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Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2018

Devyani Prabhat and Jessica Hambly

This article identifies children’s rights as a neglected area in citizenship literature, both in socio-legal scholarship and in British nationality case law. It analyzes…

Abstract

This article identifies children’s rights as a neglected area in citizenship literature, both in socio-legal scholarship and in British nationality case law. It analyzes reasons for this neglect and posits that there exists a dichotomy in approaches to the wellbeing of children in the UK. The characterization of children’s interests and subsequent obligations owed by states to children are different in nationality law from other areas of law, notably, family law. Through our case study of the registration of children as British citizens, we argue that in the UK formal legal membership may appear achievable “in the books” but remains elusive in “law in action.” Children’s interests should be just as central to citizenship studies and nationality case law as to family law cases. A new approach to acquisition of British citizenship by children, with the best interests of the child as a critical evaluative principle at the heart of decision making, will usher in a new era. In the absence of such reconceptualization, children remain passive subjects of nationality law and their voices are unheard in processes of acquisition of citizenship.

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Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-208-0

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Őrn B. Bodvarsson and John G. Sessions

When immigrants experience “nationality discrimination” in the labor market, ceteris paribus their earnings are lower than native-born workers because they were born…

Abstract

When immigrants experience “nationality discrimination” in the labor market, ceteris paribus their earnings are lower than native-born workers because they were born abroad. The challenge to testing for nationality discrimination is that the native/immigrant earnings gap will very likely also be influenced by productivity differences driven by incomplete assimilation of immigrants, as well as the possibility of racial or gender discrimination. There is relatively little empirical literature, and virtually no theoretical literature, on this type of discrimination. In this study, a model of nationality discrimination where customer prejudice and native/immigrant productivity differences jointly influence the earnings gap is presented. We derive an extension of Becker's market discrimination coefficient (MDC), applied to the case of nationality discrimination when there are productivity differences. A number of novel implications are obtained. We find, for example, that the MDC depends upon relative immigrant productivity and relative immigrant labor supply. We test the model on data for hitters and pitchers in Major League Baseball, an industry with a history of immigration, potential for customer discrimination, and clean detailed microdata on worker productivities and race. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and decomposition methods are used to estimate the extent of discrimination. We find no compelling evidence of discrimination in the hitter group, but evidence of ceteris paribus underpayment of immigrant pitchers. While our test case is for a particular industry, our theoretical model, empirical specifications, and general research design are quite generalizable to many other labor markets.

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Migration and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-153-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Jun Onishi and Ryan E. Bliss

Despite contrary evidence, much management research treats Asians as culturally homogeneous. This study seeks to explore how managers from four Asian nations differ in…

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Abstract

Purpose

Despite contrary evidence, much management research treats Asians as culturally homogeneous. This study seeks to explore how managers from four Asian nations differ in conflict management and whether observed differences are linked to cultural attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire assessed conflict management practices and cultural attitudes of managers from four nations with considerable historical, geographical, and economic differences. ANOVA and ANCOVA were used to test hypotheses about groups differences in preference for three conflict management styles – competing integrating, and avoiding – controlling for differences in demographics and cultural attitudes.

Findings

Statistically significant differences were found on all three of the conflict management styles, although the hypotheses were only partly supported. Controlling for differences in demographics and cultural attitudes had little impact on the main findings. Some similarities among the nationalities were found: “integrating” was the most preferred style, and showed the least variation, among the groups. However, there was less similarity among the nationalities regarding “competing” and “avoiding”.

Research limitations/implications

Since the hypotheses – based largely on national culture differences among the nationalities – were only partly supported, future research should attempt to identify variables that better explain differences among nationalities in conflict management style.

Practical implications

The information on conflict management style preferences in these four nations will be valuable to those wishing to do business there. Further, refuting the common assumption of cultural homogeneity among Asians will better prepare Westerners for doing business elsewhere in Asia.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates that national differences in conflict management style were not based on demographic differences in the sample or differences in cultural attitudes.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Samuel Davies, Albert Kraeh and Fabian Froese

The family and specifically, the partners of expatriates are unfortunately the major cause of expatriate maladjustment. Drawing from and extending the concept of…

Abstract

Purpose

The family and specifically, the partners of expatriates are unfortunately the major cause of expatriate maladjustment. Drawing from and extending the concept of relational demography, the purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the nationality of expatriates’ partners, conceptualized as host, home or third country nationality, on expatriates’ cross-cultural adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from 299 expatriate academics in China, Japan and South Korea were analysed. The authors used confirmatory factor analyses to validate the scales and ANCOVA to test the hypotheses. To further understand the interactions effects the authors conducted simple slopes analysis.

Findings

Results show that differences in expatriate academics’ cross-cultural adjustment are not per se based on the different nationality of their partners, but are mainly due to an interaction effect of partner nationality and length of stay in host country. Expatriates with host country national partners perceived the highest increase in cross-cultural adjustment over time, followed by those with third country national partners, whereas those with home country partners did not experience any increase in cross-cultural adjustment.

