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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2019

Nazim Habibov, Alena Auchynnikava and Rong Luo

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test two opposing theoretical hypotheses from research literature: low quality of public education boosts support for public…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test two opposing theoretical hypotheses from research literature: low quality of public education boosts support for public education; and low quality of public education weakens support for public education.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use microdata from 27 post-communist countries over a period of five years. This study uses two outcome variables in order to capture the level of support for public education: the willingness to elevate investments in public education to an important policy priority; and the willingness to pay more taxes to improve public healthcare. A series of logistic regressions is used to find how the outcome variable is influenced by six dimensions of the quality of the public education system.

Findings

The main finding is that a lower quality of public education strengthens the willingness of citizens to make investments into public education by: making it a political priority for the government; and through a professed increased willingness to pay more taxes towards improving public education. These findings remain valid for both years of investigation and for both EU and non-EU samples. In contrast, the authors could not find support for the hypothesis that postulates that a lower quality of public education will reduce support for public education.

Research limitations/implications

The main implication of these findings is that despite the increases in availability of private schooling opportunities, the citizens of post-communist countries have not abandoned their support for public education. Even if citizens of post-communist countries believe that public education is no longer of an appropriately high quality, they continue to support the provision of resources to it in order to improve on the current situation.

Practical implications

The current low quality of public education can be seen as providing an impetus for encouraging support for public education.

Social implications

In terms of policy-making, the findings demonstrate the opportunity to shore up public support for further reforms in public- education in post-communist countries.

Originality/value

The current education policy research literature is silent about the direction of the effect of low quality public education on the willingness to provide support for public education. Against this background, this is the first study which empirically tested whether quality of public education affect willingness to support it. Covering a period of five years, the authors test the above-postulated hypotheses using a diverse sample of 27 post-communist countries.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Nazim Habibov, Chi Ho Cheung and Alena Auchynnikava

The purpose of this paper is to explore factors which may explain support for redistribution for different groups of the needy in 28 post-communist countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore factors which may explain support for redistribution for different groups of the needy in 28 post-communist countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a cross-country survey (n=25,845), the authors evaluate preferences for redistribution to the elderly, the disabled, families with children, the working poor, and the unemployed.

Findings

People in post-communist countries made the distinction between deserving groups of the needy – the aged, the disabled, and families with children, and undeserving groups – the unemployed and the working poor. Among the individual-level factors, adherence to equality and attributing poverty to structural problems increased the probability of supporting redistribution. Among country-level factors, the authors’ results stress the positive influence of income inequality on support for redistribution for all groups of the needy under investigation. Notably, the authors did not find a negative influence of the business cycle on support for the working poor and unemployed.

Originality/value

This is the first paper that examines support for the needy in a diverse sample of 28 post-communist countries. The findings will help policy-makers and social administrators to better understand factors influencing support for redistribution toward different groups of the needy.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Nazim Habibov, Alena Auchynnikova and Rong Luo

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of a variety of levels of education, namely, high school, vocational and university education, on the probability of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of a variety of levels of education, namely, high school, vocational and university education, on the probability of being employed in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.

Design/methodology/approach

The data are from two waves of the Life-in-Transition Survey that covers 29 post-communist transitional countries. The number of binary logistic models is estimated to quantify the effects of different types of education on the likelihood of being employed, while controlling for different sets of covariates.

Findings

The findings reveal that the effect of employment associated with university education is higher than that of vocational education, which in turn is higher than that of high school education. However, the differences between the effects of the various levels of education are not considerable. Any specific level of education is always associated with a higher effect in Eastern Europe as compared to the former Soviet Union. The effect of education is also found to be higher for females than for males. In the former Soviet Union, the positive effect of university and vocational education on employment is found to go down with age.

Originality/value

This is the first study which compares effect of different types of education on probability of being employed on a diverse sample of 29 post-communist countries over the period of five years.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Nazim Habibov, Alena Auchynnikava, Rong Luo and Lida Fan

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the effects of interpersonal and institutional trust on welfare state support in the countries of Eastern Europe and the former…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the effects of interpersonal and institutional trust on welfare state support in the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use micro-data from two rounds of a multinational survey conducted in these countries in 2010 and 2016. The outcome variable of interest is the willingness to pay more taxes to support the welfare state. The authors define the welfare state broadly, and focus on support for three main domains of the welfare state, namely, support for the needy, public healthcare and public education. Binomial regression is used to establish influence of interpersonal and institutional trust on welfare state support.

Findings

The authors find that both interpersonal and institutional trust have positive influences on strengthening support for the welfare state against a number of alternative explanations for public support for the welfare state. These positive effects remain the same for all three domains under investigation, namely, helping the needy, public healthcare and public education. Furthermore, these positive effects were observed both in the relatively less developed countries of the FSU and in the more developed Eastern European countries. Moreover, the positive effects of interpersonal and institutional trust on support for the needy, public healthcare and public education were found to grow over time.

