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1 – 10 of over 4000
Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

Sam Alfoqahaa and Eleri Jones

Building on the contributions of chaos and complexity theories, this paper aims to conceptualize how the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King and Nelson

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Abstract

Purpose

Building on the contributions of chaos and complexity theories, this paper aims to conceptualize how the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King and Nelson Mandela were able to transform chaos (randomness) into order (integration). More specifically, it aims to identify the qualities by which such leadership worked in the context of conflict and cultural confrontations, which is, leading at the edge of chaos.

Design/methodology/approach

This research follows a qualitative approach in data collection and analysis; it narrates and analyses biographic data as well as literature about these three prominent leaders. Common qualities of these leaders are explored in-depth, discussed and linked.

Findings

Success in leading at the edge of chaos was attributed to the following leadership qualities: vision, non-violence and tolerance. This paper conceptualizes Gandhi, King and Mandela's embodiment of these qualities in transforming difference and disagreement to unity and how they inspired and developed their societies at home and all over the world. This paper concludes with the following results: Dr King, Gandhi and Mandela were visionary leaders; the three leaders had a vision about the future of freedom, equality and peace. More importantly, they were able to hearts and minds, and convey their visions to followers and to society at large. They struggled to achieve their goals non-violently, but knew that violence could destroy society due to unbalanced power structures. In the fight for their people's emancipation/freedom, they avoided ethnic, racial and religious discrimination. The three leaders were politically, culturally and socially tolerant.

Research limitations/implications

By identifying their leadership qualities and analyzing their leadership mechanisms, this paper stresses the necessity of the emergence and preservation of leadership as exhibited by King, Gandhi, Mandela and many other influential leaders. Leaders, committed to enrichment and sustainability of cultural diversity and nurturing of tolerance, can play a role in unifying nations. Practically put, today’s leaders need to rethink their strategies, by taking into consideration what Gandhi, King and Mandela have contributed to leadership in dealing with cultural diversity and conflict. Furthermore, leaders must extend the applicability of such leadership to include the ending of violence in every facet of people's lives, and work publicly to overcome the challenges encountering human kind such as nuclear weapons, war, poverty, racism, global warming, drugs, religious bigotry and violence of any kind. That is, today's leaders need to lead at the edge of chaos due to the ongoing conflicts around the globe.

Originality/value

This paper uniquely conceptualizes leadership qualities by analyzing and comparing literature and biographical data of the above-mentioned leaders. The study also contributes to the existing literature on leadership using an interdisciplinary approach by proving the mechanisms by which leadership transforms chaos into order within the context of cultural diversity and confrontation, where studies are rare. This research contributes to the theory of leaderships at three levels. First, it offers an interdisciplinary theory on leadership qualities by linking these qualities with chaos and complexity theories. Second, unlike the majority of literature which views leadership from a business or public leadership perspective, this research provides a new perspective of leadership for cultural diversity. Third, it highlights the role models of three exemplary leaders for each of whom previous literature is lacking.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Anita Howard and Duncan Coombe

The purpose of this paper is to develop an insight, through an examination of the American Civil Rights Movement and the Anti‐Apartheid Movement in South Africa, into how…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an insight, through an examination of the American Civil Rights Movement and the Anti‐Apartheid Movement in South Africa, into how desired change occurs at a national or cultural level of social organization.

Design/methodology/approach

The words and actions of two key figures in these national change movements are analyzed through the use of intentional change theory, and its constituent elements of discontinuous change, reference groups, the ideal self and emotional attractors.

Findings

The findings lead to the suggestion that great leaders, at times of national change, articulate a shared ideal or national vision and are primarily grounded in the positive emotional attractor. Furthermore, they appeal to their followers' cognition and affect.

Research limitations/implications

While these two figures are prominent historical figures in their respective change movements, it is naïve to suggest that they were solely responsible for the change. Future research could look at the many other figures and factors that played a role in these tremendously complex and sensitive change processes.

Practical implications

This paper has important implications for people involved in change efforts at the national and cultural level. It provides evidence from two exemplary cases that could be applied to other such situations.