Research limitations/implications

The study was based on a cross-sectional survey of expatriate academics in Asia. Thus, longitudinal, multisource data from various contexts would increase validity and generalizability of findings. Despite these limitations, the study provided new and intriguing findings. The theory and empirical evidence underscore the importance of expatriate partner nationality and thereby, relational demography between expatriate partners and expatriates.

Practical implications

The research aims to emphasize the important role that expatriate partners can play concerning the success of expatriate cross-cultural adjustment. Greater attention should be paid to the adjustment processes of expatriates and their partners to facilitate expatriate cross-cultural adjustment.

Originality/value

The authors are among the first to study the influence of nationality, conceptualized as host, home country or third country nationality, of expatriates’ partners on expatriates’ cross-cultural adjustment by applying the concept of relational demography. Moreover, the authors look at the role that time in the host country has on the partner’s influence on expatriate adjustment.

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Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Sandeep Goel

The earnings management (EM) research on the impact of firm’s multi-nationality and reputation on the earnings’ quality is limited, particularly in the context of emerging…

Abstract

Purpose

The earnings management (EM) research on the impact of firm’s multi-nationality and reputation on the earnings’ quality is limited, particularly in the context of emerging economies like India. In India, the corporate ownership model is “Promoter-dominated shareholder model” wherein companies have global operations. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the EM practices of corporate enterprises in India about multi-nationality, reputation and related determinants.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study employs DeAngelo model for calculating discretionary accruals for detecting EM. Multi-nationality, reputation and related determinants are measured as accounting indices. The statistical tools applied for testing the accuracy of results include correlation and regression analysis, t-test and descriptive statistics, like arithmetic mean, median and standard deviation.

Findings

The results show that multi-nationality is the driving force for EM and significantly affects the accounting choices of management in the sample units. The firm’s reputation and other related determinants, except size, vary with accruals. The earnings behavior of the corporate is influenced by other factors, like growth and leverage as well.

Research limitations/implications

A total of 12 units out of top 25 units, taken for the study, met the sampling requirements. So, the present study is confined to 12 profit-making private listed companies in India. These companies constitute a significant size of BSE’s market capitalization for completeness of data; still the size and diversity of units can be extended for further study. The period in the study is of five years (2003–2004 to 2007–2008) to find the effects of global recession on EM practices in India. Researchers may like to select a different time-period based on their objective.

Practical implications

The study draws new dimensions about the quality of financial reporting in case of global firms and with high-perceived reputation. The findings are of significance to standard setters and regulators, particularly for emerging economies, like India where companies have international operations. They are equally important for other companies that are based in economies with relatively mature corporate governance mechanisms because of common regulatory focal points.

Social implications

It brings out the importance of financial reporting process of global corporations for shareholders’ value creation. It is likely to enrich the knowledge and understanding of the EM phenomenon in developing economies like India.

Originality/value

It is an original paper, which highlights the EM motivation about multi-nationality, reputation and related variables in Indian corporate.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Frank Ching

As far as governments are concerned, it is the nationality of a person, usually reflected in a passport, that shows whether the government has a duty to protect that…

Abstract

Purpose

As far as governments are concerned, it is the nationality of a person, usually reflected in a passport, that shows whether the government has a duty to protect that individual and whether the person owes obligations to the state. Hong Kong is unusual in that for many people there, passports are primarily seen as documents that offer safety and security. It is not unusual for people to possess two or more passports. The purpose of this paper is to examine attitudes toward passports on the part of Hong Kong people, formed by their unique experience.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes key documents, such as China’s Nationality Law and a little known document, “Explanations of Some Questions by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress Concerning the Implementation of the Nationality Law of the People’s Republic of China in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.” The paper also looks at the Loh case of August 2016, involving a Canadian man who wanted a Hong Kong passport for his 11-year-old Canadian-born son, and the Patrick Tse case, where Hong Kong tried to strip a teenager who possessed German nationality of his Hong Kong passport.

Findings

The convenience of travel to China with a Home Return Permit seems to outweigh any sense of loyalty to an adopted country in the west, or the realization that the use of a document identifying its holder as a Chinese national means that she/he would not have any consular protection. It is also ironical that the Hong Kong Government should maintain the difference between nationality and ethnicity at a time when the Chinese Government is doing the very opposite, playing down the status of nationality while magnifying the importance of so-called “Chinese blood.”

Originality/value

This paper examines a topic that has not been widely studied but is likely to become more important in the years to come as China’s impact on the rest of the world increases. The nationality status of ethnic Chinese will increasingly become an issue as the flow of travel between China and other countries rises and Chinese immigrants continue to take up foreign nationality. While this issue is of special importance to Hong Kong, its impact will extend to countries around the world, in fact, to wherever Chinese persons are to be found.