Research limitations/implications

The findings indicate that the benefits of nurturing social capital will likely be substantial. Decision-makers, politicians, welfare state administrators and multinational founders (e.g. the UN and World Bank) should acknowledge the role played by trust in influencing the citizenry’s support for the allocation of financial resources toward the development and maintenance of the welfare state. The findings imply that welfare state reforms could prove be more effective within a social context where levels of trust are high. Thus, special attention should be paid to initiatives aimed at developing strategies to build trust.

Practical implications

Social welfare reforms in post-communist transitional countries may fail without active strategies aimed at nurturing institutional trust. One way to nurture institutional trust is through making additional efforts at enhancing the levels of accountability and transparency within a society as well as through increasing citizen engagement. Another way to build increased levels of trust is to take part in a variety of initiatives in good governance put forth by multinational initiatives.

Originality/value

As far as the authors know, this is the first paper which studies effect of interpersonal and institutional trust on support of the welfare state using a large and diverse sample of 27 countries over the period of five years. This is the first study which focuses on post-communist countries where trust is inherently low.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 39 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2017

Robert Weaver and Nazim Habibov

The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare the across-time individual and contextual factors influencing the participation of Canadian residents in adult…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare the across-time individual and contextual factors influencing the participation of Canadian residents in adult education and training during the 1990s and the early twenty-first century. This era is characterized by the social investment state (SIS), a policy paradigm adopted by various developed nations throughout the world, including Canada, during the latter part of the twentieth century.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyzed data obtained from the 1994, 1998, and 2003 versions of the Adult Education and Training Survey, which is administered by Statistics Canada. They employed binomial logit regression so as to predict the likelihood of the respondents participating in training.

Findings

Participants whose level of education was below the post-secondary level were less likely to participate in training, as were adult residents of households in which pre-school children also lived. These findings occurred across all three periods of data collection. Furthermore, urban residents exhibited an increasingly greater likelihood to participate in training across-time.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should consider the funding source for training, be it from the public or private sector, and how this may affect participation. The impact that various types of training have on employment and earning patterns in developed nations should also be further assessed.

Originality/value

This study, with its use of the most recent available data to analyze across-time changes in the determinants of participating in training in Canada, has contributed to the knowledge base regarding the SIS in Canada and how it compares to its European counterparts.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 37 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Lida Fan, Keith Brownlee, Nazim N. Habibov and Raymond Neckoway

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, drawing on a unique data set, the authors estimate the returns to education for Canadian Aboriginal people. Second, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, drawing on a unique data set, the authors estimate the returns to education for Canadian Aboriginal people. Second, the authors explore the relationship between occupation and the economic well-being, measured as income, of Aboriginal people in an effort to provide a better understanding of the causes of income gaps for Aboriginal people.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this study is the Public Use Microdata File of Aboriginal People’s Survey, 2012. An ordered logit model is used to estimate the key determinants for income groups. Then the marginal effects of each variable, for the probability of being in each category of the outcomes, are derived.

Findings

All the explanatory variables, including demographic, educational and occupational variables, appeared statistically significant with predicted signs. These results confirmed relationships between income level and education and occupations.

Research limitations/implications

The data limitation of income, as a categorical variable prevents the precise estimation of the contributions of the dependent variables in dollar amount.

Social implications

In order to substantially improve the Aboriginal people’s market performance, it is important to emphasise the quality of their education and whether their areas of study could lead them to high-skilled occupations.

Originality/value

Attention is paid to the types of human capital rather than the general term of education.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2011

Nazim N. Habibov

Against a background of rising inequalities in transitional countries, the purpose of this study is to focus on the analysis of the self‐perceived social stratification in…

1003

Abstract

Purpose

Against a background of rising inequalities in transitional countries, the purpose of this study is to focus on the analysis of the self‐perceived social stratification in the low‐income countries of the South Caucasus.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the recent multi‐country comparative survey conducted in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, this study examines the factors explaining self‐perceived stratification in the region. Ordered logit regression model is fitted to assess the determinants of the stratification.

Findings

One of the most important findings of this paper is that the majority of the people in the examined region consider themselves as middle class, although a considerable share of the general population are actually at the lowest level of society. Self‐perceived social stratification in the countries of this region can largely be explained by a set of factors within the direct social policy domain.

Practical implications

Active promotion of job intensive economic growth, supporting small businesses, improving effectiveness of social protection policies, affordability of healthcare and education, and active integration of migrants and investment in public infrastructure should also be priorities.

