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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Sandra Braman

This article aims to present an analysis of ideas and practices regarding governance of and by the network design process by participants in the technical design process

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to present an analysis of ideas and practices regarding governance of and by the network design process by participants in the technical design process during the first decade (1969-1979) as recorded in the technical document series that provides both the medium for and the history of that design process, the Internet RFCs.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was conducted via a comprehensive inductive and adductive reading of all of the publicly available documents in the series from its launch in October of 1969 through the close of 1979.

Findings

The findings show that internet designers were well aware that the infrastructure they were building was social as well as technical in nature. They were concerned about both governmental constraints on the design process (governance of) and about how protocol compliance could be achieved (governance by the network design process). As do informational states, network designers developed governance tools that affected the identity, structure, borders, and change in social, informational, and technological systems. The dual faces of network governance reveal tensions between the network political and the geopolitical.

Originality/value

This work contributes to our understanding of the interactions between the social and the technical in the course of the internet design process as it was expressed in concerns about governance by others and of others brought up in the course of resolving technical design problems. Methodologically, the research provides a model of one approach to analyzing the development of governance mechanisms and specific policies along sociotechnical boundaries.

Details

info, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Marzia Mortati and Leon Cruickshank

The purpose of this paper is to address social network theory from the perspective of design research and propose a new conceptual approach to understanding and developing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address social network theory from the perspective of design research and propose a new conceptual approach to understanding and developing social networks. These ideas are embodied in a new strategic tool to help companies appreciate, proactively develop and exploit their social networks through visualisation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors illustrate how design‐inspired approaches can transform the understanding of social networks through a practical tool to foster innovation and transformation in and between firms. This was developed through an action‐research process and tested with 22 high‐tech, small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs).

Findings

Entrepreneurs are found to benefit from their network by activating the most useful nodes to solve a problem. Conceptually a sub‐group of contacts exists that are activated at different times to extract different resources, that is nodes operate depending on the use they are put to. The authors call these NETS, highly functional portions of networks that catch things. By visualising parts of a network while looking at a number of dimensions, the authors have successfully demonstrated a tool that helps the exploration of a wide variety of relationships to build a strategy for innovation.

Practical implications

The NETS concept represents a tool for facilitating innovation by helping entrepreneurs understand and exploit their social network. It fills the gap between theoretical findings in social network literature and successful application of such ideas.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the highly debated field of social networks by introducing new activities for engagement and analysis crossing the academic/outreach divide; it opens up a new interface between social networks and design research.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Yuanyuan Jiao, Yepeng Wu and Linna Hao

This study aims to investigate the antecedents of design crowdsourcing decision-making, the impact of design crowdsourcing on new product performance and the moderating…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the antecedents of design crowdsourcing decision-making, the impact of design crowdsourcing on new product performance and the moderating effect of network connectivity.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample (n = 104) was collected from a leading social product development website; the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis and two-stage least square methods were used in the investigation.

Findings

Three design attribute feature configurations (rational, emotional and kinesthetic value configurations) are conducive to firms’ adoption of design crowdsourcing and there are two configurations in which firms do not adopt design crowdsourcing. Design crowdsourcing influences new product performance positively. Network connectivity has an inverted U-shaped effect on the relationship between design crowdsourcing and new product performance.

Originality/value

These findings not only enrich crowdsourcing and social network studies but also guide crowdsourcing firms to better manage their processes and community members.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

Kalyan R. Piratla and Samuel T. Ariaratnam

The purpose of this paper is to investigate design alternatives for pump‐included water distribution networks considering sustainability and reliability aspects. The aim…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate design alternatives for pump‐included water distribution networks considering sustainability and reliability aspects. The aim is to demonstrate that CO2 emissions could be reduced at a reasonable cost. The paper also investigates the trade‐offs between cost and reliability of water distribution networks.

Design/methodology/approach

An existing genetic algorithm optimization tool is customized in this research to perform multi‐objective optimization with various objectives and constraints. The developed model is demonstrated using a benchmark water distribution network.

Findings

The results from this research suggest that CO2 emissions from water distribution networks could be reduced at a reasonable cost by choosing better objectives during the design stage. High system reliability could also be ensured for the lifetime by paying reasonable additional cost. This research presents various design alternatives for an engineer to choose from.

