Search results

1 – 10 of over 121000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Zhiyun Zou, Peng Liu, Saisai Zhou, Yao Xiao, Xuecai Xu and Jianzhi Gao

The purpose of this paper is to explore the evolving mechanism of urban roadway network. With the consideration of self-organization effect and planning effect during…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the evolving mechanism of urban roadway network. With the consideration of self-organization effect and planning effect during evolution, the authors try to demonstrate the impact of preferential attachment, module scale and module structure on the evolving network model.

Design/methodology/approach

The roadway network is built in the form of abstract network by dual approach. By using the evolving model of modular growth, the authors analyze the effects and mechanism of the evolving process. Then through numerical analysis, the impact of evolving effects on urban roadway network topology structure is discussed from the aspects of preferential attachment, module scale and module structure.

Findings

The module structure property, small-world property and scale-free property of roadway network can be affected with various degrees by the change of preferential attachment and module scale. However, the impact of module structure on network properties is small, which can be ignored. Therefore, in practice, the self-organization effect and planning effect of evolving network can be reached by changing the preferential attachment and module scale, so as to generate the network structure with specific properties.

Research limitations/implications

Some local events, such as road extensions, road demolition and intersection rebuilding, exist during the evolving process under real-world situation. While those cases have not been considered in preferential attachment. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to take these factors into consideration in further research.

Practical implications

The paper has implications for practice in urban transportation planning and roadway constructions, which can help to guide the planning of urban roadway and to adjust or restore partial network when broken down according to the evolving law.

Originality/value

The impact of preferential attachment, module scale and module structure on the evolving network model is measured. And the relationship between different network properties can be used to build some patterns of network. From this point of view, the development of urban roadway network can be predicted and intervened.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2011

Morten H. Abrahamsen

The study here examines how business actors adapt to changes in networks by analyzing their perceptions or their network pictures. The study is exploratory or iterative in…

Abstract

The study here examines how business actors adapt to changes in networks by analyzing their perceptions or their network pictures. The study is exploratory or iterative in the sense that revisions occur to the research question, method, theory, and context as an integral part of the research process.

Changes within networks receive less research attention, although considerable research exists on explaining business network structures in different research traditions. This study analyzes changes in networks in terms of the industrial network approach. This approach sees networks as connected relationships between actors, where interdependent companies interact based on their sensemaking of their relevant network environment. The study develops a concept of network change as well as an operationalization for comparing perceptions of change, where the study introduces a template model of dottograms to systematically analyze differences in perceptions. The study then applies the model to analyze findings from a case study of Norwegian/Japanese seafood distribution, and the chapter provides a rich description of a complex system facing considerable pressure to change. In-depth personal interviews and cognitive mapping techniques are the main research tools applied, in addition to tracer studies and personal observation.

The dottogram method represents a valuable contribution to case study research as it enables systematic within-case and across-case analyses. A further theoretical contribution of the study is the suggestion that network change is about actors seeking to change their network position to gain access to resources. Thereby, the study also implies a close relationship between the concepts network position and the network change that has not been discussed within the network approach in great detail.

Another major contribution of the study is the analysis of the role that network pictures play in actors' efforts to change their network position. The study develops seven propositions in an attempt to describe the role of network pictures in network change. So far, the relevant literature discusses network pictures mainly as a theoretical concept. Finally, the chapter concludes with important implications for management practice.

Details

Interfirm Networks: Theory, Strategy, and Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-024-7

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Julie M. Hite

Dyadic multi-dimensionality informs the variation that exists within and between network ties and suggests that ties are not all the same and not all equally strategic…

Abstract

Dyadic multi-dimensionality informs the variation that exists within and between network ties and suggests that ties are not all the same and not all equally strategic. This chapter presents a model of dyadic evolution grounded in dyadic multi-dimensionality and framed within actor-level, dyadic-level, endogenous, and exogenous contexts. These contexts generate both strategic catalysts that motivate network action and bounded agency that may constrain such network action. Assuming the need to navigate within bounded agency, the model highlights three strategic processes that demonstrate how dyadic multi-dimensionality underlies the evolution of strategic network ties.