Social implications

Addressing the identified policy priorities will permit counterbalancing stratification, supporting the middle class and reducing the poverty in the countries of the region.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the self‐perceived social stratification in the region of the low‐income countries of the South Caucasus.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Nazim Habibov

The purpose of this paper is to quantify the impact of socio‐economic characteristics on out‐of pocket expenditures for prescribed medications in Tajikistan and provide…

687

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quantify the impact of socio‐economic characteristics on out‐of pocket expenditures for prescribed medications in Tajikistan and provide recommendations for healthcare sector reform. The research question in this paper is: what household, personal, economic, and health factors help explain expenditures on medications? From a theoretical perspective, this paper contributes to the on‐going discussion of out‐of‐pocket expenditures in Tajikistan. From a practical perspective, in line with this recent development in the Tajikistan healthcare sector, it helps to develop evidence‐based decision‐making by answering practical questions: what factors affect pattern of out‐of‐pocket expenditures for prescribed medication? Which groups of the population should be granted a discount or fee‐waiver when buying them?

Design/methodology/approach

Based on micro‐file data from the most recent cross‐sectional nationally‐representative survey of Tajik households, this paper develops and tests a multivariate model of identifying determinants of out‐of‐pocket expenditures on prescribed medications in Tajikistan.

Findings

The paper finds that economic status, chronic illness, disability, number of small children, short supply of necessary drugs, and cardiac and acute illnesses are the strongest determinants of spending for prescribed medications in the country.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates that to ensure accessibility to and affordability of prescribed medications, discounts or fee‐waivers should be granted to specific categories of households, those in poverty, with chronically ill members and with small children. These discounts or fee‐waivers should cover prescribed medications for children, long‐standing illness as well as for cardiac and acute infectious diseases. Administrative and economic measures should be taken to reduce the extra costs incurred due to the shortage of prescribed medications. Hence, these findings can be used in developing and designing reforms in the Tajikistan healthcare sector.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Nazim N. Habibov

Low‐income transitional countries in the region of the Caucasus and Central Asia lack the existence of a solid assessment of public perceptions regarding the causes of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Low‐income transitional countries in the region of the Caucasus and Central Asia lack the existence of a solid assessment of public perceptions regarding the causes of poverty during transition. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap in the existing literature.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the secondary analysis of a recent cross‐sectional multinational survey to shed light on public beliefs of the causes of poverty in seven countries of the region – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. In addition, Russia and Ukraine are used as a comparison point. The theoretical framework for this study is that the subjective beliefs regarding the explanations of poverty can be classified into three broad groups: individualistic, fatalistic, and structural. Hence, regression coefficients and marginal effects of the multinomial logit regression model (MNLM) are estimated to associate the set of various individual, households, and community characteristics selected in the conceptual framework with the likelihood of choosing one of the three afore‐mentioned explanations of poverty.

Findings

The results of cross‐tabulation reveal that in a majority of the countries studied, the predominant explanation for poverty is structural, with the exception of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, where predominant explanations are, respectively, fatalistic and individualistic. The results of MNLM show that most individual, household, and community characteristics possess the expected direction and are in line with previous findings. However, some of the characteristics have a similar significant effect across several countries, while other characteristics are significant for a single country only.

Social implications

These findings demonstrate that despite the dominant post‐socialist ideology which favors individualistic and fatalistic explanations of poverty based on the economic rationality of market capitalism, the efforts of the elites in promoting and imposing these ideologies has not been fully successful. Nevertheless, no single unified model of the determinants of beliefs regarding the causes of poverty in the countries of the region is observed.

Originality/value

This is one of the very few papers aimed at assessing public perceptions regarding the causes of poverty in transitional countries of the Caucasus and Central Asia.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 31 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Elvin Afandi and Nazim Habibov

The purpose of this paper is to use survey data from a sample of 29,000 households from 28 transitional countries and Turkey to address two main questions: first, is there…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use survey data from a sample of 29,000 households from 28 transitional countries and Turkey to address two main questions: first, is there any effect of social trust on the use of banking services; and second, what are the household-level and country-specific determinants of using banking services in transitional countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use binary probit models, instrumental variables methods and various econometric specifications to test the hypothesis.

Findings

The authors found that the higher level of trust in people predicts a greater level in use of banking services by households regardless of the model specifications and econometric adjustments employed. This association appears to be more prominent among less educated respondents and in countries with low levels of legal enforcement. The results also suggest that location, income and wealth of households, along with country income level, legal enforcement and inflation rates strongly affect the decisions made by households regarding their use of banking services. In contrast, the authors found either a very small or non-significant impact with regard to bank ownership structure on the use of banking services across households.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge this is the first study which specifically focusses on social trust and the usage of formal banking services across a large set of transitional countries.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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