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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

Sunny Baker

Don't give computer operating systems short shrift when pondering the best software to run your business.

Abstract

Don't give computer operating systems short shrift when pondering the best software to run your business.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Robert Dahlstrom and Arne Nygaard

A substantial body of research employs agency theory and transaction costs analysis to explain ownership decisions in distribution channels. Agency theory identifies…

1429

Abstract

A substantial body of research employs agency theory and transaction costs analysis to explain ownership decisions in distribution channels. Agency theory identifies factors that prompt firms to favor behavior‐based contracting over outcome‐based agreements. Transaction cost economics is a complementary framework which maintains that the organizational form in a location should be the one that economizes on production and transaction costs. Prior research illustrates that independent variables (e.g. proximity to highways, dedicated assets) outlined in these theories provide a partial explanation for ownership decisions. Nevertheless, scant research has analyzed whether factors outlined in agency theory and transaction cost analysis are employed by executives when making ownership decisions. The purpose of this study is to investigate managerial rationales underlying plural contractual networks.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 33 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

As libraries make increasing use of computer resources, a local network that interconnects personal computers and other machines within the library is becoming a necessity.

Abstract

As libraries make increasing use of computer resources, a local network that interconnects personal computers and other machines within the library is becoming a necessity.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

William J. Caelli

Distributed computing systems impose new requirements on the security ofthe operating systems and hardware structures of the computersparticipating in a distributed data…

2222

Abstract

Distributed computing systems impose new requirements on the security of the operating systems and hardware structures of the computers participating in a distributed data network environment. It is proposed that multiple level (greater than two) security hardware, with associated full support for that hardware at the operating system level, is required to meet the needs of this emerging environment. The normal two layer (supervisor/user) structure may probably be insufficient to enforce and protect security functions consistently and reliably in a distributed environment. Such two‐layer designs are seen as part of earlier single computer/processor system structures while a minimum three/four‐layer security architecture appears necessary to meet the needs of the distributed computing environment. Such multi‐level hardware security architecture requirements are derived from earlier work in the area, particularly the Multics project of the mid‐1960s, as well as the design criteria for the DEC VAX 11/780 and Intel iAPX‐286 processor and its successors, as two later examples of machine structures. The security functions of individual nodes participating in a distributed computing environment, and their associated evaluation level, appear critical to the development of overall security architectures for the protection of distributed computing systems.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

John P. Kotter

This internationally recognized innovation expert asserts that today's organizations need a powerful new operating system to address the challenges posed by mounting…

2453

Abstract

Purpose

This internationally recognized innovation expert asserts that today's organizations need a powerful new operating system to address the challenges posed by mounting complexity and rapid change.

Design/methodology/approach

As a consultant to companies seeking to re-invigorate the innovation process, the author can describe how they have implemented the dual operating system – a network and a hierarchy – that he advocates.

Findings

When organizations are dangerously slow to adapt to competitive threats and to pursue promising innovations, the solution to, which has been adopted successfully by many organizations, is to add a second operating system that is organized as a network that can create agility and speed.

Practical implications

The author explains how all successful organizations operate with a dual system more or less during the most dynamic growth period in their life cycle, so a dual operating system will be somewhat familiar to veteran leaders.

Originality/value

The organization's top management plays a crucial role in starting and maintaining the network and managing its communications with the hierarchy. For senior practitioners, the author describes the five basic principles of a well-functioning dual operating system.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 April 2004

Constance E. Bagley and Gavin Clarkson

This paper focuses on two related questions at the intersection of antitrust and intellectual property law. First, under what circumstances must the holder of a patent or…

Abstract

This paper focuses on two related questions at the intersection of antitrust and intellectual property law. First, under what circumstances must the holder of a patent or a copyright or the owner of a trade secret allow others to use that intellectual property? Second, under what circumstances can the holder of an intellectual property right use that right to make it difficult for another party to succeed in a related market? These questions have vexed antitrust and intellectual property scholars alike ever since the Federal Circuit ruled in 2000 that patent holders “may enforce the statutory right to exclude others from making, using, or selling the claimed invention free from liability under the antitrust laws,” a ruling that directly contradicted the Ninth Circuit ruling that antitrust liability could be imposed for almost identical conduct, depending on the motivations of the patent holder. The various proceedings in United States v. Microsoft only added fuel to the firestorm of controversy.After briefly retracing the jurisprudential path to see how this situation arose, we propose a solution that primarily involves a variation on the real property concept of adverse possession for the intellectual property space along with a slight extension of the Essential Facilities Doctrine for industries that exhibit network effects. We examine, both for firms with and without market power, how our proposal would resolve the situations presented by large fixed asset purchases, the introduction of entirely new products, and operating systems with network effects. We also demonstrate how our proposal could be applied in the European antitrust enforcement context.

