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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1973

The pattern of prosecutions forfood offences has changed very little in the past decade. Compositional offences have rarely exceeded 5 per cent and, since the 1967 batch…

Abstract

The pattern of prosecutions forfood offences has changed very little in the past decade. Compositional offences have rarely exceeded 5 per cent and, since the 1967 batch of regulations for meat products, are mostly in respect of deficient meat content. Food hygiene offences have also remained steady, with no improvement to show for all the effort to change the monotony of repulsive detail. The two major causes of all legal proceedings, constituting about 90 per cent of all cases—the presence of foreign matter and sale of mouldy food—continue unchanged; and at about the same levels, viz. an average of 55 per cent of the total for foreign matter and 35 per cent for mouldy food. What is highly significant about this changed concept of food and drugs administration is that almost all prosecutions now arise from consumer complaint. The number for adulteration as revealed by official sampling and analysis and from direct inspectorial action is small in relation to the whole. A few mouldy food offences are included in prosecutions for infringements of the food hygiene regulations, but for most of the years for which statistics have been gathered by the BFJ and published annually, all prosecutions for the presence of foreign matter have come from consumer complaint. The extent to which food law administration is dependent upon this source is shown by the fact that 97 per cent of all prosecutions in 1971 for foreign bodies and mouldy food—579 and 340 respectively—resulted from complaints; and in 1972, 98 per cent of prosecutions resulted from the same source in respect of 597 for foreign matter and 341 for mouldy food. Dirty milk bottle cases in both years all arose from consumer complaint; 41 and 37 respectively.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 75 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

D. Nithyananda Sastry, T. Prabhakar and M. Lakshmi Narasu

– This paper aims to isolate fungal strains producing natural colours, explore their application as colourant in paints and develop cost-effective durable natural paints.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to isolate fungal strains producing natural colours, explore their application as colourant in paints and develop cost-effective durable natural paints.

Design/methodology/approach

Fungal strains producing natural colours of different shades were isolated. Colourant production was carried out by fermentation method. Natural lime, milk, oil-in-water emulsion paints using natural microbial colours and eco-friendly ingredients were prepared. Bio-paint applications were carried out and evaluated.

Findings

Our results indicate that microbes in general and fungi in specific represent dependable source of variety of natural colours, and cost-effective durable natural paints can be prepared with commonly available natural ingredients using scientific information based on history of paints.

Research limitations/implications

Natural colours are gaining importance because of their use in health, nutrition, pharmaceutical, textile and environmental applications. Nature is quite rich in several types of colourants. Chemical synthesis of synthetic dyes is complex and not environmental friendly. Microbial dyes manufactured can evade inherent environmental problems of synthetic dyes and offer significant opportunity as a colourant in paints. However, only generally regarded as safe microbial strains are to be considered for colour production.

Practical implications

Choosing natural alternatives to protect the health and environment is the need of hour. Fungal colourants are relatively more stable and robust and offer significant opportunity as a colourant in paints. Cost-effective durable natural paints can be prepared using selected stable fungal colourants with commonly available natural ingredients. High diversity of rich and complex natural colourants can be obtained from microorganisms. With the available techniques of fermentation, natural colours can be produced in large quantities of on an economically viable scale and explored for their applications.

Social implications

Bio-paints are eco-friendly natural paints, low volatile organic compounds (VOC) paints or organic paints alternate to conventional paints. Most of these natural paints are durable, breathable, prevent moisture problems, contribute to a positive room climate, use safer technology and are less energy-intensive than conventional latex paints to produce. These paints improve indoor air quality and reduce urban smog and offer beneficial characteristics such as low odour, excellent durability and a washable finish.

