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Article

Guillaume Carton and Julia Parigot

This paper aims to question the capacity of firms embedded in global value chains to manage their natural resources in a sustainable way. Thus, it offers guidelines for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to question the capacity of firms embedded in global value chains to manage their natural resources in a sustainable way. Thus, it offers guidelines for more sustainable value chains.

Design/methodology/approach

While business strategies have focused on optimizing natural resource exploitation and on constructing global value chains to face sustainability issues, this study first explains why these strategies are not effective in preventing natural resource depletion. Second, it offers a model for anticipating resource depletion. The cut flower industry constitutes a central case to explain the model. Two other industry cases complement the demonstration.

Findings

To anticipate natural resource depletion and thus improve industry sustainability, firms must shift from the exploitation of endangered natural resources to the use of alternative local ones. This shift, however, encourages firms to reconstruct value chains and rethink how they create value within these new value chains. It also has an impact on firms’ growth strategy: they must replicate value chains on a local scale instead of taking part in global value chains.

Research limitations/implications

The findings rely on illustrations from the cut flower, fishing and textile fiber industries. Generalization to other industries may strengthen the argument.

Originality/value

This study offers a model of sustainable growth for firms willing to anticipate natural resource depletion by offering a shift in value chains. It consists of exploiting alternative natural resources and of rethinking the value offered to consumers. Thus, it goes against current models that merely focus on optimizing natural resource exploitation within global value chains.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article

Dante A. Urbina and Gabriel Rodríguez

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of corruption on economic growth, human development and natural resources in Latin American and Nordic countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of corruption on economic growth, human development and natural resources in Latin American and Nordic countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the hierarchical prior of Gelman et al. (2003), a Bayesian panel Vector AutoRegression (VAR) model is estimated. In addition, two alternative approaches are considered, namely, a panel error correction VAR model and an asymmetric panel VAR model.

Findings

The results reveal some relevant contrasts: (1) in Latin America there is support for the sand the wheels hypothesis in Bolivia and Chile, support for the grease the wheels hypothesis in Colombia and no significant impact of corruption on growth in Brazil and Peru, while in Nordic countries the response of growth to shocks in corruption is negative in all cases; (2) corruption negatively affects human development in all countries from both regions; (3) corruption tends to spur natural resources sector in Latin American countries, while it is detrimental for natural resources sector in Nordic countries.

Research limitations/implications

The panel VAR approach uses recursive scheme identification. The authors have analyzed robustness using alternative ordering of the variables. The authors also have followed two alternatives suggested by the Referee: a panel error correction VAR model and a panel asymmetric VAR model. However, another more sophisticated identification scheme could be used. Also other variables could be introduced in the VAR model.

Practical implications

Regardless of the issue of the “grease” vs the “sand the wheels” debate, corruption should be reduced because it is anyway harmful for human development. The differences in the results for Latin American and Nordic countries show that the effects of corruption have to be assessed considering the different institutional and economic conditions of the countries analyzed.

Social implications

Governments should seek to reduce corruption because, despite corruption can have mixed effects on economic growth in some contexts, it is anyway harmful for human development. Besides, the finding that in some Latin American countries more activity in the extractive industries is generated by means of corruption confirm the association between corruption and extractivism found by Gudynas (2017) and can explain why there are issues of environmental damage and social conflict linked to natural resources in those countries.

Originality/value

The present study contributes to the literature by presenting evidence on the effects of corruption on growth, human development and natural resources sector in Latin American and Nordic countries. It is the first study on economics of corruption which directly compares Latin American and Nordic countries. This is relevant because there are important differences between both regions since Latin American countries tend to suffer from widespread corruption, while the Nordic ones have a high level of transparency. It is also the first in using a Bayesian panel VAR approach in order to evaluate the effects of corruption.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article

Wujia Zhu, Yi Lin, Guoping Du and Ningsheng Gong

The paper aims to use a third method to show that the system of natural numbers is inconsistent.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to use a third method to show that the system of natural numbers is inconsistent.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual approach is taken.

Findings

Without directly employing the concepts of potential and actual infinities, the authors show that the concept of the set N={x|n(x)}, where n(x)=defx is a natural number” of all natural numbers is a self‐contradicting, incorrect concept.

Originality/value

The paper shows the system of natural numbers to be inconsistent.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 37 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article

Asis Sarkar

This paper aims to evaluate nine types of electrical energy generation options with regard to seven criteria. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to perform the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate nine types of electrical energy generation options with regard to seven criteria. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to perform the evaluation. The TOPSIS method was used to evaluate the best generation technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The options that were evaluated are the hydrogen combustion turbine, the hydrogen internal combustion engine, the hydrogen fuelled phosphoric acid fuel cell, the hydrogen fuelled solid oxide fuel cell, the natural gas fuelled phosphoric acid fuel cell, the natural gas fuelled solid oxide fuel cell, the natural gas turbine, the natural gas combined cycle and the natural gas internal combustion engine. The criteria used for the evaluation are CO2 emissions, NOX emissions, efficiency, capital cost, operation and maintenance costs, service life and produced electricity cost.

