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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2010

Paul O'Hare

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of European Union Objective 1 funding on the development and formalisation of a neighbourhood‐based group situated in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of European Union Objective 1 funding on the development and formalisation of a neighbourhood‐based group situated in a regeneration area in the UK. The role, function and impact of a Community Empowerment Network (CEN) (funded by the Labour Government as part of its Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy) is also examined and assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings of the paper are informed by a critique of the policy literature and the ways in which “leadership” roles and responsibilities are played out within neighbourhood settings. The empirical research derives from an analysis of the role and practice of CENs in England.

Findings

The paper argues that the external initiatives restrict the autonomy and independence of community based groups. Furthermore, the paper makes the point that such externally driven programmes are often located within neighbourhoods with little reference to identifying the needs or priorities of residents.

Research limitations/implications

There are important lessons here for policy makers and practitioners in public policy to reflect upon. The paper seeks to draw connections between the literature on community development and planning/regeneration management. These links are important to sustain and to open the discussion to a broader audience of researchers and practice managers.

Practical implications

The paper raises questions concerning how local residents/groups can be facilitated into articulating their needs and exercising agency in terms of changing the decision‐making/resource allocation processes.

Originality/value

The paper adds to understanding the practice of empowerment networks.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 30 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

David Varady, Reinout Kleinhans and Maarten van Ham

The aim of this paper is to assess the current potential of community entrepreneurship in neighbourhood revitalisation in the US and the UK. The global economic crisis has…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to assess the current potential of community entrepreneurship in neighbourhood revitalisation in the US and the UK. The global economic crisis has had a major impact on government spending for urban regeneration. In the context of these austerity regimes, in many European countries, community entrepreneurship and active citizenship are increasingly considered as a means to continue small-scale urban revitalisation. This paper investigates recent literature on both British community enterprises (CEs) and American community development corporations (CDCs).

Design/methodology/approach

Starting from a seminal article, this paper reviews literature focusing on the role of CEs and CDCs in neighbourhood revitalisation. Differences and similarities are analysed, taking into account national context differences.

Findings

While CDCs have a relatively successful record in affordable housing production in distressed areas, CDCs are fundamentally limited in terms of reversing processes of community decline. CEs in the UK have focused on non-housing issues.

Research limitations/implications

This paper asks the question what CEs can learn from CDCs in terms of scope, aims, strategies, accountability, assets and partnerships with public and private actors. However, a systematic literature review has not been conducted.

Originality/value

This comparison reveals not only similarities but also differences with regard to aims, organisational characteristics, cooperation on multiple scales and community participation. Apart from lessons that can be learned, this paper provides recommendations for further research that should cover the lack of empirical evidence in this field.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2010

Veronica Coatham and Lisa Martinali

The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon the development of the third sector and its relationship with social inclusion by reference to a specific case study – the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon the development of the third sector and its relationship with social inclusion by reference to a specific case study – the Castle Vale Community Regeneration Services (CVCRS). By drawing upon an informed understanding of CVCRS the authors examine the ways in which the discourse of “regeneration” and the “third sector” is played out.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a case study approach as the basis for framing the debate and analysis.

Findings

The paper concludes that the capacity of third sector organisations to meet the expectations of local residents and local agencies and professionals represent real challenges. The case study also illustrates the way in which such organisations share the characteristics of small businesses and this raises important questions over the skills and capacities of those managing such projects.

Research limitations/implications

Implications for third sector organisations can be generalised from this paper.

Practical implications

The paper identifies the ways in which the medium to long‐term sustainability of such projects is contingent upon enhancing both the management/governance of such projects and also the mainstream funding of projects.

Originality/value

Case study material provides a richness in description and adds to understanding of the topic.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 30 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2007

Charlotte Clark, Rowan Myron, Stephen Stansfeld and Bridget Candy

This paper assesses the strength of the evidence on the impact of the physical environment on mental health and well‐being. Using a systematic review methodology…

Abstract

This paper assesses the strength of the evidence on the impact of the physical environment on mental health and well‐being. Using a systematic review methodology, quantitative and qualitative evaluative studies of the effect of the physical environment on child and adult mental health published in English between January 1990 and September 2005 were sought from citation databases. The physical environment was defined in terms of built or natural elements of residential or neighbourhood environments; mental health was defined in terms of psychological symptoms and diagnoses. A total of 99 papers were identified. The strength of the evidence varied and was strongest for the effects of urban birth (on risk of schizophrenia), rural residence (on risk of suicide for males), neighbourhood violence, housing and neighbourhood regeneration, and neighbourhood disorder. The strength of the evidence for an effect of poor housing on mental health was weaker. There was a lack of robust research, and of longitudinal research in many areas, and some aspects of the environment have been very little studied to date. The lack of evidence of environmental effects in some domains does not necessarily mean that there are no effects: rather, that they have not yet been studied or studied meaningfully.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2007

Bridget Candy, Vicky Cattell, Charlotte Clark and Stephen Stansfeld

Those most socially disadvantaged are at a greater risk of common mental disorder (CMD). The need to evaluate the health impact of social policy interventions that aim to…

