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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Nava Subramaniam, Monika Kansal, Dessalegn Getie Mihret and Shekar Babu

This paper aims to assess the risks and challenges of corporate social responsibility (CSR) management in the Indian-mandated CSR ecosystem from a service…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the risks and challenges of corporate social responsibility (CSR) management in the Indian-mandated CSR ecosystem from a service purchaser–supplier dualistic perspective and the role management control systems (MCS) and social capital play in managing such risks and challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

This study undertook a qualitative approach that involved in-depth interviews of 22 CSR directors, managers or chief executive officers from 13 central public sector enterprises (CPSEs) that had purchased CSR services and nine managers of non-government organisations (NGOs) serving as CSR suppliers. Data analysis was founded on the principal–agent and social capital theoretical perspectives.

Findings

A highly bureaucratic, time-pressured mandated environment poses several goal congruence and adverse selection threats to outsourced CSR project arrangements. A mix of formal and informal control mechanisms is critical for enhancing trust or bonding between service purchasers and service providers and enriching bridging capital or access to resources derived from interpersonal connections between NGOs and communities.

Practical implications

NGOs and CPSEs may benefit from understanding each other’s goals and culture and using appropriate formal and informal MCS for managing CSR expectations and outcomes.

Originality/value

Drawing on a unique mandatory CSR regime, this study offers principal–agent and social capital perspectives on CSR programme delivery, highlighting the importance of various formal and informal MCS in lowering agency costs in outsourced CSR relationships.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2018

Campbell Heggen, VG Sridharan and Nava Subramaniam

The purpose of this paper is to examine why firms governed by the same environmental management standards within an industry exhibit contrasting responses, with some…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine why firms governed by the same environmental management standards within an industry exhibit contrasting responses, with some adhering to the letter and others achieving the spirit behind the standards.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Arena et al. (2010) as an analytical schema to examine the institutional dynamics behind such contrasting responses, the paper analyses archival and interview data relating to firm strategy, control technology and human expertise in two contrasting Australian forestry firms.

Findings

The embedding and decoupling of environmental standards with a firm’s environmental management practices is influenced, first, by the extent to which founder directors and senior management integrate environmental responsibility with the underlying business motives and, second, by the use of organisational beliefs and values systems to institutionalise the integrated strategic rationality throughout the firm. Finally, informed by the institutionalised strategic rationality, the participation and expertise of actors across the organisational hierarchy determine the level to which the design and execution of the eco-control technologies move beyond merely monitoring compliance, and act to facilitate continuous improvement, knowledge integration and organisational learning at the operational level.

Originality/value

This paper responds to institutional theorists’ call for a holistic explanation that considers the interactions among several intra-organisational factors to explain the dynamics behind why some firms decouple while others do not, even though the firms exist in the same social and regulatory context.

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Marzlin Marzuki, Nava Subramaniam, Barry J. Cooper and Steven Dellaportas

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which ethics education is incorporated in the curriculum by accounting academics (EXTENT) and its relationship with…

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1737

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which ethics education is incorporated in the curriculum by accounting academics (EXTENT) and its relationship with the following four factors: accounting academics’ attitudes towards ethics education (ATTDE); head of department support (HODS); peer support (PEERS); and accounting academics’ ethics teaching self-efficacy (ETSE).

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilises data from a questionnaire survey of 117 accounting academics in Malaysia and engages path analysis to test various hypothesised relationships.

Findings

The results indicate that ATTDE, HODS and PEERS have a significant and positive impact on accounting academics’ ETSE. The findings also suggest that ETSE and PEERS have a direct and positive impact on EXTENT. Overall, ETSE is found to be a significant mediating variable in the relationship between ATTDE, HODS, PEERS and EXTENT.

Research limitations/implications

The relatively small sample of 117 Malaysian accounting academics and the limited number of factors studied as drivers of ETSE, which limits generalisability of the results.

Practical implications

This paper is particularly useful for informing heads of departments and the regulatory and professional bodies of resourcing and fostering a work environment that supports peer support and interactions as well as knowledge resources that facilitate individual accounting academics’ to integrate ethics content in their courses or units.

Originality/value

The study is guided by Bandura’s (1977, 1997) self-efficacy theory and adapts Tschannen-Moran and Hoy’s (2001) teacher efficacy construct in understanding how accounting academic’s belief in one’s ability to complete tasks and achieve goals affects the level of integration of ethics in their courses.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

Laura de Zwaan, Jenny Stewart and Nava Subramaniam

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of internal auditors' involvement in enterprise risk management (ERM) on perceptions of their willingness to report a…

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10091

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of internal auditors' involvement in enterprise risk management (ERM) on perceptions of their willingness to report a breakdown in risk procedures and whether a strong relationship with the audit committee affects such willingness to report. The study also investigates the use of ERM and the role of internal audit in ERM in Australian private and public sector entities.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses an experimental design, manipulating the internal auditor's involvement in ERM and the strength of the relationship between internal audit and the audit committee. Participants are 117 certified internal auditors. The study also gathers descriptive data on the use of ERM.

Findings

The study indicates that a high involvement in ERM impacts the perceptions of internal auditors' willingness to report a breakdown in risk procedures to the audit committee. However, a strong relationship with the audit committee does not appear to affect their perceived willingness to report. The study also finds that the majority of organisations have recently adopted ERM. Internal auditors are involved in ERM assurance activities but some also engage in activities that could compromise objectivity.

Research limitations/implications

There are internal and external validity threats associated with the experimental design.