Findings

The results drawn from the analysis in technology wise are as follows: natural gas fuelled solid oxide fuel cells>natural gas combined cycle>natural gas fuelled phosphoric acid fuel cells>natural gas internal combustion engine>hydrogen fuelled solid oxide fuel cells>hydrogen internal combustion engines>hydrogen combustion turbines>hydrogen fuelled phosphoric acid fuel cells> and natural gas turbine. It shows that the natural gas fuelled solid oxide fuel cells are the best technology available among all the available technology considering the seven criteria such as service life, electricity cost, O&M costs, capital cost, NOX emissions, CO2 emissions and efficiency of the plant.

Research limitations/implications

The most dominant electricity generation technology proved to be the natural gas fuelled solid oxide fuel cells which ranked in the first place among nine alternatives. The research is helpful to evaluate the different alternatives.

Practical implications

The research is helpful to evaluate the different alternatives and can be extended in all the spares of technologies.

Originality/value

The research was the original one. Nine energy generation options were evaluated with regard to seven criteria. The energy generation options were the hydrogen combustion turbine, the hydrogen internal combustion engine, the hydrogen fuelled phosphoric acid fuel cell, the hydrogen fuelled solid oxide fuel cell, the natural gas fuelled phosphoric acid fuel cell, the natural gas fuelled solid oxide fuel cell, the natural gas turbine, the natural gas combined cycle and the natural gas internal combustion engine. The criteria used for the evaluation were efficiency, CO2 emissions, NOX emissions, capital cost, O&M costs, electricity cost and service life.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Content available
Article

Sang Jang Kwon and Soo Jong Kwak

In this paper, we theoretically examine the optimal hedge strategy for a natural gas company. The use of natural gas derivatives to minimize consumers' per unit cost of…

Open Access

Abstract

In this paper, we theoretically examine the optimal hedge strategy for a natural gas company. The use of natural gas derivatives to minimize consumers' per unit cost of natural gas consumed, or to minimize the upside risk associated with extreme bills would be the strategy being considered by local distribution companies (LDCs) and regulators. The objective is, therefore, to stabilize the summer and the winter months' natural gas prices as well as to improve the level of customers' welfare. In general, during the summer injection period, April through October, utility companies purchase a certain amount of natural gas and keep in storage facilities and, hence, during the winter withdrawal months, November through March, utility companies supply natural gas at a predetermined minimal fuel cost rate to residential and commercial customers. Therefore, to manage these conflicts of interests efficiently should natural gas companies be supported by accurate forecast of the natural gas price for the winter months. Otherwise, natural gas companies will trade natural gas derivatives in order to reduce costs charged to customers. The results show that customers benefit from the use of natural gas derivatives. If the natural gas market is deregulated, the typical risk-return trade off shows that natural gas derivatives would provide the most efficient tools for utility companies to minimize the natural gas price volatilities.

Details

Journal of Derivatives and Quantitative Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2713-6647

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Article

E. Dehnavi, A. Shams-Nateri and H. Khalili

This paper aims to focus on the absorption behaviour of single and binary mixtures of natural dyes on wool. Natural dyes are multi-components with different structures and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the absorption behaviour of single and binary mixtures of natural dyes on wool. Natural dyes are multi-components with different structures and properties.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, the absorption behaviour of single and binary mixtures of natural dyes was investigated on wool fibre. Study was conducted via some natural dyes, including pomegranate peel as a yellow natural dye with tannin, weld as a yellow natural dye without tannin and madder as a red natural dye without tannin. Applied mordant was alum, which was used in the pre-mordant method. Different shades were obtained by varying dye concentration in the binary mixture. The effect of tannin on absorption behaviour of binary mixture of natural dyes was investigated by spectral reflectance and colour parameters of dyed samples measurements.

Findings

Obtained results indicate that tannin affects the absorption behaviour of natural dyes in binary mixtures.

Practical implications

Because natural dyes are multi-components with different structure and properties, the study of compatibility and absorption behaviour of natural dyes in binary mixture on wool is important in applied researches.

Originality/value

The study of compatibility and absorption behaviour of binary mixture of natural dyes on wool is novel.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

Nick Barter

This paper aims to discuss natural capital by offering some viewpoints on the economic rationality facilitated by the concept. The paper highlights the likely…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss natural capital by offering some viewpoints on the economic rationality facilitated by the concept. The paper highlights the likely performativity of the concept and, ultimately, how this may impact us.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on existing literature to develop its arguments.

Findings

The concept of natural capital may be necessary and accepted, but it is not benign and it facilitates the expansion of economic rationality to new areas. The paper uses some examples to draw out some potential implications of economic rationality that the concept of natural capital may facilitate that are morally dubious.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is a cautionary note to those who might use the concept of natural capital and offers considerations through the use of examples.

Practical implications

The practical implications of this paper are that users of capitals or natural capital frameworks should consider all the potential outcomes of applying those frameworks and whether they are desirable. In particular, it argues that the application of capital frameworks facilitates the expansion of economic decision logics to those areas that are currently not mediated in such a way and this outcome may not have favorable outcomes.

