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Retail technologies vary in their success in countries other than where they were developed to some degree based on the nature of the environment that they encounter…
Retail technologies vary in their success in countries other than where they were developed to some degree based on the nature of the environment that they encounter. Elements that contribute to the success of a retailing form in one country's culture may be absent in the culture of another country making the international transfer of retailing technology less successful. This study examines the entry of warehouse clubs into the Asian environment in terms of how well this retail technology, primarily developed in the West, meets the needs of Chinese customers.
This paper represents a discussion of transfer pricing (TP). Key factors are identified and propositions developed from tax accounting and other perspectives. Stages of…
This paper represents a discussion of transfer pricing (TP). Key factors are identified and propositions developed from tax accounting and other perspectives. Stages of the TP decision process are identified along with the critical factors directly affecting sales and a TP audit. Propositions are derived which show relationships among these variables and tax rates, competition, and TP methodologies. Finally, academic research implications are suggested.
Reports on two studies conducted in Hong Kong, one in 1989, the other in 1994, to see if children’s socialization as consumers has changed in the intervening years…
Reports on two studies conducted in Hong Kong, one in 1989, the other in 1994, to see if children’s socialization as consumers has changed in the intervening years. Formulates hypotheses, based on the earlier research, that children will receive spending money by the time they are four, that the amount will increase as they get older, children will spend money by the age of four, they will also save money, older children will visit more shops than younger children, and children will go shopping without parents by the age of four. Outlines the research methodology used – 318 questionnaires used for analysis, composition of the sample of respondents, demographics – and records how analysis of variance was used to make comparisons with data from the earlier study. Considers income, spending and saving attitudes in children, as well as how they spend and what they buy. Finds that, in 1994 (compared to 1989) children aged 6, 9, 10, 11 and 12 receive more money; 4, 7 and 10 year olds spend a higher percent of their income, saving has decreased for 4, 7 and 10 year olds, children’s real income has doubled since 1989, independent shopping trips seem to have been postponed until the child is 6 but co‐shopping with parents has increased for all ages; most shopping trips without parents focused on food stores and street vendors that were easily accessible from home, but purchasing behaviour has not changed significantly. Indicates that Hong Kong children are pursuing a western (US) model of spending income, rather than the Chinese model of saving, and that children are undergoing consumer socialization and consumer education – as evidenced by the single fact that in 1994 $161.8 million was spent in Hong Kong by children aged 4‐12.
This research explores the existence of consideration sets as a marketing universal by evaluating consideration set sizes for a shopping good in a cross‐cultural context…
This research explores the existence of consideration sets as a marketing universal by evaluating consideration set sizes for a shopping good in a cross‐cultural context. Previous studies of marketing universals investigated consumers’ use of product quality signals for shopping goods. This study used two operational definitions of a consideration set and found that both the average number of brands considered and the number of brands tried on were statistically equal for two matched samples in different cultures, supporting the status of consideration sets as a marketing universal.
This is the first paper in a volume devoted exclusively to antitrust law and economics. It summarizes the other papers and addresses two issues. First, after showing that the federal courts generally view consumer welfare as the ultimate goal of antitrust law, it asks what they mean by that term. It concludes that recent decisions appear more likely to equate consumer welfare with the well-being of consumers in the relevant market than with economic efficiency. Second, it asks whether a buyer must possess monopsony power to induce a price discrimination that is not cost justified. It concludes that a buyer can often obtain an unjustified concession simply by wielding bargaining power, but the resulting concession may frequently – though not always – improve consumer welfare.
Computer assisted instruction (CAI) is a powerful technology that librarians have been quick to discover. However, surprisingly little quality software exists for library…
Computer assisted instruction (CAI) is a powerful technology that librarians have been quick to discover. However, surprisingly little quality software exists for library applications. Librarians are faced by the necessity of designing their own software to support specific objectives. The design and production of CAI software involves numerous steps, which are discussed in this article.
The purpose of this study is to integrate and synthesize the Islamic marketing literature, understand the phenomenon and related concepts and provide suggestions for…
The purpose of this study is to integrate and synthesize the Islamic marketing literature, understand the phenomenon and related concepts and provide suggestions for future research.
The study uses an integrative review method that emphasizes summarizing and synthesizing the previous literature related to a phenomenon.
The findings indicate the emergence of five major themes, namely, Islamic marketing and its perspectives, activities in Islamic marketing, opportunities, controversies and challenges in Islamic marketing, Islamic principles and determinants of consumers’ behavior and awareness toward Islamic products. Each of the major themes consists of sub-themes discussed in detail in the results and discussion sections.
Like other studies, this integrative literature review has some limitations. These include the methodology undertaken, the lack of explanation of inter-relationship among themes and lack of Islamic theory-based review. These limitations lead to future research directions.
Marketing managers need a thorough understanding of the Islamic standards and need to develop strategies. Further, there are inter-differences among Muslims, which need to be thoroughly understood by managers. Moreover, marketers can effectively use advertising in creating awareness and increasing demand of halal products.
This study provides an integrative review of the literature and synthesizes the Islamic marketing literature, which has not been done before.
Successive governments have called for greater “empowerment” of the patient, reflected in the chief medical officer's call for more patient‐related outcome measures…
Successive governments have called for greater “empowerment” of the patient, reflected in the chief medical officer's call for more patient‐related outcome measures (PROM). This paper aims to bring together three‐linked studies.
First study: in 1999, the neurosurgical patient was seen as “expert” to identify PROM outcomes, based upon a patient and carer‐designed self‐administered postal questionnaire in a regional two‐year retrospective survey of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients with a 77 per cent response rate, designated treatment‐as‐usual (TAU) cohort (n=142).Second study: in the same region, following the implementing of the specialist neuro‐vascular nurse (SNVN), the SNVN recommendation was evaluated in a two‐year prospective study (n=184) that provided family‐specific psychosocial support and a continuity of care linking hospital and community; the response rate was 87 per cent. Third study: A re‐analysis of the national SAH study (n=2,380), by projecting the TAU and SNVN results onto clinically matched patients within the National cohort to estimate the potential “savings” if all 34 neurosurgical units had an SNVN type service.
First study: respondents identified many psychosocial and fiscal problems but recommended a SNVN to reduce these difficulties. Second study: the TAU and SNVN patient's were a close clinical match and using the TAU as a control group, it was found that there were major psychosocial and fiscal benefits for SNVN patients and carers, who more speedily re‐established their lives.Third study: it was estimated that this would have produced major financial benefits, e.g. 4,165 fewer bed occupancy days, saving £2.5million; reduced time‐off work for patients and carers, saving £8.1million; and, after deducting cost of a national SNVN service, a combined saving for the service and families of an estimated £9.83 million p.a. Thus, addressing PROM outcomes, through an integrated psychosocial service in neurosurgery was cost‐effective, benefited families, the service, and the wider economy and should be a factor when considering pressurised departmental budgets.
Overall, what the two regional studies and the re‐analysis of the national study showed was that there are benefits from treating the “patient as expert” and taking on board their agendas. There is a need for a more integrated approach to treatment and care that is of value to the service, patients, families and the wider economy.