Practical implications

The findings reinforce the need for organisations to adhere to the recommendations of the Institute of Internal Auditors and to ensure that internal auditors do not play an inappropriate role in ERM.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to our understanding of the impact of involvement in ERM on internal audit objectivity and of the current role of internal audit in ERM in Australia.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

Nava Subramaniam and Professor Peter Carey

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2197

Abstract

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

Jenny Stewart and Nava Subramaniam

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the recent literature on internal audit independence and objectivity and discuss opportunities for future research. The…

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11906

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the recent literature on internal audit independence and objectivity and discuss opportunities for future research. The topics examined are the organizational status of internal audit, the internal auditor's dual role as a provider of assurance and consulting activities, internal audit's involvement in risk management, outsourcing and co‐sourcing of internal audit activities, and the use of internal audit as a training ground for managers.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach used in this paper is a review of the literature followed by an identification of further research opportunities.

Findings

The paper summarizes the existing body of knowledge relating to internal audit independence and objectivity and identifies gaps in the literature where further research is needed.

Originality/value

The paper provides researchers with a useful summary of the literature on internal audit independence and objectivity and stimulates them to engage in further research in the area.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

Nava Subramaniam

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220

Abstract

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

Dominic S.B. Soh and Nonna Martinov‐Bennie

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the current roles and responsibilities of the internal audit (IA) function and the factors perceived to be necessary…

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22708

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the current roles and responsibilities of the internal audit (IA) function and the factors perceived to be necessary to ensure its effectiveness. The current performance evaluation practices of IA are also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi‐structured interviews were utilised to elicit the perceptions of key corporate governance actors about the evolving role of IA, as well as IA effectiveness, in terms of its design, measurement and evaluation.

Findings

The results of the study suggest significant expansion and refocus of the role of IA and perceptions of its effectiveness. However, the findings also suggest that performance evaluation mechanisms of IA have not evolved contemporaneously. The misalignment between the role and evaluation gives rise to difficulty in assessing the extent to which IA functions are meeting stakeholders' expectations.

Practical implications

The findings are useful in informing the deliberations of regulators and standard setters, as well as providing a benchmark for internal auditors and audit committees. The insights are also relevant for external auditors who are required to consider various aspects of corporate governance, including the objectivity and quality of IA.

Originality/value

The use of semi‐structured interviews facilitates an in‐depth insight and understanding of the perceptions of roles, effectiveness and evaluation of IA and adds depth to the predominantly questionnaire‐based survey approach of prior studies.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2009

Nava Subramaniam, Lisa McManus and Jiani Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to examine how a risk management committee (RMC), as a newly evolving sub‐committee of the board of directors, functions as a key governance…

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5806

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how a risk management committee (RMC), as a newly evolving sub‐committee of the board of directors, functions as a key governance support mechanism in the oversight an organisation's risk management strategies, policies and processes. However, empirical evidence on the factors associated with the existence and the type of RMCs remains scant.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an agency theory perspective, this study investigates the association between board factors such as proportion of non‐executive directors, Chief Executive Officer duality, and board size; as well as, other firm‐related factors (e.g. auditor type, industry, leverage, and complexity), and the existence of a RMC, and the type of RMC (namely, a separate RMC versus one that is combined with the audit committee). Data was collected from the annual reports of the top 300 Australian Stock Exchange (ASX)‐listed companies.

Findings

The results, based on logistic regression analyses, indicate that RMCs tend to exist in companies with an independent board chairman and larger boards. Further, the results also indicate that in comparison to companies with a combined RMC and audit committee, those with a separate RMC are more likely to have larger boards, higher financial reporting risk and lower organisational complexity.

Research limitations/implications

Data limited to top 200 top ASX‐listed companies, thus restricting generalisability of the results.

Originality/value

The findings of this study provide additional information on the use and design of RMCs in a voluntary setting.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Shireenjit K. Johl, Satirenjit Kaur Johl, Nava Subramaniam and Barry Cooper

The purpose of this paper is to test the impact of the internal audit function (IAF), an increasingly common internal governance mechanism, on a firm's financial reporting…

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7456

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the impact of the internal audit function (IAF), an increasingly common internal governance mechanism, on a firm's financial reporting quality. Specifically, this paper investigates the association between the quality of the IAF and abnormal accruals (as a proxy for financial reporting quality) and whether the board of directors play a role in moderating the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a unique dataset of survey responses and archival data. Regression analysis was used to test their hypotheses.

Findings

Although their initial findings show an unexpected positive relationship between internal audit quality and abnormal accruals, this relationship is contingent on whether firms outsource their internal audit activities and/or whether they are politically linked. In estimations excluding outsourcing and political connections observations, this paper shows that the association between internal audit quality and abnormal accruals is negative and in particular internal audit organisational independence, financial focus audit activities and investment are associated with lower income-increasing (opportunistic) abnormal accruals. Next, when this paper interact board quality with internal audit quality, this paper finds although the lower ordered variables board quality and internal audit quality coefficients are negatively related to abnormal accruals, the interaction variable between these two variables is positively associated with abnormal accruals, indicating the possibility of a substitution relationship between board quality and internal audit quality.

Research limitations/implications

Their findings show that certain internal audit attributes play an important role in the financial reporting process and thus these findings are expected to inform the Institute of Internal Auditors and other regulatory bodies on the role of internal audit (being an important internal governance mechanism) in financial reporting, which in turn can assist in market/regulatory reforms/changes and inform the revised Malaysian Code of Corporate Governance.

Originality/value

This paper extends prior internal auditing literature by examining the relationship between internal audit quality and financial reporting quality in the context of a developing country, namely Malaysia, and whether the board of directors moderate the examined association.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 28 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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