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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Abdalla F. Hayajenh, Ahmed S. Maghrabi and Taher H. Al‐Dabbagh

Examines the relationship between nepotism and various organizationalcharacteristics (size, ownership, and geographic region) in certainorganizations in two countries  

Abstract

Examines the relationship between nepotism and various organizational characteristics (size, ownership, and geographic region) in certain organizations in two countries – Jordan and Egypt. Results indicated that HRMs in large organizations, the public sector and urban regions reported higher levels of nepotism than their rural counterparts in smaller, medium‐sized organizations, in the private sector.

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Sarah Hudson and Cyrlene Claasen

The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the cultural values which underpin the practice and acceptance of nepotism and cronyism in societies and organizations…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the cultural values which underpin the practice and acceptance of nepotism and cronyism in societies and organizations worldwide. We argue that there are advantages inherent in harnessing the resources of the social networks involved in nepotism and cronyism, but there are also major problems arising from the inequality and unfairness of these practices. A theoretical consideration of cultural values combined with illustrative cases is used to discuss nepotism and cronyism in different cultures. We suggest that nepotism and cronyism exist in all cultures but perception and discussion of these phenomena as well as the perceived gravity of their effects can vary according to the cultural values of egalitarianism and universalism, together with the economic development of the societies in which they occur.

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The Handbook of Business and Corruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-445-7

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Qaisar Iqbal and Noor Hazlina Ahmad

Many scholars of business ethics have emphasised for new research theories and methods that make a substantial contribution to improving business ethical practices and…

Abstract

Purpose

Many scholars of business ethics have emphasised for new research theories and methods that make a substantial contribution to improving business ethical practices and standards globally. This study aims to explore the impact of workplace spirituality and its four dimensions-meaningful at work, transcendence, mindfulness and compassion over the nepotism-favouritism in ASEAN Region. This study also contributes to literature by investigating role of gender over the association of workplace spirituality, and its dimensions with nepotism-favouritism.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires from employees of the service sector working in Singapore, Malaysia and Myanmar. SPSS and SmartPLS software were used for data analysis.

Findings

The findings of this study suggest that there is significant negative impact of workplace spirituality on the nepotism-favouritism. Four dimensions-meaningful at work, transcendence, mindfulness and compassion has significantly negative influence on nepotism/favouritism. With change of gender, impact of workplace spirituality and its three dimensions-meaningful at work, compassion and transcendence exhibit varying influence on the nepotism-favouritism, which indicates presence of moderating effect. This study concludes with no moderating impact of gender over the association of mindfulness and nepotism-favouritism.

Originality/value

This study presents empirical evidence from ASEAN region, which is useful for practitioners to abolish corruption in the context of nepotism-favouritism.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Hohjin Im and Chuansheng Chen

This study sought to examine the relation of cultural practices and values with favoritism and nepotism/cronyism. Additionally, this study's purpose was also to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

This study sought to examine the relation of cultural practices and values with favoritism and nepotism/cronyism. Additionally, this study's purpose was also to examine how trust mediates the relation between culture and favoritism.

Design/methodology/approach

Correlations were used for exploratory investigation into the bivariate relations between culture and favoritism and nepotism/cronyism across 97 cultures. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were then conducted to examine the cultural correlates of favoritism and nepotism/cronyism holding all other variables constant. Lastly, partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating role of societal levels of trust.

Findings

Bivariate correlations showed that collectivism, familism, uncertainty avoidance, and power distance are positive correlates of both favoritism and nepotism/cronyism. Institutional collectivism, future orientation and trust, on the other hand, were negative correlates of favoritism and nepotism/cronyism. Uncertainty avoidance and trust were key correlates of favoritism while familism and future orientation were key correlates of nepotism/cronyism. Trust fully mediated the relation between culture and favoritism but did not mediate the relation between culture and nepotism/cronyism.

Originality/value

This study adds to the current body of literature on culture and favoritism. Notably, the findings regarding different key cultural correlates with respect to favoritism and nepotism/cronyism provide valuable implications for expanding our understanding of the psychological and social nuances of favoritism. Specifically, favoritism in transactions and interactions with those not bound by social commitment relationships may be explained by beliefs while interactions with those with social relationships (e.g., family and friends) may be explained by preferences.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2020

Hasan Evrim arici, Huseyin Arasli and Nagihan Cakmakoglu Arici

This multilevel study investigates the effect of employees' perception of nepotism on tolerance to workplace incivility through the mediating role of psychological…

Abstract

Purpose

This multilevel study investigates the effect of employees' perception of nepotism on tolerance to workplace incivility through the mediating role of psychological contract violation and the moderating role of authentic leadership in organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Using time-lagged data from 547 frontline employees working in four- and five-star hotels, this study's hypotheses were analyzed by conducting hierarchical regression analysis and hierarchical linear modelling.