Social implications

This paper highlights how the use of the concept of natural capital could advance economic rationality to those interactions that are not classically considered economic. It argues that this advance may result in economic rationality being applied to our person-to-person (social) interactions, and, thus, the right and wrong of such interactions is measured via an economic calculation. A result one may not consider desirable but may be unavoidable through applying capitals frameworks.

Originality/value

In drawing on existing literature, the originality lies in its discussion of how natural capital is not a neutral term, its framing will likely have implications.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article

Anatoliy G. Goncharuk

The purpose of this paper is to establish groups of stakeholders who win and lose from changes in natural gas prices and to develop practical recommendations for a state…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish groups of stakeholders who win and lose from changes in natural gas prices and to develop practical recommendations for a state regulator for the optimal setting natural gas prices in the domestic market through an example of Ukraine.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, to identify groups of stakeholders with gains and losses from the pricing of natural gas, the author used traditional methods of correlation and statistical regression analysis, including the ordinary least squares (OLS) method.

Findings

The main profit from natural gas remains in the extraction sector. The remaining profit is distributed among the various stakeholders. The consumers during rapidly rising gas prices have to rely on energy efficiency and switching to alternative, less costly resources. The existing system of unified natural gas price for all industrial consumers is inefficient and leads to the losses of the largest industrial sectors in Ukraine – metallurgy and chemical industry. With the help of the developed models, the author determined the critical levels of natural gas prices for these two industries.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited by data about activity of eight key manufacturing companies, four gas distribution companies, and main state gas companies from two country only.

Practical implications

Defined levels can be used by a state regulatory authority as a boundary, above which these industries will be unprofitable and their fate along with hundred thousands of workers will be questionable.

Originality/value

This is the first paper that set the critical levels of natural gas prices for two manufacturing industries in Ukraine.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

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Article

Chongbin Zhao, G.P. Steven and Y.M. Xie

Extends the evolutionary structural optimization method to the solution for the natural frequency optimization of a two‐dimensional structure with additional…

Abstract

Extends the evolutionary structural optimization method to the solution for the natural frequency optimization of a two‐dimensional structure with additional non‐structural lumped masses. Owing to the significant difference between a static optimization problem and a structural natural frequency optimization problem, five basic criteria for the evolutionary natural frequency optimization have been established. The inclusion of these criteria into the evolutionary structural optimization method makes it possible to solve structural natural frequency optimization problems for two‐dimensional structures with additional non‐structural lumped masses. Gives two examples to demonstrate the feasibility of the extended evolutionary structural optimization method when it is used to solve structural natural frequency optimization problems.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article

D. Nithyananda Sastry, T. Prabhakar and M. Lakshmi Narasu

– This paper aims to isolate fungal strains producing natural colours, explore their application as colourant in paints and develop cost-effective durable natural paints.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to isolate fungal strains producing natural colours, explore their application as colourant in paints and develop cost-effective durable natural paints.

Design/methodology/approach

Fungal strains producing natural colours of different shades were isolated. Colourant production was carried out by fermentation method. Natural lime, milk, oil-in-water emulsion paints using natural microbial colours and eco-friendly ingredients were prepared. Bio-paint applications were carried out and evaluated.

Findings

Our results indicate that microbes in general and fungi in specific represent dependable source of variety of natural colours, and cost-effective durable natural paints can be prepared with commonly available natural ingredients using scientific information based on history of paints.

Research limitations/implications

Natural colours are gaining importance because of their use in health, nutrition, pharmaceutical, textile and environmental applications. Nature is quite rich in several types of colourants. Chemical synthesis of synthetic dyes is complex and not environmental friendly. Microbial dyes manufactured can evade inherent environmental problems of synthetic dyes and offer significant opportunity as a colourant in paints. However, only generally regarded as safe microbial strains are to be considered for colour production.

Practical implications

Choosing natural alternatives to protect the health and environment is the need of hour. Fungal colourants are relatively more stable and robust and offer significant opportunity as a colourant in paints. Cost-effective durable natural paints can be prepared using selected stable fungal colourants with commonly available natural ingredients. High diversity of rich and complex natural colourants can be obtained from microorganisms. With the available techniques of fermentation, natural colours can be produced in large quantities of on an economically viable scale and explored for their applications.

Social implications

Bio-paints are eco-friendly natural paints, low volatile organic compounds (VOC) paints or organic paints alternate to conventional paints. Most of these natural paints are durable, breathable, prevent moisture problems, contribute to a positive room climate, use safer technology and are less energy-intensive than conventional latex paints to produce. These paints improve indoor air quality and reduce urban smog and offer beneficial characteristics such as low odour, excellent durability and a washable finish.

Originality/value

Many of the old art works that still survive today are a tangible proof and evidence of beauty and durability of natural paints. Organic materials used in these paints include natural pigments of mineral, plant and animal origin and other raw biodegradable ingredients. Successful commercialisation of many microbial pigments for food and textile applications is reported in literature. Therefore, present research work aims at developing natural paints using microbial pigments and recipes that have been successfully used by people for years.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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