Originality/value

Many of the old art works that still survive today are a tangible proof and evidence of beauty and durability of natural paints. Organic materials used in these paints include natural pigments of mineral, plant and animal origin and other raw biodegradable ingredients. Successful commercialisation of many microbial pigments for food and textile applications is reported in literature. Therefore, present research work aims at developing natural paints using microbial pigments and recipes that have been successfully used by people for years.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1971

Without aspiring to emulate Robert Browning's song thrush, we venture to repeat an admonition on smoking in the food trade of almost a decade ago. (The Smoking Habit

Abstract

Without aspiring to emulate Robert Browning's song thrush, we venture to repeat an admonition on smoking in the food trade of almost a decade ago. (The Smoking Habit, 1962, BFJ, 64, 79). The first time it coincided with a little research we had undertaken, which later saw the light of day epitomized in article form and was enthusiastically (sic) commented upon in sections of the press and then died as if it had never been born. (Tobacco and Lung Cancer, 1965, Med. Offr., 2955, 148). Now, it coincides with the most concentrated, officially inspired, campaign, so far, mounted against the evils of smoking. The most striking fact about all these national efforts every few years is the lack of success in real terms. A marketing organization achieving such poor results would count it a costly failure. It would be unfair to say that none have given up, but with a habit so ingrained, determination is required and in many, if not most, of those able to refrain, the craving is so great that they are smoking again within a week or so. Overall, the smoking population is enormous, including, as it does, girls and women‐folk. Once, it was undignified for a woman to be seen smoking. We recall a visit by Queen Mary to the village Manor House, just after the First War; she was an expert in antique furniture and came to see the manor's collection. When Her Majesty asked for a cigarette, the village rang with astonishment for days. Nothing as amazing had happened since Cavaliers and Roundheads tethered their horses beneath the three great poplars which stood on the green. “Queen Mary! 'er smokes!”

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 73 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2021

Mariana Souza Rocha, Luiz Célio Souza Rocha, Marcia Barreto da Silva Feijó, Paula Luiza Limongi dos Santos Marotta and Samanta Cardozo Mourão

The mucilage of the Linum usitatissimum L. seed (Linseed) is one of the natural mucilages that presents a great potential to provide a food hydrocolloid with potential…

Abstract

Purpose

The mucilage of the Linum usitatissimum L. seed (Linseed) is one of the natural mucilages that presents a great potential to provide a food hydrocolloid with potential applications in both food and pharmaceutical industries. To increase the yield and quality of linseed oil during its production process, it is necessary to previously extract its polysaccharides. Because of this, flax mucilage production can be made viable as a byproduct of oil extraction process, which is already a product of high commercial value consolidated in the market. Thus, the purpose of this work is to optimize the mucilage extraction process of L. usitatissimum L. using the normal-boundary intersection (NBI) multiobjective optimization method.

Design/methodology/approach

Currently, the variables of the process of polysaccharide extraction from different sources are optimized using the response surface methodology. However, when the optimal points of the responses are conflicting it is necessary to study the best conditions to achieve a balance between these conflicting objectives (trade-offs) and to explore the available options it is necessary to formulate an optimization problem with multiple objectives. The multiobjective optimization method used in this work was the NBI developed to find uniformly distributed and continuous Pareto optimal solutions for a nonlinear multiobjective problem.

Findings

The optimum extraction point to obtain the maximum fiber concentration in the extracted material was pH 3.81, temperature of 46°C, time of 13.46 h. The maximum extraction yield of flaxseed was pH 6.45, temperature of 65°C, time of 14.41 h. This result confirms the trade-off relationship between the objectives. NBI approach was able to find uniformly distributed Pareto optimal solutions, which allows to analyze the behavior of the trade-off relationship. Thus, the decision-maker can set extraction conditions to achieve desired characteristics in mucilage.

Originality/value

The novelty of this paper is to confirm the existence of a trade-off relationship between the productivity parameter (yield) and the quality parameter (fiber concentration in the extracted material) during the flaxseed mucilage extraction process. The NBI approach was able to find uniformly distributed Pareto optimal solutions, which allows us to analyze the behavior of the trade-off relationship. This allows the decision-making to the extraction conditions according to the desired characteristics of the final product, thus being able to direct the extraction for the best applicability of the mucilage.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2018

Rachna Sharma and Alka Goel

The paper focused onto the development of microcapsules by using two essential oils. It proposes the uses of eucalyptus oil and cedarwood oil as a natural insecticide. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper focused onto the development of microcapsules by using two essential oils. It proposes the uses of eucalyptus oil and cedarwood oil as a natural insecticide. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of developed microcapsules to impart insect repellency on textile substrate.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for an experimental study using two essential oils and gum in formations of microcapsules through a simple coaseravtion encapsulation technique. The developed solution was analyzed, including confirmation of size and structure through. Application of developed finish on substrate was also undertaken to prove better ability as repellent fabric.