Findings

The findings indicate that non-family members' perception of nepotism triggered perceived tolerance to the uncivil behavior of family members by the management and that this relationship between nepotism perception and tolerance to workplace incivility was mediated by psychological contract violation. In line with expectations, authentic leadership moderated the effect of nepotism perception on tolerance to workplace incivility.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to examine the effects of nepotism perception on tolerance to workplace incivility by focusing on the mediator role of psychological contract violation at the individual level and the moderator role of authentic leadership at the group level.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Hagen F. Abdalla, Ahmed S. Maghrabi and Bel G. Raggad

This empirical study identifies, examines, and compares the perceptions of HRMs in selected organizations in one developed country (the USA) and one less‐developed country…

Abstract

This empirical study identifies, examines, and compares the perceptions of HRMs in selected organizations in one developed country (the USA) and one less‐developed country (Jordan) toward arguments supporting nepotism. It also identifies, examines, and compares the perceptions of these HRMs toward arguments against nepotism in these two countries. The results of this study indicate that few HRMs in each country have agreed with arguments supporting nepotism. In contrast, many of these HRMs have agreed with arguments against nepotism. While there are differences between the perceptions of US and Jordanian HRMs toward arguments for and against nepotism, these differences are not significant.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 19 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

David Sarpong and Mairi Maclean

The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the multi-ethnic marketplace as the site of the emergence of service nepotism: the practice where employees bestow relational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the multi-ethnic marketplace as the site of the emergence of service nepotism: the practice where employees bestow relational benefits and/or gifts on customers on the basis that they share a perceived common socio-collective identity. The authors draw on the contemporary turn to practice in social theory to explore why ethnic employees may engage in service nepotism even when they are aware that it contravenes organizational policy.

Design/methodology/approach

Given the paucity of empirical research which investigates the multi-ethnic marketplace as a locus for the emergence of service nepotism, the authors adopted an exploratory qualitative research approach to advance insight into service nepotism. The study benefits from its empirical focus on West African migrants in the UK who represent a distinct minority group living in urban areas of the developed world. Data for the study were collected over a six-month period, utilizing semi-structured interviews as the primary method of data collection.

Findings

The research highlights the occurrence and complexities of service nepotism in the multi-ethnic marketplace, and identifies four distinct activities (marginal revolution, reciprocal altruism, pandering for recognition, and horizontal comradeship), that motivate ethnic employees to engage in service nepotism, despite their awareness that this conflicts with organizational policy.

Research limitations/implications

By virtue of the chosen theoretical lens, the authors were unable to demonstrate how service nepotism could be observed outside spoken language. Also, care should be taken in generalizing the findings from this study given the particularities of the sub-group involved. For example, since the study is based on a small sample of first generation migrants, the findings may not hold true for their offspring, whose socialization and marketplace experiences may be qualitatively different from those of their parents.

Practical implications

Service nepotism challenges fundamental western egalitarian ideals in the multi-ethnic marketplace. Organizations may wish to develop strategies to placate observers’ concerns of creeping favouritism in a supposedly equitable marketplace. The research could also serve as a starting point for managers objectively to assess the likely impact of service nepotism on the organizing value systems and competitiveness. In particular, the authors suggest that international marketing managers would do well to look beneath the surface to see what is really going on in international marketplaces, since ostensible experiences of marketplace consumption may not always reflect underlying reality.

Originality/value

By using service nepotism as an analytical category to explore the marketplace experiences of ethnic service employees living and working in industrialized societies, the research shows that the practice of service nepotism, whilst taken for granted, can have far-reaching impact on individuals, observers, and service organizations in an increasingly highly differentiated multi-ethnic society.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

Isaac Nana Akuffo and Kurmet Kivipõld

The purpose of this study is to explore how an authentic leader’s internal (self-regulation, self-awareness and internalised moral perspective) and external competencies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore how an authentic leader’s internal (self-regulation, self-awareness and internalised moral perspective) and external competencies (relational transparency and balance processing) influence nepotism, favouritism and cronyism (NFC).

