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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2021

Jimena Y. Ramirez-Marin, Adrian Barragan Diaz and Felipe A. Guzman

Drawing from the emotions as social information theory, this paper aims to investigate the differential effects of emotions in inter vs intracultural negotiations.

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from the emotions as social information theory, this paper aims to investigate the differential effects of emotions in inter vs intracultural negotiations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used one face-to-face negotiation and two experimental scenario studies to investigate the influence of emotions (anger vs happiness) and negotiation type (intercultural vs intracultural) on concession behavior.

Findings

Across the three studies, the results consistently show that angry opponents from a different national culture obtain larger concessions from negotiators. A face-to-face negotiation shows that happy opponents from the same culture are able to obtain larger concessions from negotiators. Additionally, the negotiator’s intentions to compromise and yield mediate the relationship between the interaction of emotions and counterpart’s culture on concessions.

Research limitations/implications

Two limitations are that the studies were conducted in a single country and that they use different types of role-playing designs. The empirical implications provide evidence of the moderating effect of the counterpart’s culture on the effect of anger on concessions. Then, providing two different mechanisms for concessions.

Practical implications

The research helps global negotiators who face counterparts from different nationalities. It suggests that these negotiators should be mindful of their counterpart’s emotions in intercultural negotiation as anger seems to generate more concessions in this setting.

Originality/value

The article is among the first studies to show that the combination of the counterpart’s culture and emotions has an effect on concessions in negotiation. Compromising and yielding are mediating mechanisms for this moderated effect. As opposed to previous studies that use one type of research design, the research combines face-to-face and scenario methodologies to test the predictions.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2009

Sergio Koc‐Menard

The purpose of this paper is to explore how negotiation teams can rely on social networks to enhance their performance at the table.

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3203

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how negotiation teams can rely on social networks to enhance their performance at the table.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the impact of social relations on team performance in the negotiation task. It conducts a selective review and integration of negotiation, small group and social network research.

Findings

The paper's main argument is that teams can rely on social relations to locate and get hold of resources that will augment their ability to manage the bargaining process. To tap into the value of social networks, teams need to look beyond their internal processes and develop strategies that actively manage their environment. The paper examines three such strategies: membership change, knowledge acquisition, and ambassadorial activity.

Originality/value

The paper outlines a relational approach to team negotiation. This approach has the potential to improve team negotiation practice by opening up a new way to design and manage negotiation teams.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Stephen Ashcroft

This paper explores commercial negotiation skills in the context of the buying/selling dynamics using the writer's experience as a Lead Negotiator. Planning, conducting…

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12137

Abstract

This paper explores commercial negotiation skills in the context of the buying/selling dynamics using the writer's experience as a Lead Negotiator. Planning, conducting and analysing the outcomes of commercial negotiations are key elements of successful business. Developing the skills of commercial negotiation is a demanding, valuable and often personally challenging task. The outcomes of commercial negotiation are often difficult to assess; such as the impact on the short‐ and long‐term buyer/seller relationship and the negotiator's personal and organizational development, hence the need to identify, understand and develop commercial negotiation skills. Commercial negotiation is explored from three perspectives; process, the respective parties' objectives and bargaining. The need for planning, the foundation of any process, in a commercial negotiation is detailed. A typology of techniques of persuasion is introduced and briefly explained.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

José Garson and Jenny Quillien

Views Game Theory, as a long‐time companion model and guide for theexploration of negotiations, as having not only reached its limits but,perhaps, as having become…

Abstract

Views Game Theory, as a long‐time companion model and guide for the exploration of negotiations, as having not only reached its limits but, perhaps, as having become counter‐productive in the search for greater understanding and skill. Suggests that a more powerful heuristic model may be available by turning to the current work on learning organizations. Suggests that by borrowing some of the basic concepts developed by C. Argyris and D. Schön, and considering negotiations as learning organizations, we allow ourselves to move from the analytical mode of Game Theory to a more synthetic approach. The synthetic approach allows us to distinguish more carefully between simple and difficult negotiations and to rethink success and failure. It also allows us to account more adequately for such phenomena as the preliminary negotiations to negotiate, the role of form, and the significance of the links between negotiator and home base. The pressing reality of current events in both international politics and business certainly should incite us to give serious consideration to this more operational model.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 93 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

R.E. Fells

There is a growing literature on negotiation, much of which is directed towards negotiations which take place in the industrial relations context. However, negotiation is…

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2955

Abstract

There is a growing literature on negotiation, much of which is directed towards negotiations which take place in the industrial relations context. However, negotiation is a practical activity and there is a need to bridge the gap between the thoeretical framework of the negotiation process and the appropriate application of particular negotiating techniques. One approach is to present an explanatory framework in terms of the motivation of one's negotiating opponent, usually relying on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. These authors then present a series of semi‐anecdotal descriptions of tactics to employ. Such an approach does not fully present any underlying principles to be grasped by negotiators, nor does it form a basis for the training of negotiating techniques.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1986

Ray Fells

An earlier article in this journal outlined a model of the process of negotiation with particular reference to negotiation in the industrial relations context. The model…

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1988

Abstract

An earlier article in this journal outlined a model of the process of negotiation with particular reference to negotiation in the industrial relations context. The model suggests that negotiations go through five phases or patterns of negotiating activity as the negotiators move through to a settlement. On the basis of the model, it is possible to identify several implications for negotiators, and, in particular, to make the point that the two parties must jointly manage their progress through the negotiations. Within the negotiation process there are three potential deadlocks which could emerge to obstruct this progress if the negotiations were not properly and jointly managed. This article develops the concept of deadlocks in negotiation more fully, and attempts to identify the implications for negotiators by suggesting how deadlocks might be identified and overcome.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Raphael Schoen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implicitly assumed universality of the best seller negotiation literature Getting to Yes by Roger Fisher and William Ury.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implicitly assumed universality of the best seller negotiation literature Getting to Yes by Roger Fisher and William Ury.

