The latest volume (10) of the Balance of Payments Yearbook of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) contains balances of payments (BP) of 74 countries for the years 1956, 1957, and partly 1958. For a number of countries comparative figures are given as far back as 1951.
This is a period of great change in the travel world. The revolution in the technique of transport, the development of road travel, particularly the private car, the development of aviation together with rising standards of living and leisure time, and the demand for greater mobility and better communication, have led to mass movement across international frontiers. Many of these frontiers do not represent a natural geographic division and in some densely populated areas the daily movement through frontier points is considerable. Whereas formerly the statistics produced as a by‐product of control systems which were based on a full census of travel were satisfactory, this is no longer the case in many areas today. In certain areas of course the limited amount of traffic or the geography of the region still permits the operation of such systems, whether for control or statistical purposes.
The European Travel Commission held a Seminar on forecasting tourist movement in London in 1971 and subsequently published the papers presented at the meeting, together with a summary of the discussion and conclusions. Since little literature is available on this difficult problem, the report of the Seminar deserves attention as a guide to those concerned with making or using forecasts.
Provides a policy basis for increasing tourism employment advantages for The Gambia. Emphasizes the need for co‐operation between the Government of The Gambia and overseas private tourism entrepreneurs in the context of training programmes. The Government needs to provide the right atmosphere for development action, and foreign investors need to put at the disposal of The Gambia their extensive market connections, established reputations, and recognized expertise, to ensure that training does take place.
The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative perspective on understanding the coordinating role of destination management organizations. Destination Management…
The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative perspective on understanding the coordinating role of destination management organizations. Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) are known to have a coordinating role within a destination. Many qualitative case studies discuss this role in the institutional context, assuming that the DMO is supposed to coordinate the network of the organizations and stakeholder groups in the destination. By contrast, this paper analyzes the coordinator role of DMOs by focusing primarily on the prominent individuals (directors and board members) affiliated with it. In so doing, it proposes an alternative perspective on these organizations. Looking at the influential individuals in the destination, in particular those affiliated with the DMO, reveals new insights into what the DMO alternatively could be from an individual’s perspective.
Using social network analysis, the coordinator role of the actors affiliated with the DMO for six destination cases in Switzerland, Italy and Austria was measured. First, the network of the most salient individuals in the destination was identified. Second, the coordinator score with the help of the Gould and Fernandez measure was measured. Third, the coordinator scores of individuals affiliated with the DMO were compared against those of the other actors in the network. Fourth, the scores of actors affiliated with the DMO and other actors were compared to the coordinator role attributed to the whole organization by those individuals (i.e. how they see the DMO as coordinator). Fifth, the analysis of the results with case-specific information was completed.
In each of the six destinations, there are actors affiliated with the DMO as top scorers; these are usually the president of the board and other board members, as well as the director. Additionally, the analysis identifies further board members of the DMO among the tourist elite in the destination. The DMO as an organization is generally seen as an important coordinating institution. In particular, the actors affiliated with the DMO attribute a higher coordinating role to the organization than do the other respondents.
In their board constellation, DMOs support the formation of interlocking directorships through the representation of various stakeholder groups. They increase the concentration of power in favor of a small group (elite), but they can also increase the effectiveness of decisional processes. In so doing, a DMO serves as a valuable platform for leaders in its destination.
This study affords a surprising insight into the difference between the overall image actors have of DMOs and the organizations’ self-images, expressed by the actors affiliated to the organizations – the former is always lower than the latter. The study also clearly demonstrates that the role of an institution largely depends on the actors affiliated to it and hence points to the constantly adapting coordinating role of DMOs within destinations.
A DMO can be seen as an organization constituted by individuals who join and leave its board or its management. This paper proposes an actor-based analysis of these often small, but controversially discussed organizations. We do it with a combination of quantitative measures from network analysis and qualitative information. The alternative perspective (actors of the DMOs inside the elite) and the application of social network analysis for this purpose have not been used in studies before. Further research points to two new research streams, namely, to understanding the role attributed to the DMO by different actors in the destination and the reasons for joining/leaving the organization and the shift of the self-concept of the DMO.
The topic of transportation incorporates a vast amount of divergent information. The subject matter varies greatly, and includes titles ranging from Camels of the Outback to The Great American Motion Sickness; or Why You Can't Get There from Here. To establish boundaries for this resource guide, the present authors referred to Public Law 87–449, 14 May 1962, which authorized the president to proclaim an annual National Transportation Week. