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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Ilias Vlachos

The purpose of this paper is to empirically study the necessary and sufficient antecedents of customer loyalty to logistics service providers (LSPs). Despite the abundance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically study the necessary and sufficient antecedents of customer loyalty to logistics service providers (LSPs). Despite the abundance of loyalty studies, few studies have empirically examined the complex causal relationships between loyalty and its antecedents using the appropriate research methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses fuzzy sets qualitative comparison analysis (FsQCA) to uncover the antecedents and antecedent configurations of customer loyalty. This study examined the necessity and sufficiency of five antecedents (operational collaboration, strategic collaboration, trust, service satisfaction and price satisfaction) and on five dimensions of loyalty (repurchase intension, switching costs, exclusiveness, referrals and overall loyalty). This study developed six research hypotheses based on existing literature and tested them empirically in a manufacturing context. This study compared results from FsQCA with regression analysis.

Findings

The findings reveal that only a few antecedent configurations lead to customer loyalty, including a combination of strategic and operational collaboration, bundling of service offerings and combining competitive price with strategic collaboration. Further, the absence of trust negatively affects loyalty, but the presence of trust does not lead to loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to business to business literature by demonstrating how to use FsQCA analysis to test the presence of equifinality, conjunction and causal asymmetry of complex relationships. This study applies FsQCA between antecedent factors and customer loyalty. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to compare and integrate FsQCA with conventional regression analysis which is based on correlation-bounded logic.

Practical implications

This study shows that no single antecedents that can generate loyalty, yet, few antecedent configurations work better than others: collaborating at both strategic and operational level with your partner has the highest impact on loyalty. Another configuration that leads to loyalty is to combine competitive prices with strategic collaboration, which particularly stimulates repurchase decisions. Price is are not sufficient enough to lead to customer loyalty.

Originality/value

This study applied a novel analysis to uncover necessary and sufficient conditions that conventional methods such as regression analysis and structural equation modelling have limited power.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Book part
Publication date: 25 April 2013

Tony Hak, Ferdinand Jaspers and Jan Dul

In organizational research the object of study is often a process, that is, a complex of events and activities that unfolds over time. In this chapter we focus on…

Abstract

In organizational research the object of study is often a process, that is, a complex of events and activities that unfolds over time. In this chapter we focus on temporally ordered configurations, which can be defined as those configurations in which conditions occur in a specific temporal order. We illustrate the aims, characteristics, and limitations of several approaches that have been proposed as tools for the analysis of temporal order. Our illustration involves an analysis of the “gestation activities” of nascent entrepreneurs, that is, persons involved in the creation of a new firm. We aim to identify temporal sequences of gestation activities that generate or allow a successful outcome of the gestation process, while an occurrence of the same activities in another temporal order will not generate or allow that outcome. First we discuss Event Structure Analysis and Optimal Matching and conclude that these approaches cannot provide the kind of analysis that we are aiming at in this chapter. Then we discuss Temporal Qualitative Comparative Analysis, for which our analysis points to technical limitations that constrain its application. We then present and discuss an alternative approach, Temporal Necessary Condition Analysis.

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2020

Nicole Franziska Richter, Sandra Schubring, Sven Hauff, Christian M. Ringle and Marko Sarstedt

This research introduces the combined use of partial least squares–structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and necessary condition analysis (NCA) that enables researchers…

Abstract

Purpose

This research introduces the combined use of partial least squares–structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and necessary condition analysis (NCA) that enables researchers to explore and validate hypotheses following a sufficiency logic, as well as hypotheses drawing on a necessity logic. The authors’ objective is to encourage the practice of combining PLS-SEM and NCA as complementary views of causality and data analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors present guidelines describing how to combine PLS-SEM and NCA. These relate to the specification of the research objective and the theoretical background, the preparation and evaluation of the data set, running the analyses, the evaluation of measurements, the evaluation of the (structural) model and relationships and the interpretation of findings. In addition, the authors present an empirical illustration in the field of technology acceptance.

Findings

The use of PLS-SEM and NCA enables researchers to identify the must-have factors required for an outcome in accordance with the necessity logic. At the same time, this approach shows the should-have factors following the additive sufficiency logic. The combination of both logics enables researchers to support their theoretical considerations and offers new avenues to test theoretical alternatives for established models.

Originality/value

The authors provide insights into the logic, assessment, challenges and benefits of NCA for researchers familiar with PLS-SEM. This novel approach enables researchers to substantiate and improve their theories and helps practitioners disclose the must-have and should-have factors relevant to their decision-making.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 120 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Petteri T. Leppänen, Aaron F. McKenny and Jeremy C. Short

Research in entrepreneurship is increasingly exploring how archetypes, taxonomies, typologies, and configurations can help scholars understand complex entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Research in entrepreneurship is increasingly exploring how archetypes, taxonomies, typologies, and configurations can help scholars understand complex entrepreneurial phenomena. We illustrate the potential for set-theoretic methods to inform this literature by offering best practices regarding how qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) can be used to explore research questions of interest to entrepreneurship scholars. Specifically, we introduce QCA, document how this approach has been used in management research, and provide step-by-step guidance to empower scholars to use this family of methods. We put a particular emphasis on the analytical procedures and offer solutions to dealing with potential pitfalls when using QCA-based methods and highlight opportunities for future entrepreneurship research.

Details

Standing on the Shoulders of Giants
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-336-0

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Jan Dul, Tony Hak, Gary Goertz and Chris Voss

The purpose of this paper is to show that necessary condition hypotheses are important in operations management (OM), and to present a consistent methodology for building…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that necessary condition hypotheses are important in operations management (OM), and to present a consistent methodology for building and testing them. Necessary condition hypotheses (“X is necessary for Y”) express conditions that must be present in order to have a desired outcome (e.g. “success”), and to prevent guaranteed failure. These hypotheses differ fundamentally from the common co‐variational hypotheses (“more X results in more Y”) and require another methodology for building and testing them.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews OM literature for versions of necessary condition hypotheses and combines previous theoretical and methodological work into a comprehensive and consistent methodology for building and testing such hypotheses.

Findings

Necessary condition statements are common in OM, but current formulations are not precise, and methods used for building and testing them are not always adequate. The paper outlines the methodology of necessary condition analysis consisting of two stepwise methodological approaches, one for building and one for testing necessary conditions.

Originality/value

Because necessary condition statements are common in OM, using methodologies that can build and test such hypotheses contributes to the advancement of OM research and theory.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 30 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2019

Nguyen Dinh Tho

The purpose of this paper is to decipher the levels of three strategic orientations – learning orientation, entrepreneurial orientation (proactiveness and risk taking) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to decipher the levels of three strategic orientations – learning orientation, entrepreneurial orientation (proactiveness and risk taking) and marketing orientation (responsiveness to customers, responsiveness to competitors, responsiveness to the macro-environment and business relationship quality) – that are necessary for firm innovativeness.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a sample of 316 firms in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) was employed to examine the net effects of seven factors (learning orientation, proactiveness, risk taking, responsiveness to customers, responsiveness to competitors, responsiveness to changes in the macro-environment and business relationship quality) on firm innovativeness. Necessary condition analysis (NCA) was then employed to discover the level of these factors as necessary conditions for firm innovativeness.

Findings

The results produced by MRA show that learning orientation, proactiveness, responsiveness to customers and responsiveness to competitors have positive effects on firm innovativeness. The results from the NCA reveal that six out of seven conditions exhibit varying necessary levels for firm innovativeness.

Practical implications

The findings are relevant to senior managers and suggest that the levels of strategic orientations necessary for firm innovativeness vary. Firms therefore should pay attention not only to the net effects (beta weights) but also to their necessary levels. Based on their resources and capabilities, firms should take into account the necessary level of each strategic orientation in order to achieve their innovativeness goal.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to decipher the levels of three strategic orientations (learning orientation, entrepreneurial orientation and marketing orientation) that are necessary for firm innovativeness.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 28 November 2019

Pedro Torres and Pedro Godinho

This paper aims to better understand the conditions that can lead to high and low opportunity entrepreneurship in countries with oil rents. Additionally, the study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to better understand the conditions that can lead to high and low opportunity entrepreneurship in countries with oil rents. Additionally, the study aims to find out the differences between countries with oil rents and countries without oil rents.

Design/methodology/approach

A configurational analysis based on fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis was performed for a sample of 46 countries with oil rents and a sample of 20 countries without oil rents, using Country data from the World Bank World Development Indicators, World Bank Worldwide Governance Indicators, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, and Global Entrepreneurship Monitor.

Findings

The results show that control of corruption is important to achieve high levels of opportunity entrepreneurship in countries with oil rents and countries without oil rents alike. It is highlighted that the abundance of oil resources in a given country is not a curse, if some conditions are met. Multiple configurations that lead to high levels of opportunity entrepreneurship in countries with oil rents are presented. The study shows that none of the antecedent conditions is necessary per se, it is the combination of conditions that leads to the outcome of interest. The study indicates that either high control of corruption or low taxes should occur, no matter the combination of conditions, to achieve high levels of opportunity entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

The relation between control of corruption and entrepreneurship is complex and, in spite of the insights that were gathered herein, much is still to be explored. The coverage rate of the solutions shows that there are countries with high levels of opportunity entrepreneurship that do not fit in any of the obtained configurations. The sample size is also a limitation. Furthermore, to compute the set membership thresholds, the anchors were based on the percentiles, given the lack of theoretical basis to do so. Thus, other methods should also be used in the future, if possible with a larger data sample.

Practical implications

The obtained results have implications for policy makers, authorities and potential entrepreneurs. In countries that are oil producers, policy makers aiming to promote opportunity entrepreneurship should take into account that it is the combination of conditions that is important, and not each condition by itself. They should consider that several solutions are possible. Authorities aiming to promote anti-corruption reforms, can leverage the findings of this study to demand for more resources to institute practices and structures to better control corruption, and should articulate among themselves the actions to carry on to improve the level of opportunity entrepreneurship in their country. Potential entrepreneurs can use the findings of this study to ask for anticorruption reforms and tax reforms, and they should use their entrepreneurial talent to try to speed up the change.

Originality/value

By overlapping streams of research in entrepreneurship, institutions and oil curse, this study makes several contributions to the entrepreneurship literature. Different from extant literature, the study uses a configurational approach and identifies the combinations of conditions that lead to high and low opportunity entrepreneurship in countries with oil rents. The non-linearity of the configurations is highlighted. Furthermore, for the first time, the study includes a panel without oil rents in the analysis, which enabled a comparison with the other set of countries and provides new insights about the importance of control of corruption to achieve high levels of opportunity entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Lucy R. Ford, Anson Seers and Jill Neumann

Most micro‐oriented research has assumed that leaders operate within a formally designed, pre‐specified and stable structural hierarchy. In the emerging knowledge economy…

Abstract

Purpose

Most micro‐oriented research has assumed that leaders operate within a formally designed, pre‐specified and stable structural hierarchy. In the emerging knowledge economy, however, the watchwords have become flexibility and speed. Today's business practices feature temporary task forces, project teams, joint ventures, and alliances. The authors aim to draw from the political science literature, presenting methodology for examining team leadership in context that augments and enhances the analyses that can be obtained with commonly used correlational/regression models.

Design/methodology/approach

More specifically, the authors will develop a detailed analysis of the potential applicability of the set‐theoretic approach for elucidating a configural analysis of team leadership, demonstrating that this method provides insight into the data that complements that provided by regression analysis.

Findings

The authors examine the findings from more traditional approaches to analysis, and set‐theoretic analysis, and demonstrate that set‐theoretic analysis provides additional insights into the phenomena in question.

Research limitations/implications

The possibilities for future research in the organizational leadership literature using set‐theoretic analysis are endless. The method is appropriate for theory development, theory confirmation, exploration, and more. Our current theoretical models are lacking in complexity, partly due to the limitations of existing methodology, and our advice to organizations would be significantly enriched were we able to establish that there are alternate means to the desired outcome, based on the context. Set‐theoretic methodology promises to enrich and enhance our field, particularly if we use it iteratively with the currently common methodologies, to develop richer and more contextually based theories.

Originality/value

Set‐theoretic methods may well provide an additional set of tools for better understanding leadership in the context in which it occurs.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Book part
Publication date: 25 April 2013

Kalle Pajunen and Ville Airo

The identification of country-specific advantages for business activities is one of the most crucial issues of strategic management and international business literatures…

Abstract

The identification of country-specific advantages for business activities is one of the most crucial issues of strategic management and international business literatures. We address this issue by examining location-specific conditions for a successful generic medicines industry within 24 European countries. The findings of our fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis show that there are no necessary conditions for the high performance or absence of the high-performance industry. By revealing the causal complexity related to the issue, however, we show that the high performance or lack of it results from a configuration of conditions. Specifically, we identify two sufficient causal configurations to both outcomes. These findings provide clear implications for generic medicines industry firms who are planning location choices of their operations. In addition, this study provides a methodological advancement to explain and understand which country elements matter more, for what outcomes, and under what conditions.

Details

Configurational Theory and Methods in Organizational Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-778-8

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2019

Pedro Torres and Mário Augusto

The purpose of this paper is to better understand complementarities-in-performance of three forms of innovations: product innovation, process innovation and organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to better understand complementarities-in-performance of three forms of innovations: product innovation, process innovation and organizational innovation. Additionally, complementarities-in-use for product innovation are examined, considering an additional condition: manufacturing flexibility.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from 223 unlisted Portuguese industrial firms, and a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, different combinations of different forms of innovations were examined to identify complementarities-in-performance and complementarities-in-use.

Findings

Through the configurational analysis, a path to achieve high performance was uncovered, which includes the presence of both product and organizational innovations. The study also reveals that the joint absence of two conditions (from the three that were considered in the analysis) can lead to low performance. This result indicates that the relationships among the antecedent conditions are non-linear. The configurational analysis also shows that the combination of manufacturing flexibility with either process innovation or organizational innovation can lead to high product innovation. This result confirms that manufacturing flexibility is an important condition for product innovation.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical evidence reported in this paper may be influenced by the definitions that were considered. Further conceptual and empirical research is encouraged to corroborate (or refute) or consolidate the findings presented herein. Moreover, although the obtained results present a high empirical coverage, other antecedent conditions beyond the scope of this study can also play an important role; for instance, marketing could influence innovation performance. Furthermore, radical innovation was not distinguished from incremental innovation when analyzing firm performance.

Practical implications

This study provides some clues for policy makers who aim to enhance firm performance through innovation. Managers should focus on both organizational and technological innovations, in particular product innovation, to improve firm performance. Moreover, they should be aware of the complementarities-in-use for product innovation. Considering the importance of developing product innovation to enhance performance, firms should promote high levels of product innovation. To achieve this outcome, manufacturing flexibility should be present.

Originality/value

Focusing on a very complex and still under-researched topic, this study contributes to the complementarities literature in several ways. This study employs a configurational approach to better understand complementarities and to integrate technological and organizational innovations. By taking this approach, this study acknowledges the existence of non-linearity and identifies not only the strategies to achieve high performance, but also the configurations that lead to low performance.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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