Research limitations/implications

The design of water distribution networks is a computationally complex process and often requires significant CPU time to arrive at an optimal solution. This problem is significant in the case of larger networks, especially when all the failed states need to be simulated. Simpler measures of reliability could be adopted in the future.

Originality/value

Although a significant amount of research had been undertaken in the area of optimal water distribution network design, only limited research includes environmental impacts as a design objective. This paper not only includes environmental aspects but also considers reliability. The model proposed in this research is a useful tool for engineers for considering various alternatives before choosing the best design.

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Zhangyuan He

Freight network planning and the application of distribution innovations are popular fields of research on sustainable urban logistics. However, considerable research on…

1535

Abstract

Purpose

Freight network planning and the application of distribution innovations are popular fields of research on sustainable urban logistics. However, considerable research on freight network design lacks a comprehensive consideration of the application of distribution innovations. This observation implies that sustainable urban freight research appears highly fragmented in topics of network design and distribution innovations. From the perspective of long-term planning, this situation possibly serves as a barrier to further promotion of sustainability. The objective of this paper is to analyze existing research gaps of literature to further promote the sustainability of urban logistics systems from a future perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs a systematic literature review (SLR) method, which covers 164 papers and research works published in 2013–2018. The article corpus involved the innovative schemes of freight network design and the emerging delivery concepts in cities. Based on an analysis of articles' relevance, the most significant research contributions on both city logistics network design and exploitation of distribution innovations are detected.

Findings

This paper has found four research gaps in aspects of network design and distribution innovations. To respond to these gaps, we propose the research framework of sustainable and flexible future urban freight planning (SFFUFP) based on trends of city development, while discussing further research direction on urban freight planning.

Originality/value

The authors have found four research gaps in aspects of both urban freight network design and distribution innovations in which scholars could be encouraged to contribute. The research framework of SFFUFP can further promote sustainable urban logistics from a view of future management.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

C.M. Chewar, D. Scott McCrickard and John M. Carroll

This work aims to probe how interface designers concerned with human‐computer interaction of community networks might use the theoretical constructs of social capital and…

3624

Abstract

Purpose

This work aims to probe how interface designers concerned with human‐computer interaction of community networks might use the theoretical constructs of social capital and activity awareness.

Design/methodology/approach

A design model for community network interfaces is introduced that reconciles various computer‐mediated communication research contributions with support for typical community network scenarios of use. Using this model, an inspection is performed on existing community network implementations (available December 2002) and then the adequacy of the model for informing the design process is examined.

Findings

Based on the insight gained through this analysis, a generic prototype and new user evaluation method are introduced that allow survey of user reaction to community network design elements under differing conditions. It is shown how results obtained through this method frame a value‐chain understanding of conceptual tradeoffs.

Research limitations/implications

To demonstrate the new user evaluation method in an analysis of critical design tradeoffs, the issues of persistent virtual identity implementation and usage motivation are probed. However, the evaluation method must be validated with other issues and tested by researchers that were not part of its creation process.

Practical implications

Contributions from this paper include tools (a design model, a generic prototype, and an evaluation method) linking theory with community design artifacts, building on previous work. Evaluators now have indicators for assessing community informatics.

Originality/value

Interface designers of community networks and those interested in social capital theory will appreciate the link between practice and theory provided by this approach.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1995

E.H. Mathews and P.A.J. Köhler

The design of optimum pipe and duct networks with available proceduresis difficult, if not impossible. A more efficient procedure that willautomatically produce the…

Abstract

The design of optimum pipe and duct networks with available procedures is difficult, if not impossible. A more efficient procedure that will automatically produce the optimum design is required. Such a procedure is presented in this article. The design is formulated as a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. This problem is solved using a unique numerical optimization algorithm. The solution entails the calculation of the cross sectional dimensions of the ducts and pipes so that the life cycle cost of the network is minimized. The topology equations are derived using graph theory thereby allowing complex networks with loops to be designed numerically. A duct network consisting of a fan and 35 duct sections is designed according to certain specifications. Using the proposed procedure optimum designs were obtained within seconds on a 33 MHz 486 micro‐computer. The procedure was further applied to the optimization of a coal pipeline. It is shown that the optimized solution will cost 14% ($8 million) less than the previous design with conventional design techniques.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 5 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Sanna Pekkola and Juhani Ukko

The purpose of this paper is to examine how a performance measurement system (PMS) can be designed for a collaborative network and to identify which factors affect such a design.