Details

Network Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1442-3

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Philippe Accard and Christophe Assens

For current works, agents create social network by drawing on the knowledge of their immediate environment, and they use network for cooperating with one another and for…

Downloads
275

Abstract

Purpose

For current works, agents create social network by drawing on the knowledge of their immediate environment, and they use network for cooperating with one another and for promoting their own economic and social interests. The purpose of this paper is to aid in re-enchanting network study, and present network as spontaneous social construction.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on Hayek's spontaneous order. For Hayek, agents have access to a wide knowledge about social system, and use this knowledge to spontaneously coordinate with each other in the pursuit of their self-interests.

Findings

The authors develop the idea by presenting and performing an analogy of Hayek's spontaneous order to emergent structures. The result of this analogy is a conception of network dynamics wherein the spontaneous social construction of network structures is achieved by agents who have knowledge of the interaction rules that guide structures production, and who, by drawing on this knowledge, are able to influence the emergence of network structures. Agents thus spontaneously contribute to the emergence of a network, to its growth, and its decline.

Originality/value

This new conception of network focusses on the processes of the social construction of network structures. It provides a better account of network change and development than current works, and because it stresses the spontaneous, fragile and ephemeral character of network, it can prove useful for the re-enchantment of network studies.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2003

Gordon Walker

This commentary addresses the problem of interfirm network formation from the perspective of multiple types of relationship content and of network structure. The approach…

Abstract

This commentary addresses the problem of interfirm network formation from the perspective of multiple types of relationship content and of network structure. The approach builds on Burt’s (1980) typology of network structures and on a range of empirical studies on interorganizational networks. The chapter by Moldoveneau, Baum and Rowley on network evolution from an information-sharing perspective captures part of this research domain. The challenges posed by network evolution research are discussed in the broader light of multilevel analysis.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-039-5

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 12 August 2017

Jeffrey W. Lucas, Carmi Schooler, Marek Posard and Hsiang-Yuan Ho

To investigate two explanations for how variations in social network structure might produce differences in cognitive and perceptual orientation. One explanation is that…

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate two explanations for how variations in social network structure might produce differences in cognitive and perceptual orientation. One explanation is that the extent to which structures lead people to feel strong social bonds encourages holism. The other is that the extent to which a network leads individuals to be concerned about distal network relations leads to holistic thinking.

Methodology

An experimental study in which participants interacted in three-person networks of negotiated (with or without a one-exchange rule), generalized, or productive exchange before being administered the framed-line test, a common measure of cognitive and perceptual orientation.

Findings

Participants in network structures more likely to lead participants to be concerned about what was happening in relationships in the network of which they were not part performed relatively more holistically on the framed-line test. However, these effects did not extend to both modules of the test, and a check on the ordering of networks as reflecting concern with distal network relationships failed.

Research limitations and implications

The experimental design was structured such that only one of the presented explanations could possibly be supported, whereas they both could be correct. Nevertheless, results do indicate that cognitive orientation did respond to variations in network structure.

Value

Explanations for cultural differences typically implicate social structure, although the explanations often cannot be directly tested. Results show that social structure can produce effects that mirror differences thought to reflect profound cultural variations.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-192-8

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2017

Nikita Basov and Julia Brennecke

The social and cultural duality perspective suggests dual ordering of interpersonal ties and cultural similarities. Studies to date primarily focus on cultural…

Abstract

The social and cultural duality perspective suggests dual ordering of interpersonal ties and cultural similarities. Studies to date primarily focus on cultural similarities in interpersonal dyads driven by principles such as homophily and contagion. We aim to extend these principles for sociocultural networks and investigate potentially competing micro-principles that generate these networks, taking into account not only direct dyadic overlap between interpersonal ties and cultural structures, but also the indirect interplay between the social and the cultural.

The empirical analysis utilizes social and semantic network data gathered through ethnographic studies of five creative organizations around Europe. We apply exponential random graph models (ERGMs) for multiplex networks to model the simultaneous operation of several generative principles of sociocultural structuring yielding multiplex dyads and triads that combine interpersonal ties with meaning sharing links.

The results suggest that in addition to the direct overlap of shared meanings and interpersonal ties, sociocultural structure formation is also affected by extra-dyadic links. Namely, expressive interpersonal ties with common third persons condition meaning sharing between individuals, while meaning sharing with common alters leads to interpersonal collaborations. Beyond dyads, the dual ordering of the social and the cultural thus operates as asymmetrical with regard to different types of interpersonal ties.

The paper shows that in addition to direct dyadic overlap, network ties with third parties play an important role for the co-constitution of the social and the cultural. Moreover, we highlight that the concept of network multiplexity can be extended beyond social networks to investigate competing micro-principles guiding the interplay of social and cultural structures.

