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Article

Tanu Jain, Kiran Grover and Navjot Kaur Gill

This paper aims to evaluate the impact of garden cress supplemented biscuits on the nutritional status of malnourished children.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the impact of garden cress supplemented biscuits on the nutritional status of malnourished children.

Design/methodology/approach

For the present study, 60 underweight and anemic seven-nine-year-old school children were selected according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and divided into two groups, i.e. experimental (30) and control (30). Biscuits (60 g) developed using roasted garden cress seeds were supplemented to the experimental group, while biscuits without garden cress seeds were provided to control group for a period of three months and impact was observed in terms of improvement in nutritional status of subjects before and after the supplementation.

Findings

The food and nutrient intake increased with increased percent nutrient adequacy and sharp increase (p ≤ 0.05) was noticed in cereal, fat and sugar after supplementation. Average height, weight, body mass index and mid-upper arm circumference increased, with 3.56 and 0.87 per cent gain in weight and height (p ≤ 0.05) respectively. Hemoglobin levels increased from 10.6 to 11g/dl with little improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in proteins, albumin and other indices of blood profile and nine subjects fell in non-anemic category.

Research limitations/implications

The diets of both groups were not controlled, which might have varied the results.

Practical implications

Garden cress-seed-enriched biscuits were able to have a positive impact on the nutritional profile of malnourished and anemic school children.

Social/implications

The duration of supplementation was short, which may have affected these results. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to perform long-duration supplementation study for more accurate results.

Originality/value

This paper identifies the need for promoting garden cress seeds in supplementary foods to reduce malnutrition.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article

Navjot Sandhu

This paper aims to evaluate whether small marginal farmers in India have financial constraints and to examine how bank managers make lending decisions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate whether small marginal farmers in India have financial constraints and to examine how bank managers make lending decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey approach was employed, using semi-structured questionnaires with a sample of 42 banks and 185 farmers from the state of Punjab in India. The questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were carried out on a one-to-one basis and in focus groups, and their responses were analysed from the supply (banks) and demand (farmers) side regarding access to finance.

Findings

The results indicate that the Indian farming sector is a complex and multidimensional one that has dependency on both the private and public sectors because of its national importance to varying degrees. Financial lending decisions are dependent upon several non-quantifiable factors (culture, caste, family size, education) and relational bank lending practices. Such practices have an adverse impact on bankable loan applications, and this gives rise to moral hazards. Relational banking and recommendations minimise default rates, but this does not minimise information asymmetry. Subjectivity in decision-making persists, which is compounded by underdeveloped financial markets for small farmers, giving rise to financial exclusion and negatively impacting on economic growth. To overcome information asymmetry, banks rely on the qualitative factors and an excessive level of collateral when making lending decisions. The findings provide valuable insight into how banks make lending decisions and evaluates a complex matrix of relationships between farmers and providers of debt finance in a developing economy such as India.

Practical implications

Policy makers nationally and internationally could use the results of this research to develop relevant and targeted policies to promote the agricultural sector through adopting efficient provision of finance for farmers. A major contribution of this research is to provide a fundamental evaluation of the issues facing farmers in accessing finance in developing countries.

Originality/value

This study provides an original empirical insight into a sector of the economy that has implications for food security for a country. The study has relevance for a wide range of stakeholders and policy makers of both developed and emerging economies in the world.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article

Navjot Sandhu, Javed Hussain and Harry Matlay

This paper aims to examine barriers to finance experienced by female owner/managers of marginal farms in the Punjab region of India.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine barriers to finance experienced by female owner/managers of marginal farms in the Punjab region of India.

Design/methodology/approach

The article is based on the preliminary results of a survey conducted with 48 marginal farmers and 15 bank managers in Punjab, India.

Findings

Emergent results show that the relationship of female owner/mangers with their banks was affected by gender prejudices inherent in the male dominated banking sector in India. Loan rejection rates for female owner/managers were significantly greater than those of their male counterparts. The incidence of bank managers requiring collateral/referral letters was considerably higher for female owner/managers than for equivalent male applicants.

Research limitations/implications

The research sample explored in this study is small and drawn exclusively from the Punjab region of India and it might not be representative of the wider population of farmers in India.

Practical implications

To enhance the competitiveness of the agricultural sector in India, policy makers and associated government agencies should develop support initiatives aimed specifically at marginal farmers in general and female owner/managers in particular.

Social implications

Even though the research sample is small the results of the study could have implications for policy makers, bank managers and regional development agencies in India as well as other developing countries.

Originality/value

The results of this research contribute to better awareness and understanding of barriers to finance experienced by female owner/managers of marginal farms in Punjab, India.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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