2529

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how a performance measurement system (PMS) can be designed for a collaborative network and to identify which factors affect such a design.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a single-case study of a collaborative network. The data have been collected from semi-structured interviews conducted during 2008-2009 and after the design process in 2010 and 2012, respectively.

Findings

The research results present a five-step process model for designing a PMS for a collaborative network. The findings show that a participatory development style that enhances socialisation, the positive development of a network culture and an outside facilitator all have beneficial effects on the design process.

Practical implications

The practical contribution of this study is related to knowledge about the PMS design process for a collaborative network to support its measurement-related development projects. This knowledge involves the phases of such a process as well as the various factors supporting or hindering it.

Originality/value

The study presents a PMS design process for the case network, which can be utilised in other collaborative networks in a similar context. It also highlights the most essential practical experiences related to this process.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 36 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2012

Belarmino Adenso‐Diaz, Carlos Mena, Santiago García‐Carbajal and Merrill Liechty

As globalisation makes supply networks more complex, the risk of material disruptions increases. Many factors have been considered as affecting the reliability of supply…

3341

Abstract

Purpose

As globalisation makes supply networks more complex, the risk of material disruptions increases. Many factors have been considered as affecting the reliability of supply networks. However, no empirical research has been carried out to assess and evaluate the impact of each of these factors on the reliability of supply networks. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

A gap in the literature was identified around the evaluation of the impact of supply network design characteristics on reliability. This gap is addressed by performing a full factorial experimental design considering all the factors described in the literature, and then analysing (by using analysis of variance and linear regression models), thousands of theoretical and extreme structures of supply networks, thus allowing the analysis of the influence of each factor on the overall network resilience.

Findings

Results show that network density, node criticality and complexity are significant factors in reducing the reliability of supply networks. In particular, node complexity (i.e. the total number of nodes in the network) was found to have the strongest negative effect on network reliability, while the strongest positive factor was sources criticality (i.e. the level of redundancy of suppliers).

Practical implications

The identification of these factors and their relative impacts on network reliability can serve as a guide for the design of more reliable networks, and to know which are the most important to consider when designed distribution networks.

Originality/value

The paper identifies, from the literature, key factors affecting supply network reliability and evaluates their relative impact. Given the number of factors identified, an extensive Monte Carlo simulation is used for the first time, by considering simple and very complex networks, to allow the testing of the role of each factor in supply network reliability.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Jan Olhager, Sebastian Pashaei and Henrik Sternberg

The purpose of this paper is to systematically and critically review the extant literature on the design of global production and distribution networks to identify gaps in…

3954

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to systematically and critically review the extant literature on the design of global production and distribution networks to identify gaps in the literature and identify future research opportunities. The design aspects deal with strategic and structural decisions such as: opening or closing of manufacturing plants or distribution centres, selection of locations for manufacturing or warehousing, and making substantial capacity changes in manufacturing or distribution.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine the peer-reviewed literature on global production and distribution networks written in English. The search strategy is based on selected keywords and databases. The authors identify 109 articles from 1974 to 2012.

Findings

The authors categorize the literature according to research methodology: case studies, conceptual modelling, surveys, and mathematical modelling. The amount of literature up to 2,000 is rather sparse, while there is a positive trend from 2,000 and onwards. The content analysis shows that different research methodologies focus on different but complementary aspects. The authors propose a research agenda for further research on design of global production and distribution networks.

Research limitations/implications

The authors identify research opportunities related to complementary actor perspectives, extended supply chains that explicitly include transportation and suppliers, contingency factors, and new perspectives such as facility roles within production and distribution networks.

Originality/value

This paper is to the author’s knowledge the first broad review that investigates the design aspects of the interrelationships between production and distribution facilities as well as transportation in global production and distribution networks across multiple research methodologies.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 155000