is to maximize their risk‐adjusted return on investment through the ex ante assessment of risk and the ex post monitoring of their client entrepreneurs. Because they invest in businesses that are inherently newer and smaller, often without substantial collateral, their deals are riskier than the loan packages that are funded by commercial banks. However, by investing in risk‐ reducing information and sharing it among coinvestors, these venture capitalists often generate returns that are the envy of many bankers. Many venture capitalists expect to earn more than 30% annually on their investments. At a time when banks have been experiencing earning problems, particularly those located in the West and Southwest, there are at least four possible benefits that could come to them and also to entrepreneurs from the entrance of banking organizations into venture capital financing. First, if banks were able to manage the increased risk, they might be successful in improving their earnings. The increased earnings would contribute to the elimination of the capital deficiency facing the banking industry. Second, if they funded entrepreneurs, the total supply of venture capital would increase and it could become much easier to locate seed money. Third, participation by banks would also contribute to the elimination of the widely reported capital gap that may exist for funding new ventures. Fourth, in the long run, if they provided venture capital, they might find that they were providing start‐up financing for future customers, customers that would not otherwise exist. This study contemplates a future role for commercial banks as a potentially huge source of funding for new ventures. It explores the possibility that under certain conditions commercial banks may be able to effectively manage the greater risk associated with venture capital investing. It concentrates on the potential effects of bank entry into venture financing on the risk of failure of the bank, a concern that underlies the existing prohibition for U.S. banks. The proposal to allow U.S. commercial banking organizations to enter the arena of venture capital investments may seem somewhat questionable in a period of massive numbers of bank failures. Yet there are reasons to believe that the potential effects of these activities may not be risk‐increasing as often argued and may, under certain circumstances, even be risk‐reducing. To understand this view, consider the reaction of commercial banks to the changes in their external environment that accompanied financial deregulation during the 1980's. The elimination of deposit rate ceilings that accompanied deregulation increased sharply the cost of bank funds. Banking organizations reacted to that increase in costs by reaching for higher‐risk loans. But, in the United States, these banks were unable through regulatory and market constraints to obtain complete compensation for the increased risk. If these banks had been able to take equity positions in venture capital investments, the upside potential from these commitments of funds to more risky undertakings could be realized, a potential that is impossible with the conventional loan contract. If commercial banks become major players in the market for venture capital, it seems likely that they will rely upon different strategies for controlling risk than those used by venture capital firms and business angels. Basic differences in their approaches to risk management could be a reflection of their costs of access to risk‐reducing information, their visibility in the community, and their tendencies to coinvest with similar types of investors. This study examines the possibility that the size of a bank will largely determine whether it views venture capital investing as a prudent means of doing business. This expectation is based on the assumption that the larger a bank, the more likely it will be to hold a portfolio of diversified venture capital investment. Thus, we would expect to find greater enthusiasm for venture capital investing among large banks than among small banks. If commercial banks were to be permitted to make venture capital investments in the United States, such a move could be so influential that no entity that depends upon this market for its survival would be unaffected. Business angels and venture capital firms could be overshadowed by the resources that banks would have at their disposal, while entrepreneurs and public policy makers would find it difficult to ever again suggest that there was insufficient capital available to fund deserving ventures. This study reviews the roles of venture capital firms and business angels and compares them to the role that could be played by banks. It also compares the perceptions of large bankers (assets >$1 billion) and small bankers (assets <$1 billion) regarding their institution's competence in managing different types of risk. This research will first examine how venture capital firms and business angels emphasize managing different types of risk. Hypotheses related to bank strategies for reducing venture capital risk will be proposed and tested. Finally, implications for entrepreneurs and public policy makers will be discussed.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2013

Artem Gudov

The aim of the paper is to analyze quantitatively and qualitatively requirements of Russian micro‐ and small‐firms in financial sources, along with opportunities and…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the paper is to analyze quantitatively and qualitatively requirements of Russian micro‐ and small‐firms in financial sources, along with opportunities and restrictions in the mobilization of investment at the different stages of a firm's life cycle.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper the determinants of the propensity to invest and the supply of funding are investigated by using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data set for Russia in the time period from 2006 to 2011.

Findings

The paper provides the analysis of Russian early entrepreneurs' and established business owners' decisions about the preferred structure of financial sources, comprising both statistical and logistic regression approaches for this investigation. The findings indicate that in Russia the structure of financial sources of start‐up entrepreneurs is predominated by “love capital” (mainly private and family savings), meanwhile, the percentage of business angels' financing is low in comparison with innovation‐driven countries. Moreover, there are merely extra‐economic factors, which influence informal investors' decision making on funding: personal relations with a borrower, an optimistic view on macroeconomic perspective and high status of an entrepreneur.

Practical implications

The findings in this paper suggest that this research can help the officials to formulate a program of SMEs' support at different stages of the financial chain in Russia.

Originality/value

In this paper the early and middle stages of a firm's life cycle are examined and some practical advice on a company's development and expansion are given.

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