Findings

The paper highlights useful invention of microencapsulated fabric developed with the combination of gum acacia and eucalyptus oil as core and shell material. The developed fabric has better ability to repel silverfish as compared to microencapsulated fabric developed with gum acacia (shell) and cedarwood oil (core).

Research limitations/implications

Due to the lack of time and less availability of essential oils, only two oils were used to test the insect repellent behavior.

Practical implications

This paper fulfills an identified need, it includes implications for the development of a very useful natural insecticide to repel silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) insect. This insect is a very common problem found in cloth wardrobes and bookshelves; it mainly attacks the fabric with cellulosic content and starch.

Social implications

Society will get major benefit of using these microencapsulated finished fabrics, which repel silverfish from their home and keep their clothing and books safe for longer period. The natural fragrance and medicinal benefits of these essential oils can never be ignored.

Originality/value

This study sets a new approach to repel insects like silverfish from the bookshelves and clothing wardrobes. A layer of insect repellent microencapsulated finished fabric can be added in these shelves and wardrobes. It is an eco-friendly approach of using natural essential oils instead of chemical insecticides.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Douglas Anderson

The objectives of specifications published by the Joint FAO/WHOExpert Committee on Food Additives are examined, and an explanation isgiven of the justification for a…

Abstract

The objectives of specifications published by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives are examined, and an explanation is given of the justification for a recent revision of the specification for gum arabic (Acacia senegal). Differences from the earlier version are summarised. The Revised Specification is a considerable improvement in chemical terms and offers increased protection for importers, deemed to be the manufacturers of consignments from the producing countries, and for food processors responsible for making labelling declarations. Unfortunately the maximum degree of safety assurance for consumers, which they are entitled to expect, is still not guaranteed. The revised specification remains inadequate to ensure that gum arabic in foodstuffs originates from the specified source, or complies in terms of identity, composition and quality with that of the test article selected for the toxicological evaluations that led to its classification as “ADI not specified” in 1983. The loopholes available to companies which may not be prepared voluntarily to accept the principles of good manufacturing practice are indicated.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 93 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Ahsen Ezel Bildik Dal, Yağmur Biricik and Sinan Sönmez

This study aims to provide control of liquids, especially against water-based ink on the paper and paperboard surface with natural substances, in also practical and greenway.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide control of liquids, especially against water-based ink on the paper and paperboard surface with natural substances, in also practical and greenway.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper surface was treated with natural rosin and its derivatives to obtain a hydrophobic effect and to improve printing properties. The oleoresin samples collected from Pinus nigra Arnold and Pinus pinaster Aiton trees in the controlled area and turpentine content removed was by hydrodistillation. The gum rosin (GR), fortified 10% with maleic anhydride (MGR) and esterified with 10% pentaerythritol (PMGR) samples solved in a simply alcohol and sprayed the base paper surface directly with a spray gun. Base paper samples were paperboard, bleached paper and test liner paper. Then, flexo printing was applied and printability properties were measured.

Findings

The treatment weights of these paper samples were 1.8 ± 0.5, 1.3 ± 0.5 and 0.7 ± 0.2 g/m2, respectively, compared to the base paper. Greater Cobb60 results were obtained from modified rosin samples than unmodified gum rosin-sized paperboards and the PMGR surface treatment reduces Cobb60 values by 20% and MGR treatment reduces 15% comparing to the base sheet. Then, the printing procedure was applied to the surface of the treated materials using a flexo printing system. As a result of the treatment better print density, chroma and print lightness value consumed a less hydrophobic agent and controlling water-based flexo ink on the base paper surface.

Originality/value

The unique aspect of this work was improving the hydrophobicity of the paper surfaces was achieved by spraying with natural rosin and derivatives.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Nnabuk Okon Eddy, Inemesit Udofia and Adamu Uzairu

– The purpose of this study is to determine the physicochemical and rheological parameters of Albizia lebbeck gum.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the physicochemical and rheological parameters of Albizia lebbeck gum.

Design/methodology/approach

Physicochemical analysis was carried out using recommended methods. Gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer and Fourier transformed infra red (FTIR) analyses were carried out using their respective spectrophotometer. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out using scanning electron microscope, while rheological measurements were carried out using Ubbelohde capillary viscometer, digital Brookfield DV 1 viscometer and a rheometer.