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Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2019

Shaun Pichler, Beth Livingston, Andrew Yu, Arup Varma, Pawan Budhwar and Arti Shukla

The diversity literature has yet to investigate relationships between diversity and leader–member exchanges (LMX) at multiple levels of analysis. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The diversity literature has yet to investigate relationships between diversity and leader–member exchanges (LMX) at multiple levels of analysis. The purpose of this paper is to test a multilevel model of nationality diversity and LMX. In doing so, the authors investigate the role of surface- and deep-level diversity as related to leader–member exchange differentiation (LMXD) and relative LMX (RLMX), and hence to subordinate job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test a multilevel model of diversity and LMX using multisource survey data from subordinates nesting within supervisors. The authors do so in a context where diversity in nationality is pervasive and plays a key role in LMXs, i.e., a multinational organization in Dubai. The authors tested the cross-level moderated model using MPlus.

Findings

The results suggest surface-level similarity is more important to RLMX than deep-level similarity. The relationship between surface-level similarity and RLMX is moderated by workgroup nationality diversity. When workgroups are more diverse, there is a positive relationship between dyadic nationality similarity and RLMX; when workgroups are less diverse, similarity in nationality matters less. Moreover, LMXD at the workgroup level moderates the relationship between RLMX and performance at the individual level.

Originality/value

This study is one of very few to examine both diversity and LMX at multiple levels of analysis. This is the first study to test the workgroup diversity as a cross-level moderator of the relationship between deep-level similarity and LMX. The results challenge the prevailing notion that that deep-level similarity is more strongly related to LMX than surface-level diversity.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

L. Jean Harrison‐Walker

Asks whether service provider nationality significantly influencesconsumer decision making and, if so, whether the influence of nationalstereotype is moderated by the…

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Abstract

Asks whether service provider nationality significantly influences consumer decision making and, if so, whether the influence of national stereotype is moderated by the presence of additional information, such as professional credentials or service availability, or by the consumer′s nationality. Identifies a significant three‐way interaction effect involving provider nationality, supplemental advertising information and consumer nationality.

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Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Szymon Kaczmarek and Richard B. Nyuur

This paper aims to revisit the long-standing in the management literature argument of “matching managers to strategy” in the new empirical context of the top management…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to revisit the long-standing in the management literature argument of “matching managers to strategy” in the new empirical context of the top management team (TMT) and firm internationalisation. The purpose of this paper is to examine the consequences of matching nationalities of the TMT members to the multinational corporations’ (MNC) countries of operation.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on the quantitative methods. The authors use the traditional regression analysis, with the ordinary least squares estimation, in the moderated multiple regression models.

Findings

The study findings point to the importance of the asset-based exposure to international environments for the benefits of the TMT nationality matching to materialise. They re-affirm the critical remarks on the early “matching managers to strategy” frameworks, which indicated that the effectiveness of matching is underpinned by the detailed specification of the matching contingencies that influence the matching process.

Originality/value

The measure of matching the TMT foreign nationals to the MNCs’ host countries constitutes a novel way of capturing the TMT internationalisation, as opposed to measuring the incidence of foreigners on the TMTs or the TMT nationality diversity variable. It therefore underlines the aspect of matching in terms of the cultural fit between the TMT nationalities and countries of MNCs’ operations.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Book part
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Seev Hirsch

In their book Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy, John M. Dunning and Sarianna M. Lundan offer a generally accepted definition of the term multinational…

Abstract

In their book Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy, John M. Dunning and Sarianna M. Lundan offer a generally accepted definition of the term multinational enterprise (MNE): “A Multinational or transnational enterprise is an enterprise that engages in foreign direct investment (FDI) and owns or, in some way controls value added activities in more than one Country” (Dunning & Lundan, p. 3). The title, however, may be misleading since it ignores the fact that each multinational has a home country as well as one or more host countries. Multinationals, in other words, have a nationality. It is the difference between the implications of home and host countries for the individual MNEs that the present chapter explores. It uses a case study involving Teva, Israel's flagship MNE, to address the question: “If Teva changed its nationality, would Israel's economy would be affected?”

The hypothetical case of a change in Teva's nationality and its implications are employed to demonstrate the general validity of the concept of “Distance Premium,” to examine the implication of nationality to individual multinational business enterprises. The chapter explores the proposition that despite its declining effect, due to far reaching technological and political developments, the distance premium, continues to favor home country over host country locations and intra- over interorganizational value activities. The chapter goes on to examine expected changes in the distribution of rents generated by the MNEs between different stakeholder groups. It concludes that, with the exception of stockholders whose welfare is generally not affected by change of nationality, other stakeholders in the new home country gain at the expense of old home country stakeholders.

Details

The Future of Foreign Direct Investment and the Multinational Enterprise
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-555-7

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