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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

GEORGIOS ZEKOS

As early as 1818 in Marseilles merchants were asking the courts to recognise the legal character of the maritime sale of goods, which was a sale of a bill of lading…

Abstract

As early as 1818 in Marseilles merchants were asking the courts to recognise the legal character of the maritime sale of goods, which was a sale of a bill of lading representing goods at sea in a ship. The courts of Marseilles found suitable to hear and decide cases in accordance with the law merchant despite the lack of authority in the French Commercial Codes. Merchants everywhere began to deal with documents representing goods without waiting to check the goods as it was the practice under the Napoleonic Code. Thus, the transition of the bill of lading from a mere receipt to a negotiable instrument developed by the practice of merchants arranging the sale of goods in transit. The success of the use of bills of lading in international trade is attributable to its negotiable character and its feature as a document of title.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Book part
Publication date: 23 March 2017

Patrícia Lacerda de Carvalho and Orleans Silva Martins

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate sustainability have gained prominence in the major capital markets. In Brazil, the São Paulo Stock Exchange…

Abstract

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate sustainability have gained prominence in the major capital markets. In Brazil, the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&FBovespa) has created the Corporate Sustainability Index (ISE) and the Carbon Efficient Index (ICO2), responsible for indicating the performance of sustainable companies. Therefore, this study proposes to examine and compare the stock returns of the sustainability index member companies with the returns of companies out of these indexes. In this methodology we selected the two principal negotiability indexes of that market (IBOV and IBrX50), which are indexes that meet the most traded stocks of BM&FBovespa, and calculated the average daily returns of the four indexes in order to make performance comparisons over the period 2005–2014, based on nonparametric statistical tests. Our findings indicate that the average returns of sustainability indexes were higher, but these differences were not statistically significant, confirming previous evidence. Additionally, by means of a cointegration test, we found that the indexes are cointegrated in the long term. These findings are limited to the analyzed emerging market and are also subject to the limitations of the estimated models. Thus, we can infer that presence in the sustainability indexes does not indicate statistically significant higher returns, which means that companies with sustainable practices in Brazil are not only concerned with economic performance, but also with social, cultural, and environmental issues. The main findings are aligned with the concept of triple bottom line, even in the case of an emerging market.

Details

Advances in Environmental Accounting & Management: Social and Environmental Accounting in Brazil
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-376-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 July 2022

Aswathy Sreenivasan, Bhavin Shah and M. Suresh

In developing countries such as India, start-ups play an essential role in “industrial output,” “Gross Domestic Product ” and “employment creation.” Evidence suggests that…

Abstract

Purpose

In developing countries such as India, start-ups play an essential role in “industrial output,” “Gross Domestic Product ” and “employment creation.” Evidence suggests that pandemics have risen over the last century due to rising global travel and assimilation, urbanization, alterations in land use, and significantly larger exploitation of the natural environment. These trends are likely to continue and intensify. These pandemic episodes affect businesses, especially start-ups. Supplier selection is among the vital critical elements that start-ups must include in start-ups' strategy procedures during the pandemic episodes. This study's focus is to “identify,” “analyze,” and “categorize” the factors affecting supplier selection in start-ups during frequent pandemic episodes like coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Design/methodology/approach

Through “literature review” and “experts' opinion” from various start-ups in India, ten affecting factors were identified. Total Interpretative Structural Modeling (TISM) and Cross-Impact Matrix Multiplication Applied to Classification (MICMAC) were employed to analyze the interrelationship among the factors affecting the supplier selection on start-ups during frequent pandemic episodes, and these factors were ranked as “autonomous,” “independent,” “linkage,” and “dependent” factors.

Findings

The findings show that “performance history,” “service levels,” “technical capability,” and “financial stability” are the most critical factors affecting the supplier selection on start-ups during frequent pandemic episodes. The next importance should be safety and environmental concern” and “quality.”

Research limitations/implications

The factors affecting supplier selection on start-ups during frequent pandemic episodes are the current focus of this study. This study is mainly performed on Indian start-ups and can be extended to other countries.

Practical implications

The start-ups can rely on this study to clearly understand the factors affecting the supplier selection on start-ups during frequent pandemic episodes.

Originality/value

There is no research regarding factors affecting supplier selection on start-ups during the COVID-19 emergencies. This research gap is filled by analyzing aspects linked to supplier selection in start-ups. This gap inspired the present study, which employs the “Total Interpretive Structural Modeling (TISM)” technique to uncover supplier selection determinants and investigate hierarchical interconnections among factors influencing/affecting supplier selection in start-ups during frequent pandemic episodes.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 February 2020

Anastasia Katou, Pawan Budhwar and Mohinder D. Chand

This paper examines the relationship between timing of negotiations and idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) through the moderating effects of core self-evaluations (CSE), and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the relationship between timing of negotiations and idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) through the moderating effects of core self-evaluations (CSE), and between i-deals and employee reactions through the moderating effects of transformational leadership behaviour (TLB) in the Indian hospitality industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 275 employees working in 39 companies responded to a self-administered questionnaire. To test the research hypotheses, the methodology of structural equation models was used.

Findings

The results show that the relationship between before hiring negotiations and i-deals is stronger for those individuals who had low self-worth, due to countervailing forces created by their belief that they may not be eligible for i-deals. In contrast, the relationship between after hiring negotiations and i-deals is stronger for those who had high self-worth, due to their belief that they were entitled to i-deals. Additionally, the research highlights that the relationship between i-deals and employee reactions is stronger for those organisations, which are high on TLB.

Research limitations/implications

The data does not allow for investigating dynamic causal inferences, because they were collected using a questionnaire at a single point in time, and they were reported in retrospect, raising measurement concerns about recall bias.

Practical implications

From a managerial point of view, the findings of this study inform that in negotiating both employment conditions and work arrangements, organisations should try to achieve i-deals that are primarily flexibility focused, and that in increasing efficiency organisations should make the employees feel well supported in order to develop more confidence in deploying skills and abilities to address a more open view of their i-deals.

Originality/value

The study contributes to our understanding about the Indian hospitality industry by utilising the self-enhancement theory in examining whether individual differences moderate the relationship between the timing of negotiations and i-deals, and also by utilizing the social exchange theory to examine whether TLB moderates the relationship between i-deals and employee reactions.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2008

Abstract

Details

Documents from F. Taylor Ostrander at Oxford, John R. Commons' Reasonable Value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-906-7

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Christian Koch

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) technologies can, despite their apparent flexibility, act as a rather obdurate tool for management’s political programmes. To understand…

3170

Abstract

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) technologies can, despite their apparent flexibility, act as a rather obdurate tool for management’s political programmes. To understand this, a combined organisational politics and sociology of technology approach is adopted, viewing technology as a political programme for change. A total of 30 manufacturing case studies grouped around three ERP vendors and systems, show that using technology is not only an issue controlled by an enterprise’s actors. IT suppliers and management consultants and others form communities, which promote certain political programmes. These cases demonstrate that enterprise configurations of ERP do share commonalities, whereas two longitudinal case studies are used to discuss unique enterprise politics. While some features of the systems/political programmes were frozen, others were fluid, and could be configured in micro political processes. Thus hardness is contextual. The political role of technology is not just a case of flexibility or hardness, but a complicated pattern of negotiability, resources, social and geographical distance.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

S. Gary Teng and Hector Jaramillo

The issue affecting US textile/apparel companies in global business competition is to find suitable suppliers for their operations. The selection and evaluation of their…

10867

Abstract

Purpose

The issue affecting US textile/apparel companies in global business competition is to find suitable suppliers for their operations. The selection and evaluation of their global suppliers to meet the goal of having effective and efficient supply chain operations and strengthening their position in the market become critical for US textile/apparel manufacturers to maintain their competitiveness in today's market. Aims to develop an evaluation model.

Design/methodology/approach

The development of a simple, flexible, and easy to use evaluation model that includes the consideration of five main clusters to reflect the performance of a global supplier in a textile/apparel supply chain.

Findings

A case presented in this paper shows that the model provides textile/apparel companies with an easy way to evaluate their suppliers and make their selection of suppliers more efficient and effective. Most textile/apparel companies using this model can help them establish strategic alliance with global suppliers to reduce costs and increase competitiveness in the market.

Practical implications

Textile/apparel companies can use this model to find capable suppliers as their partners in the supply chain. With minor modifications, this model also can help companies in most industries for enhancing their supply chain operations with capable suppliers.

Originality/value

Provides a simple model that can help companies in many industries enhance their supply chain operations.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

Robert M. Mulligan

If EDI is to succeed to a similar degree as paper‐based systems then international harmonisation and standardisation must be achieved across all functional groups…

1659

Abstract

If EDI is to succeed to a similar degree as paper‐based systems then international harmonisation and standardisation must be achieved across all functional groups (banking, transport, insurance, customs) and industry sectors on message standard and structures. UN/EDIFACT is now the dominant body producing generic EDI messages for use in international trade. All functional areas have Message Development Groups but the main areas of success to date lie in deep sea transport, forwarding and customs functions. Message development needs to proceed rapidly in all functions before integrated EDI systems can be offered. In recognition of this, UN procedures are now in place to harmonise such message formats across all trade regions (ITIGG/IHG), industry sectors (MIST/IHG) and transport modes (MIST/ITIGG). The negotiability of the electronic Bill of Lading is also an issue which will be tested across industry sectors by Bolero Operations Ltd launch programme early in 1999.

Details

Logistics Information Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Douglas M. McCabe

The purpose of this paper is to delineate policy recommendations for federal sector management, labor, and neutrals in the area of alternative dispute resolution and…

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to delineate policy recommendations for federal sector management, labor, and neutrals in the area of alternative dispute resolution and conflict resolution mechanisms in the maturing arena of federal sector labor‐management relations. The great desideratum in the arena of labor relations in the federal sector of the economy is harmony based on the resolving of conflicting interests of employees and their government employers.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

Georgios I. Zekos

Presents an updated version of a paper given by the author at an international conference in Athens 2000. Briefly outlines the development of the internet and e‐commerce…

1584

Abstract

Presents an updated version of a paper given by the author at an international conference in Athens 2000. Briefly outlines the development of the internet and e‐commerce and the effect of globalization. Considers the potential for the EU to standardize rules and advance its economic integration agenda. Looks at present EU laws in this area. Covers the unicitral model law on electronic commerce, its merits and its problems. Discusses personal jurisdiction under traditional rules and cyberspace transactions. Concludes that existing legislation must be re‐evaluated in the light of technological advances, the need for a more mobile kind of legal person and the worldwide nature of transactions across territorial boundaries, paperless contracts and digital signatures and the use of self‐regulation are also covered.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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