Design/methodology/approach

Existing cross-cultural negotiation literature was systematically searched for findings indicating either a higher or lower likelihood of successfully applying the authors’ advice in different cultural environments, as defined in the Hofstede framework or The Globe Study. The findings were aggregated, categorized into a matrix, synthesized and analyzed.

Findings

This paper finds that the assumed universality of the method of Getting to Yes and its single principles is not supported by research. Instead, a dichotomy of the four principles’ applicability along the Individuality dimension of Hofstede was found. Hence, the western orientation of Getting to Yes is reality, inhibiting its use in non-western cultures. However, in one principle – Invent options for mutual gain – the findings refute a successful application in western cultures. Additional findings and research gaps are presented.

Practical implications

Practitioners should apply Getting to Yes with caution, if at all, in a non-western environment. For the teaching of negotiations, alternative approaches for conducting negotiations in the non-western world are needed.

Originality/value

Although widely used in research, scholars only addressed sporadic comments concerning the limitations of Getting to Yes across cultures. Often the universality of Getting to Yes is either implicitly or explicitly assumed in research and practice. This paper approaches this topic systematically by providing evidence that Getting to Yes is not universal and conceptually sees negotiations through a western shaped perspective that provides considerable implications for research, practice and teaching.

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Jingjing Yao and Jeanne M. Brett

It is important to infer and diagnose whether a negotiator is trustworthy. In international negotiations, people may assume that high-trust nations are more likely to…

Abstract

Purpose

It is important to infer and diagnose whether a negotiator is trustworthy. In international negotiations, people may assume that high-trust nations are more likely to produce more trustworthy negotiators. Does this assumption hold universally? This study aims to address this research question by investigating the relationship between national-level societal trust and individual-level trust in negotiations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a cross-sectional research design and a sample of 910 senior managers from 58 nations or regions. The hypotheses are tested by hierarchical linear modeling.

Findings

This study draws on the dynamic constructivist theory of culture to propose moderated hypotheses. Results show that societal trust predicts individuals’ social perceptions of attitudinal trust in negotiations, only when cultural face norms are weak rather than strong; societal trust predicts individuals’ social perceptions of behavioral trust in negotiations (i.e. high information sharing and low competitive behavior), only when negotiators process information analytically rather than holistically.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the relationship between national-level societal trust (i.e. generalized trust) and individual-level trust in negotiations (i.e. particularistic trust). It uses a large-scale, multinational sample to show that relying on societal trust to infer trust in negotiations is valid only in Western societies.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Abena Emily Ayowa Asante-Asamani, Mohammad Elahee and Jason MacDonald

This study aims to examine how negotiators’ goal orientations may affect their negotiation strategy and consequently the negotiation outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how negotiators’ goal orientations may affect their negotiation strategy and consequently the negotiation outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using cross-sectional data collected from a Fortune 500 Global firm based in France, this study empirically examines how goal orientations of negotiators may affect their value creation (win-win) and value-claiming (win-lose) negotiation behavior reflecting their desired outcome in a given sales negotiation. In so doing, this study proposes a conceptual model and tests a number of hypotheses using partial least squares structural equation modeling.

Findings

This study shows that learning and performance goal orientations (PGO) are indeed related with two commonly used negotiation strategies: win-win (integrative) and win-lose strategies (distributive) strategies, respectively. The results indicate that while the learning orientation has a positive relationship with a win-win strategy and a negative relationship with a win-lose negotiation strategy, just the opposite is true with the PGO, which is positively related to win-lose strategy and negatively related to win-win strategy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research represents one of the first attempts to connect goal orientations with negotiations strategies to achieve desired negotiation outcome using data from salespeople with negotiation experience.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2020

Jacqueline Y. Sánchez-García and Carlos López-Hernández

This chapter introduces the negotiagram as a tool that contributes to the study of the negotiation process. The negotiagram is a construct that facilitates an…

Abstract

This chapter introduces the negotiagram as a tool that contributes to the study of the negotiation process. The negotiagram is a construct that facilitates an understanding of interactions between negotiators and their temporal context. Given that the negotiation process can be seen as a system, system dynamics (SD) are used to explore the interactions and complexities in the proposed construct, especially when it comes to circumstances with a high degree of uncertainty, such as an economic crisis or disruptive innovation in the industry. The results suggest that the causal configurations that SD establish lead to non-linear relationships and feedback loops that direct behavior within negotiation, an understanding that further leads stakeholders to a holistic vision and the opportunity to change, manage, and control a negotiation as a system.

Details

Strategy, Power and CSR: Practices and Challenges in Organizational Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-973-6

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