Abstract

Those most socially disadvantaged are at a greater risk of common mental disorder (CMD). The need to evaluate the health impact of social policy interventions that aim to reduce social inequalities between the disadvantaged and the better off is well recognised. This paper reports findings from a review to explore evidence on the health impact of UK policy interventions that aim to tackle the key social determinants of CMD. These were previously identified from the literature as cumulative socioeconomic deprivation, unemployment, psychosocial work characteristics, and poor social relationships. We identified some evidence of a positive impact on CMD of urban regeneration schemes, but evidence was sparse on interventions relating to the other determinants. The ability of research to inform policy designed to improve the lives of the disadvantaged could be assisted by a broader definition of what counts as evidence. This may include wider use of qualitative methodologies and a more deliberate focus on social processes known to be implicated in mental health.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Reinout Kleinhans, Nick Bailey and Jessica Lindbergh

Community-based social enterprises (CBSEs), a spatially defined subset of social enterprise, are independent, not-for-profit organisations managed by community members and…

Abstract

Purpose

Community-based social enterprises (CBSEs), a spatially defined subset of social enterprise, are independent, not-for-profit organisations managed by community members and committed to delivering long-term benefits to local people. CBSEs respond to austerity and policy reforms by providing services, jobs and other amenities for residents in deprived communities, thus contributing to neighbourhood regeneration. This paper aims to develop a better understanding of how CBSEs perceive accountability, how they apply it in the management and representation of their business and why.

Design/methodology/approach

Nine case studies of CBSEs across three European countries (England, the Netherlands and Sweden) are analysed, using data from semi-structured interviews with initiators, board members and volunteers in CBSEs.

Findings

CBSEs shape accountability and representation in response to the needs of local communities and in the wake of day-to-day challenges and opportunities. Apart from financial reporting, CBSEs apply informal strategies of accountability which are highly embedded in their way of working and contingent upon their limited resources.

Originality/value

Although research has shown the complex governance position of CBSEs, their application of accountability to target communities and other stakeholders is unclear. The paper coins the term “adaptive accountability,” reflecting a relational, dialectic approach in which formal, costly accountability methods are only applied to legally required forms of accounting, and informal practices are accepted by funding agencies and governments as valid forms of accountability, assessing CBSEs’ societal value in more open terms.

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Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2008

Kathy Arthurson

Increasing concern about rising crime rates, high levels of unemployment and the anti-social behaviour of youth gangs that are concentrated within particular regions and…

Abstract

Increasing concern about rising crime rates, high levels of unemployment and the anti-social behaviour of youth gangs that are concentrated within particular regions and neighbourhoods of cities has prompted renewed interest in governments to frame policies to create socially mixed cities. Recent riots experienced on social housing estates, including in France (St Denis, Poissy, Clichy-sous-bois), Australia (Macquarie Fields, Redfern in New South Wales) and Britain (Bestwood, Nottingham) have reinvigorated public and community debate into just what makes a functional neighbourhood. The nub of the debate about dysfunctional neighbourhoods is whether part of the problem is to be found in the lack of social mix of residents, that is, the homogeneity of the neighbourhoods in aspects such as housing tenure, ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics of residents.

Details

Qualitative Housing Analysis: An International Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-990-6

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Simon Pemberton

The chapter summarises issues associated with the effectiveness of urban policy interventions. In particular it emphasises the importance of sites, scales and spaces of…

Abstract

Purpose

The chapter summarises issues associated with the effectiveness of urban policy interventions. In particular it emphasises the importance of sites, scales and spaces of state activity and the implications for the current and future nature of regeneration governance, policy and practice.

Methodology/approach

The chapter draws upon strategic-relational state theory.

Findings

With reference to the United Kingdom (UK), there are significant changes taking place that are affecting the site, scale and nature of urban regeneration. However, there is considerable uncertainty over the extent to which discrepancies in performance between areas will be addressed.

Research implications

Further research will be required on the consequences for regeneration of the rescaling of state power, the changing institutions of the state and the emergence of new political forces and strategies.

Originality/value of the chapter

The chapter provides a theoretical and empirical framework to understand both the current and future nature of urban regeneration governance in the UK and beyond.

Details

Looking for Consensus?: Civil Society, Social Movements and Crises for Public Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-725-2

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Michael Carley

Partnership has become a primary organisational tool for achieving overlapping policy agendas in local governance. But evidence shows that partnerships underachieve if…

Abstract

Purpose

Partnership has become a primary organisational tool for achieving overlapping policy agendas in local governance. But evidence shows that partnerships underachieve if they are not integrated into, and supported by, mainstream governance structures. Now recent legislation, the Local Government in Scotland Act (2003), sets out the intention of better integration of partnership into local governance. The Act establishes a statutory duty for institutional stakeholders to engage with communities in “community planning” to improve services and to meet community aspirations. This paper sets out to explore key issues to arise in the implementation of the Act.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on key informant interviews in three Scottish local authorities carried out in 2004 and 2005.

Findings

The research finds varying degrees of integration between governance structures and community planning, depending on the commitment, history and implementation of local government modernisation. Local authorities at the leading edge of modernisation are the most innovative in community planning and also demonstrate commitment to partnership working.

Practical implications

Because of its statutory basis, the lessons of the implementation of community planning are relevant to a wide variety of local governance structures and partnership initiatives.

Originality/value

The paper reports on the first systematic study of the implementation of a policy initiative in integrated local governance.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2004

Nick Clifford and Tim Hope

The article proposes a schematic model of how community safety is related to changes in local housing markets ‐ particularly those characterised by low demand and market…

Abstract

The article proposes a schematic model of how community safety is related to changes in local housing markets ‐ particularly those characterised by low demand and market failure. The model is presented as an example of strategic planning for ‘joined‐up’ working in civil and neighbourhood renewal.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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