Details

Intellectual Property and Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-265-8

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Mikko Kärkkäinen, Timo Ala‐Risku and Kary Främling

Tracking of shipments is an important element of customer service in the transportation industry; and essential for logistics services as merge‐in‐transit. However…

3018

Abstract

Tracking of shipments is an important element of customer service in the transportation industry; and essential for logistics services as merge‐in‐transit. However, contemporary tracking systems are designed for use within a single company, and are thus invariably inadequate for multi‐company environments. The single company focus has led to a reduced span of monitoring and a diluted accessibility of information due to proprietary tracking codes and information architectures centred on the tracking service provider. This paper presents a novel forwarder‐independent approach for solving the difficulties of tracking in multi‐company supply networks. The research argues that the proposed tracking approach is superior to contemporary approaches for material flow tracking in short‐term multi‐company distribution networks.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 November 2022

Zhang Qian, Cui Wei, Tang Chao and Luo Yan

With the rapid development of the digital economy, an increasing number of digitalized two-sided platforms have deployed the tying strategy to leverage their market power…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid development of the digital economy, an increasing number of digitalized two-sided platforms have deployed the tying strategy to leverage their market power from the core two-sided product to other two-sided products in the competitive market, which transforms the competition among single platforms into that among platform ecological networks. To clarify the mechanism of the formation of the digital platform ecological networks, this paper aims to analyze the expansion and stability of platform ecology by exploring the impacts of network externalities and sellers’ heterogeneity on the tying strategy of two-sided platforms.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops a game model of two-sided platforms based on Choi and Jeon (2021), which highlights the decisive influence of non-negative price constraints (NPC) on platforms’ tying motivation. Taking the operating systems market as an example, we expand from the perspective of platform service differences to relax the NPC and explore the internal logic of platform ecosystem expansion.

Findings

Platforms have an incentive to charge lower prices or even subsidize buyers when the network externalities on the sellers’ side are relatively strong. When the product is highly differentiated and heterogenous, platforms are motivated to tie to capture more buyers with a lower price and grab excess profits from sellers. Eventually, tying is able to consolidate the two-sided platform ecological networks by excluding competitors, capturing user value and deterring entry.

Originality/value

In order to describe the characteristics of platform ecological network more generally, this paper extends the research based on the analyses of Choi and Jeon (2021) by (1) allowing horizontal differences between tied products and (2) relaxing the NPC. Unlike Choi and Jeon (2021), this paper allows platforms to charge users of two-sided platforms at negative prices (or to subsidize them). (3) Setting simultaneous pricing in two-sided platforms. Classical two-sided market theory stresses that the presence of cross-network externalities can give rise to a “chicken and egg” problem.

Details

Journal of Electronic Business & Digital Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2754-4214

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 August 2014

Susan Albers Mohrman, Christina E. Vernon and Arienne McCracken

This chapter argues that organizations are not sustainable if they operate in unsustainable societal and ecological contexts, and that operating in a way that contributes…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter argues that organizations are not sustainable if they operate in unsustainable societal and ecological contexts, and that operating in a way that contributes to the health of the larger system requires organizations to develop new capabilities. It demonstrates the role that rich internal and external networks play in developing sustainability capability particularly in providing pathways to generate, import, apply, and disseminate knowledge about how to operate more sustainably.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study of the sustainability transition of Cleveland Clinic is based on four years of interviews and archival data collection examining the system’s transformational change that began in 2007. The case focuses on the building of sustainability capability, including an internal infrastructure to focus the organization on this outcome, and building of rich networks for learning and action. The case is framed with capability and network theory.

Findings

Guided and catalyzed by a small central group called the Office for a Healthy Environment, Cleveland Clinic has achieved measurable progress in key strategic focuses including waste diversion, energy efficiency, and increasing integration of local foods into its supply chain. To do so, it has developed strong internal networks to disseminate knowledge and accelerate innovation and adoption of sustainable practices. Strong, dynamic external networks have enabled Cleveland Clinic to import knowledge about sustainable practice from its environment, and have enabled it to help build the sustainability capability of its vendors, the community upon which it depends, and the health-care industry.

Originality/value

Starting with the perspective that the sustainability of an organization depends on the sustainability of the ecosystems in which it exists, this chapter focuses not on the design of specific sustainability initiatives, but on the dynamic networks that underpin the capability to simultaneously improve the health of the organization and of the larger ecosystem. This perspective provides insight into new organizing principles.

Details

Building Networks and Partnerships
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-886-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Nijaz Bajgoric

The paper aims at defining a systemic framework for the implementation of business continuity management (BCM). The framework is based on the assertion that the…

3535

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims at defining a systemic framework for the implementation of business continuity management (BCM). The framework is based on the assertion that the implementation of BCM should be done through the systemic implementation of an “always-on” enterprise information system.

Design/methodology/approach

Systems approach is used in order to design a systemic framework for the implementation of continuous computing technologies within the concept of an always-on enterprise information system.

Findings

A conceptual framework has been proposed to develop a framework for a systemic implementation of several continuous computing technologies that enhance business continuity (BC) in the form of an “always-on” enterprise information system.

Originality/value

The paper identifies BC as a business pressure in internet era and suggests a systemic framework for implementation.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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