Originality/value

This paper develops an insight into how desired change occurs at a national or cultural level of social organization. In a world riddled with tension, violence and poverty, this insight is potentially of great value.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Daniel Carpenter

The purpose of this paper is to explore shared workspace and professional learning community (PLC) interactions in schools. The collaborative culture and PLCs were parts…

1186

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore shared workspace and professional learning community (PLC) interactions in schools. The collaborative culture and PLCs were parts of the school culture. The collaborative culture of each school was designed to ensure teachers share intellectual and physical contributions in learning to investigate the impact of teaching and learning on students. The workspace overlap for teachers was part of the culture of each school and a function of the PLC interactions. PLCs provided opportunities for collaboration and therefore opportunities to share intellectual and physical workspace.

Design/methodology/approach

A grounded theory research approach was taken to this investigation, primarily because of the common experiences of educators in schools (Creswell, 2013). Collaborative process between educators in schools was qualitatively investigated as a function of PLC interactions. In all, three communities, five schools, and 70 educators were purposefully selected to participate. Data were collected, including semi-structured interviews, observations, artifacts, and researcher field notes.

Findings

The workspace interactions include shared leadership, decision making, teaching and learning practice, and accountability measures. Attributes and characteristics of effective collaboration and PLCs greatly affect the outcomes of PLCs. An emergent framework is provided that includes attributes of effective collaboration and the characteristics of effective PLCs that merge into intellectual and physical shared workspace.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the connections between PLCs, school culture, and professional educator collaboration. This paper proposes to provide a unique model called the shared workspace. The model combines the intellectual and physical aspects of group members to ensure the effectiveness of collaborative systems that promote quality practice in schools through functional PLCs as part of a positive school culture. This paper further offers extensions to the shared leadership concept (Carpenter, 2015) in how schools, administrators, and teachers should work together, thus more collaboratively through a continuous improvement process of the school as a workplace and a learning organization.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 March 2017

Barbara de Lima Voss, David Bernard Carter and Bruno Meirelles Salotti

We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of…

Abstract

We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of politics in the construction of hegemonies in SEA research in Brazil. In particular, we examine the role of hegemony in relation to the co-option of SEA literature and sustainability in the Brazilian context by the logic of development for economic growth in emerging economies. The methodological approach adopts a post-structural perspective that reflects Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theory. The study employs a hermeneutical, rhetorical approach to understand and classify 352 Brazilian research articles on SEA. We employ Brown and Fraser’s (2006) categorizations of SEA literature to help in our analysis: the business case, the stakeholder–accountability approach, and the critical case. We argue that the business case is prominent in Brazilian studies. Second-stage analysis suggests that the major themes under discussion include measurement, consulting, and descriptive approach. We argue that these themes illustrate the degree of influence of the hegemonic politics relevant to emerging economics, as these themes predominantly concern economic growth and a capitalist context. This paper discusses trends and practices in the Brazilian literature on SEA and argues that the focus means that SEA avoids critical debates of the role of capitalist logics in an emerging economy concerning sustainability. We urge the Brazilian academy to understand the implications of its reifying agenda and engage, counter-hegemonically, in a social and political agenda beyond the hegemonic support of a particular set of capitalist interests.

Details

Advances in Environmental Accounting & Management: Social and Environmental Accounting in Brazil
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-376-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Anne Tallontire and Valerie Nelson

The recent departure of Fair Trade USA (FTUSA) from Fairtrade International is the most seismic event in the fair trade movement in the past decade. This paper aims to…

1553

Abstract

Purpose

The recent departure of Fair Trade USA (FTUSA) from Fairtrade International is the most seismic event in the fair trade movement in the past decade. This paper aims to analyse recent dynamics between and within multiple fair trade strands and the attendant changes in vision and approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use and develop a framework focusing on the relationship between business and development to analyse the dominant narratives and practices of each different strand of fair trade. To unpack the various fair trade narratives, they have conducted a narrative analysis of policy documents and online debates in the wake of the split in the fair trade movement and they draw on recent impact studies.

Findings

The politicising narrative in fair trade stresses governance and voice based on clear structures of representation within the standards body, and recognizes the value of development inputs that do not focus solely on technical and quality development, but lead to organisational advocacy and representational capacity of producer organisations and the regional networks. In contrast “pragmatism” focuses more on economic empowerment and using the market to drive change, an approach that is gaining greater traction with the split of FTUSA from FLO, the most prominent body within Fairtrade International.