Findings

Albizia zygia gum is an ionic gum with unique physical and chemical properties. Scanning electron micrograph revealed that the internal structure of the gum is porous with irregular molecular arrangement. Thermodynamic parameters of viscous flow indicated the existence of few inter- and intra-molecular interactions, and the attainment of transition state was linked to bond breaking. Coil overlap transition studies revealed the existence of dilute and concentrated regimes. The viscosity of the gum was also found to decrease with decrease in the charge of cation (such that Al3+ > Ca2+ > K+) and with increase in ionic strength.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provided information on physicochemical and rheological characteristics/behaviour of Albizia zygia gum, of Nigerian origin. From this information, possible application of this gum in the food and pharmaceutical industries can be deduced.

Originality/value

The paper is original since information concerning Albizia zygia gum of Nigerian origin are not well documented as established in the work. It also adds values on the use of Albizia zygia gum, either on its own or in combination with other gums for industrial purpose.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

B.S. Gowri, Khyrunnisa Begum, G. Saraswathi and Jamuna Prakash

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of incorporation of selected additives on fat uptake and sensory quality of two traditional deep fried snacks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of incorporation of selected additives on fat uptake and sensory quality of two traditional deep fried snacks.

Design/methodology/approach

A wheat‐based snack Diamond cuts, and a rice and gram‐based spicy snack Kodbale, were chosen. The products were prepared by incorporating to the dough, 0.2, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 per cent of 11 different additives like gum acacia, gum Tragacanth, Methylcellulose, Gaur Gum, Pectin, Gum Karaya, Gum Carageenan, Xanthan Gum, Gum Gellan, Seafoam and Beligara. Products were evaluated for sensory attributes and fat uptake was estimated by soxhlet extraction.

Findings

Results indicated that average fat uptake in Diamond cuts and Kodbale was 28.00 and 30 per cent, respectively. In Diamond cuts, while addition of additives did not alter fat uptake remarkably, a slight decrease in the case of gum Tragacanth (0.2 per cent) and Gaur Gum and Gum Carageenan (0.75 per cent) was observed. Statistical analysis of sensory attributes revealed only a marginal difference in textural quality of Diamond cuts incorporated with Gaur Gum, Pectin and Beligara. In Kodbale, fat uptake was marginally lowered by the addition of Gaur Gum, gum Tragacanth, Xanthan Gum and Gum Carageenan at 0.75 per cent. No significant differences were observed among the sensory qualities except for marginal differences in textural quality of Kodbale incorporated with Gaur Gum, Gum Carageenan and Beligara. It can be concluded that addition of additives did not influence the fat uptake or sensory quality of fried products studied to a significant extent.

Originality/value

Since some of the additives improved textural quality of products and fried products are usually stored and consumed, these additives can probably help in improving the texture of stored products. Further studies in this area would help in confirming this.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Sandriane Pizato, Raquel Costa Chevalier, Marcela Félix Dos Santos, Tailine Saturnino Da Costa, Rosalinda Arévalo Pinedo and William Renzo Cortez Vega

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the shelf-life of minimally processed pineapple when subjected to the use of different edible coatings.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the shelf-life of minimally processed pineapple when subjected to the use of different edible coatings.

Design/methodology/approach

The pineapples were peeled and cut into cubes. The gums were prepared by dissolving them in distilled water and then heated to total dissolution. After calcium chloride, citric acid and ascorbic acid and glycerol were added in the solutions. The pieces of pineapple were completely submerged in the respective solutions and then drained. Four treatments were obtained, namely: T1 – control treatment (pineapple without coating); T2 – pectin; T3 – tara; T4 – xanthan. The cubes were stored in PET by 12 days at 4±1°C. Analyzes were carried out of mass loss, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, microbiological and sensory analysis.

Findings

It was possible to observe that the use of evaluated coatings was efficient to maintain the conservation of minimally processed pineapple in all analyzes, when compared with the control sample. The treatment with tara gum showed the best results to those obtained by the other studied gums.

Practical implications

The study may help small-scale establishments to increase the shelf-life of minimally processed pineapple.

Originality/value

Tara gum reduced the mass loss, delayed the microbial growth and maintained the sensorial quality of minimally processed pineapples for a longer time.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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