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a quantitative research approach and respondents were sampled from private and public banks across the ten regions of Ghana using survey questionnaires. Overall, 127 branch managers and 997 subordinates were sampled. The collected data were analysed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression was used to explore the influence the of authentic leadership (AL) competences on NFC.

Findings

On leader’s internal competences, the results revealed that self-awareness had a significant decreasing influence on nepotism in terms of operations, while internalised moral perspective had a significant increasing influence on favouritism in the context of position. Self-regulation did not have any significant influence on NFC. Regarding the leader’s external competences, relational transparency had a significant positive influence on favouritism and nepotism, while balance processing had a significant negative influence on favouritism and nepotism in the context of position and operations, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that AL competences have a mixed influence on NFC in the context of this study. However, the findings are limited to Ghana and cannot be generalised to countries that do not share a similar culture with Ghana such as countries in Europe, North and South America, Asia and even certain countries in Africa.

Practical implications

The authors advise family businesses to use free and fair measures to appoint or promote employees who have the required skills to manage the office rather than appointing family members to positions without merit. Training on AL and NFC should be conducted for managers to enable them to understand the potential negative effects of NFC on the employees and the organisation at large.

Social implications

Laws must be passed to guard against appointments or recruitments of employees in the public sector organisations based on NFC to minimise these unethical behaviours.

Originality/value

This is the first study which empirically explores AL competences influence on the leaders’ behaviour in the context of NFC.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Huseyin Arasli, Ali Bavik and Erdogan H. Ekiz

The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential effects of nepotism on human resource management (HRM) practices through the use of Turkish Cypriot hotel…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential effects of nepotism on human resource management (HRM) practices through the use of Turkish Cypriot hotel employees in three, four, and five star accommodation establishments in Northern Cyprus.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires were distributed to full time hotel employees in three, four, and five star hotels in Northern Cyprus. Of the 500 distributed, 257 usable questionnaires were retrieved. A judgmental sampling approach was used.

Findings

The principal finding is that nepotism has a significant negative effect on HRM, job satisfaction, quitting intention, and negative word of mouth. The study also shows that HRM exerts a significant positive effect on job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

This study reveals that nepotism is an unprofessional phenomenon that provides benefits merely to the family members or close friends. Therefore, nepotism paralyzes human resource practices and affects the level of satisfaction among employees. Although the job opportunities are limited in the hotel industry in north Cyprus, employees may think of quitting their jobs or using negative word of mouth if their job satisfaction level is not enhanced. Customers perceive and evaluate the quality by considering the attitude, behavior and tone of the voice of employees. Therefore, priority of satisfaction has to be given to the employees in order to satisfy the customers. There are several limitations to the current study. In future studies, other variables such as role stress, organizational commitment, and different facets of job satisfaction may be used in order to examine the probable relationships. Secondly, future research with larger sample size elsewhere would be productive to provide a support for the generalization of the present findings. Thirdly, this study employed judgmental sampling approach. Future studies may use probability‐sampling approach in order to support the current study findings.

Originality/value

This study is necessary and useful for three reasons. Firstly, it investigates the possible impacts of nepotism on multiple organizational dimensions, which is a relatively virgin area. Secondly, the effects of nepotism have been mostly examined at the macro level resulting in a paucity of empirical research especially at the organizational level. Thirdly, the study provides some propositions and managerial implications to owners, managers, and employees in North Cyprus where the tourism and hospitality industry constitutes an essential part of the economy.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 26 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1994

Linda C. Wong and Brian H. Kleiner

Nepotism in management is an extremely sensitive and touchy issue inAmerican business. It has implications not only for managementdevelopment, promotion, and control, and…

Abstract

Nepotism in management is an extremely sensitive and touchy issue in American business. It has implications not only for management development, promotion, and control, and not only for the image and public relations of business, but also for executives who have, or would like to have, relatives in management positions. Nepotism has been criticized mostly as being unprofessional. Its opponents have claimed that the rise of an intellectual, analytical approach to management spells the decline and ultimate extinction of nepotism. However, nepotism is alive and on the march in American business and will continue to remain deeply ingrained in all industries simply because it pays to be related to the boss.

Details

Work Study, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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