Details

Structure, Content and Meaning of Organizational Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-433-0

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Harri Ryynänen, Kaisa Henttonen and Risto Tapio Salminen

– This paper aims to explore collective cognitive structures in business networks by analyzing the coherency of network pictures in a service development network.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore collective cognitive structures in business networks by analyzing the coherency of network pictures in a service development network.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the network pictures construct as a tool to analyze collective cognitive structures in a service development network. The studied case and unit of analysis is a focal network developing a consumer mobile TV service.

Findings

Based on the empirical evidence, the authors found that individuals’ cognitive structures vary extensively in the studied focal network. In addition, collective cognitive structures in intra- and inter-organizational settings differ, and thus should be distinguished.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings are based on a single case study. This study is one of the first attempts to apply network pictures as a research device in industrial marketing. The concept of network conception is put forward, distinguishing intra- and inter-organizational levels of collective cognition.

Practical implications

The employed conceptual tool is proposed for application also when forming a business network, where it is important to make all actors’ (i.e. persons and companies) perspectives on the emerging focal business network visible.

Originality/value

To study the focal network-level collective cognitive structures further, the authors propose the concept of network conception to represent the phenomenon. The present study contributes to the research on collective cognitive structures in industrial marketing by extending understanding on individual- and organizational-level cognitions to a focal network-level collective cognition.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 June 2018

Larissa Statsenko, Alex Gorod and Vernon Ireland

This paper aims to propose an empirically grounded governance framework based on complex adaptive systems (CAS) principles to facilitate formation of well-connected…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose an empirically grounded governance framework based on complex adaptive systems (CAS) principles to facilitate formation of well-connected regional supply chains that foster economic development, adaptability and resilience of mining regions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is an exploratory case study of the South Australian (SA) mining industry that includes 38 semi-structured interviews with the key stakeholders and structural analysis of the regional supply network (RSN).

Findings

Findings demonstrate the applicability of the CAS framework as a structured approach to the governance of the mining industry regional supply chains. In particular, the findings exemplify the relationship between RSN governance, its structure and interconnectivity and their combined impact on the adaptability and resilience of mining regions.

Research limitations/implications

The data set analysed in the current study is static. Longitudinal data would permit a deeper insight into the evolution of the RSN structure and connectivity. The validity of the proposed framework could be further strengthened by being applied to other industrial domains and geographical contexts.

Practical/implications

The proposed framework offers a novel insight for regional policy-makers striving to create an environment that facilitates the formation of well-integrated regional supply chains in mining regions through more focussed policy and strategies.

Originality/value

The proposed framework is one of the first attempts to offer a holistic structured approach to governance of the regional supply chains based on CAS principles. With the current transformative changes in the global mining industry, policy-makers and supply chain practitioners have an urgent need to embrace CAS and network paradigms to remain competitive in the twenty-first century.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 February 2016

Tingting Lin and Riitta Hekkala

The governance of information technology outsourcing (ITO) has been identified as an essential determinant for ITO success. Prior studies have shed light on effective…

Abstract

Purpose

The governance of information technology outsourcing (ITO) has been identified as an essential determinant for ITO success. Prior studies have shed light on effective governance structures in different organizational contexts. This study aims to advance this prior knowledge by exploring how interpersonal networks, as an important aspect of such context, reflect and influence ITO governance.

Design/methodology/approach

A single case study was conducted from a vendor’s perspective in an ITO dyad. Social network analysis was leveraged to reveal the interpersonal networks, with whole-network analysis on 24 team members in an ITO vendor company. In addition, open-ended interviews with six selected team members were utilized to identify the perceived governance structure.

Findings

The findings of this study suggest certain features of interpersonal networks, i.e. network density and cross-network comparison, can reflect governance structure in multiple aspects. Meanwhile, the authors also argue that interpersonal networks can influence the form of governance structure.

Research limitations/implications

As a single case study, the context of the research site cannot be ignored in the inference of findings. To increase the confidence for further generalization, future empirical studies are needed especially in contrasting sites, such as ITO relations based on network governance.

Originality/value

This study associates intra-organizational characteristics of the vendor to the inter-organizational governance structure of the ITO relationship. It also provides an innovative methodology for both researchers and practitioners to assess ITO governance structure.

Details

Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8297

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 121000