Practical implications

The analysis raises implications with regards to how impact analysis captures both the pragmatic and politicising narratives.

Originality/value

The paper's originality/value lies in its novel use of narrative analysis and its early analysis of the shifting dynamics within fair trade precipitated by the departure of FTUSA.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Sarah Lyon

This article examines how smallholders in Oaxaca, Mexico, experienced and responded to the recent coffee rust disaster, asking whether fair trade coffee producer…

Abstract

This article examines how smallholders in Oaxaca, Mexico, experienced and responded to the recent coffee rust disaster, asking whether fair trade coffee producer organizations helped smallholders develop coping mechanisms to offset their vulnerability. It demonstrates how Oaxacan coffee producers were especially vulnerable during the recent rust outbreak due to long-term trends including a decline in governmental support for the sector dating back to the 1990s which resulted in a decline in producer incomes and a concomitant rise in the number of aging and poorly managed coffee plots that were more susceptible to coffee rust. The ongoing price volatility within coffee commodity markets and the continued restructuring of the specialty coffee market also increases the uncertainty producers face when determining how to best respond to the rust disaster. The article details the concrete ways in which fair trade coffee producer organizations help bolster the adaptive capacity of their members, while also noting areas for improvement.

Details

Individual and Social Adaptations to Human Vulnerability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-175-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

James S. Denford

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize existing knowledge‐based dynamic capabilities research into a single typology for managerial and academic use.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize existing knowledge‐based dynamic capabilities research into a single typology for managerial and academic use.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the resource‐based and knowledge‐based views, this study conducts a theoretically grounded typology development exercise based on an extensive review of the existing dynamic capabilities literature.

Findings

The paper identifies seven frameworks presented in the literature that showed some consistency in underlying concepts but conflict in nomenclature and application. Identifying over 80 uses of knowledge‐based dynamic capabilities in the literature review, three complementary dimensions that are common amongst the frameworks are identified and integrated into a consistent typology of eight knowledge‐based dynamic capabilities to encompass the extant literature.

Originality/value

Addressing fragmentation in the knowledge‐based dynamic capabilities discourse, the paper advances the concept of knowledge‐based dynamic capabilities by organizing the existing literature and frameworks into a comprehensive and consistent typology. Moreover, this integrative typology allows managers and researchers to identify those capabilities in use and the commonalities between them. Finally, the paper identifies a new knowledge‐based dynamic capability that has not yet been identified in any existing framework.

Abstract

Details

Reference Reviews, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Michael Bradbury, Y T Mak and S M Tan

This paper examines the relation between governance (as measured by board and audit committee characteristics) and accounting quality (as measured by abnormal accruals) in…

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Abstract

This paper examines the relation between governance (as measured by board and audit committee characteristics) and accounting quality (as measured by abnormal accruals) in a setting where there is no a priori reason to suspect systematic management of earnings. Using data from Singapore and Malaysia, we find both board size and audit committee independence are related to lower abnormal working capital accruals. Furthermore, the relation between audit committee independence and higher quality accounting exists only when the abnormal accruals are income increasing. This suggests that audit committees are effective in the financial reporting process by reducing the level of income increasing abnormal accruals. The results also indicate that audit committees are effective only when all members are independent directors.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Carla Goar, Jane Sell, Bianca Manago, Calixto Melero and Bobbi Reidinger

This chapter considers whether and how race/ethnicity can be examined using experimental methods.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter considers whether and how race/ethnicity can be examined using experimental methods.

Design/methodology/approach

We begin by discussing the highly contextual nature of race/ethnicity and reviewing the properties of experiments. After examining existing experimental literature that focuses on race/ethnicity, we turn to our current study that uses the incompatible complexity condition to examine the multilevel interactions of diverse racial/ethnic groups composed of Mexican American and White participants in Texas and Black and White participants in Ohio.

Findings

We argue that experiments, when guided by formal theoretical approaches that allow for general inquiries of theoretical principles, are especially suitable for studying interactional characteristics such as race/ethnicity.

Originality/value

We suggest a particular approach that emphasizes interactional aspects of race/ethnicity and how these aspects can be utilized to diminish inequality in group processes.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-976-8

Keywords

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