Search results

1 – 10 of 448
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

Alex M. Andrew

Topics that have arisen in the CYBCOM list are discussed, including a link to a valuable online collection of papers having a bearing on cybernetics and an intriguing…

Abstract

Purpose

Topics that have arisen in the CYBCOM list are discussed, including a link to a valuable online collection of papers having a bearing on cybernetics and an intriguing paper examining the suggestion that the universe exists within a program or computer. Exception is taken to a suggestion that neural sense endings should not be seen as transducers, and an example of neural plasticity depending on use of stem cells from teeth is discussed. An important development in computing technology is reported, stemming from use of carbon nanotubes instead of silicon.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim is to review developments on the Internet, especially those of general cybernetic interest.

Findings

The CYBCOM list continues to be valuable, though with unfortunate disregard for “wet” neurophysiology.

Practical implications

The literature collection mentioned will save a great deal of online searching and trips to libraries. The use of stem cells to allow neural repair may prove to have clinical value. The reported development in computer technology is likely to have a very major impact.

Originality/value

It is hoped this is a valuable periodic review.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1973

A.B. KOGAN and O.G. CHORAJAN

By considering the nervous system as a type of communication system with reliable transmission of signals an attempt is made to use in neurophysiology the basic…

Abstract

By considering the nervous system as a type of communication system with reliable transmission of signals an attempt is made to use in neurophysiology the basic information theory theses developed by Shannon for technical communication systems. Some results of different information indices calculations (those of capacity, redundancy, degree of reliability and so on) of the pulses incorporated in their functional community (neuron ensembles) are presented. A comparison is made between peripheral and central neurons information indices. The leading role of spike trains redundancy is stressed in the mechanisms of securing a reliable signals transmission in the nervous system. The relation between redundancy and randomization process of neuron spike trains structures is shown.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2015

Pierre A. Balthazard and Robert W. Thatcher

Through a review of historically famous cases and a chronicle of neurotechnology development, this chapter discusses brain structure and brain function as two distinct yet…

Abstract

Through a review of historically famous cases and a chronicle of neurotechnology development, this chapter discusses brain structure and brain function as two distinct yet interrelated paths to understand the relative contributions of anatomical and physiological mechanisms to the human brain–behavior relationship. From an organizational neuroscience perspective, the chapter describes over a dozen neuroimaging technologies that are classified under four groupings: morphologic, invasive metabolic, noninvasive metabolic, and electromagnetic. We then discuss neuroimaging variables that may be useful in social science investigations, and we underscore electroencephalography as a particularly useful modality for the study of individuals and groups in organizational settings. The chapter concludes by considering emerging science and novel brain technologies for the organizational researcher as we look to the future.

Details

Organizational Neuroscience
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-430-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2021

Elena Proskurnina, Galina Portnova, Maria Ivanova and Svetlana Sokolova

An electroencephalography (EEG) examination may cause psychological stress in children with autism that can interfere with the examination results. The objective…

Abstract

Purpose

An electroencephalography (EEG) examination may cause psychological stress in children with autism that can interfere with the examination results. The objective information on the presence or absence of psycho-emotional stress in patients can help interpret electroencephalograms. This paper aimed to demonstrate the potential of noninvasive objective diagnostics of emotional stress in autistic children undergoing an EEG examination based on analysis of saliva.

Design/methodology/approach

This study involved 19 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (ICD-10 F84.0); the mean age was seven years. During EEG examination of the children, behavioral parameters were assessed. The activity of cytochrome P450 reductase (CYPOR) in saliva was measured before and after the EEG procedure using lucigenin-enhanced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-stimulated chemiluminescence assay.

Findings

Significant differences in CYPOR activity were found between the children who were distressed during an EEG examination and the children without behavioral disturbances (Mann–Whitney test, p = 0.002). Thus, the EEG examination resulted in an increase in CYPOR activity in saliva cells, which may prove the stressful effect of this procedure on autistic children.

Originality/value

The chemiluminescent indices reflecting the activity of microsomal CYPOR in cells presenting in saliva correlate with the absence or presence of psychological stress in children; this phenomenon can be explained by an increased metabolism of the stress hormone, cortisol, by the cytochrome P450 microsomal system. Furthermore, the proposed method is completely safe, noninvasive, rapid (recording time is 20 min), inexpensive and promising for an objective assessment of psycho-emotional stress in autistic children undergoing medical examinations.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Lance Nizami

In the last half-century, individual sensory neurons have been bestowed with characteristics of the whole human being, such as behavior and its oft-presumed precursor…

Abstract

Purpose

In the last half-century, individual sensory neurons have been bestowed with characteristics of the whole human being, such as behavior and its oft-presumed precursor, consciousness. This anthropomorphization is pervasive in the literature. It is also absurd, given what we know about neurons, and it needs to be abolished. This study aims to first understand how it happened, and hence why it persists.

Design/methodology/approach

The peer-reviewed sensory-neurophysiology literature extends to hundreds (perhaps thousands) of papers. Here, more than 90 mainstream papers were scrutinized.

Findings

Anthropomorphization arose because single neurons were cast as “observers” who “identify”, “categorize”, “recognize”, “distinguish” or “discriminate” the stimuli, using math-based algorithms that reduce (“decode”) the stimulus-evoked spike trains to the particular stimuli inferred to elicit them. Without “decoding”, there is supposedly no perception. However, “decoding” is both unnecessary and unconfirmed. The neuronal “observer” in fact consists of the laboratory staff and the greater society that supports them. In anthropomorphization, the neuron becomes the collective.

Research limitations/implications

Anthropomorphization underlies the widespread application to neurons Information Theory and Signal Detection Theory, making both approaches incorrect.

Practical implications

A great deal of time, money and effort has been wasted on anthropomorphic Reductionist approaches to understanding perception and consciousness. Those resources should be diverted into more-fruitful approaches.

Originality/value

A long-overdue scrutiny of sensory-neuroscience literature reveals that anthropomorphization, a form of Reductionism that involves the presumption of single-neuron consciousness, has run amok in neuroscience. Consciousness is more likely to be an emergent property of the brain.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 46 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Alex M. Andrew

In the current debate on appropriate representations of uncertainty, it is usual to assume a finite set of events to be discriminated. A similar bias is apparent in much…

Abstract

In the current debate on appropriate representations of uncertainty, it is usual to assume a finite set of events to be discriminated. A similar bias is apparent in much discussion in neurophysiology and cognitive psychology, and it entails de‐emphasis of the property of continuity (“in the large”), necessary for interpolation, extrapolation and ranking. The importance of continuity is acknowledged in recent discussions related to fuzzy set theory, which acknowledge linguistic variables. Argues that this is an important development and that much other discussion is of restricted applicability because it fails to recognize continuity.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Mrinalini Srivastava, Gagan Deep Sharma, Achal Kumar Srivastava and S. Senthil Kumaran

Neuroeconomics and neurofinance are emerging as intriguing fields of research, despite sharing ambiguity with the concepts of neuroscience. The relationship among the…

Abstract

Purpose

Neuroeconomics and neurofinance are emerging as intriguing fields of research, despite sharing ambiguity with the concepts of neuroscience. The relationship among the concepts of economics, finance and neuroscience is not explicitly defined in the past literature, which distorts the use of neuroeconomics and neurofinance approaches in real-world practice for financial decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to consolidate the literature in the field of neuroeconomics and neurofinance to set up the research agenda for the upcoming scholarship in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose of this paper is to consolidates the extant literature in the fields of neuroeconomics and neurofinance by conducting an extensive systematic literature review to investigate the current state and define the relationship between economics, finance and neuroscience.

Findings

This paper identifies and explains the explicit relationship between different sub-fields of neuroscience with neuroeconomics and neurofinance and providing instances for future research studies.

Originality/value

The exclusive and extensive literature survey in the form of systematic literature review is undertaken for understanding the fields of neuroeconomics and neurofinance and is the key highlight of this paper. Another, interesting fact lies with matching the literature in neuroeconomics and neurofinance with further sub-fields of neuroscience such as neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, molecular neuroscience and cognitive neuroscience.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

Thomas DeGloma

Purpose – In this chapter, I examine the ways that various trauma carriers, including social movements, self-identified survivors, professional organizations, and…

Abstract

Purpose – In this chapter, I examine the ways that various trauma carriers, including social movements, self-identified survivors, professional organizations, and advocates make public claims about trauma and the PTSD diagnosis as they work to define moral and political issues.

Methodology/approach – Employing the method of social pattern analysis, I analyze a variety of narrative data pertaining to issues such as child sexual abuse, war, slavery, and genocide.

Findings – Trauma carriers engage in significant social memory work and collective identity work, define social problems, and practice social activism as they address the causes and consequences of psychological suffering. Within the context of modern diagnostic psychiatry, the PTSD diagnosis stands out as a unique narrative of social illness. The PTSD diagnosis is a powerful cultural script that various individuals and interest groups use to interpret mental health symptoms while attributing psychological consequences to social causes as opposed to problems rooted in the individual's psyche (as with psychoanalysis) or neurophysiology (as with modern diagnostic psychiatry). By implication, the social world must be “cured” for the individual to be healthy.

Originality/value of paper – I detail the unique sociocognitive implications of the PTSD diagnosis, highlighting its impact on our collective understanding of particular traumatic experiences and the shared nature of posttraumatic affect. I show the relevance of social memory studies, the more broadly conceived sociology of culture and cognition – especially as it pertains to collective identity and classification norms, the sociology of health-focused social movements, and the analysis of social problems claims-making to an emerging sociology of diagnosis.

Details

Sociology of Diagnosis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-575-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2011

Ilpo Helén

Depressive disorder has been defined by increasingly specific neurophysiological mechanisms and features during the past two decades. At the same time, depression has…

Abstract

Depressive disorder has been defined by increasingly specific neurophysiological mechanisms and features during the past two decades. At the same time, depression has grown into an epidemic proportion and become a major public health problem. Consequently, the scope of depressive experience and conduct has also widened and the meaning of depression has multiplied and become equivocal. This chapter analyses how this tension is handled in current Western mental health care. The focus of the study is the role of neuroscientific views in mental health reasoning and practice. The empirical case is the mental health discussion in Finland from the late 1980s to the present day. The analysis of the historical change in understandings of depression in Finnish psychiatry and mental health care provides a view of the relevance of neuroscientific models in defining depressive illness and outlining diagnostic and treatment practices. Moreover, the analysis brings forth the relationship of neuroscientific concepts to other ways of defining depression – epidemiology, diagnostic classification, psychodynamic and other psychological theories – within clinical reasoning. A conclusion to be drawn from the analysis of the Finnish case is that neurobiological concepts of depression have only limited influence on the ways in which the disorder is conceived within the practical context of mental health care. It seems that the idea of depression as a multi-factorial disorder remains a good enough conceptual framework for clinical practice. Even the influence of neurosciences on treatment is still somewhat marginal. Within current practices of depression management, it is not the brain that is treated but risks, symptoms, and persons.

Details

Sociological Reflections on the Neurosciences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-881-6

1 – 10 of 448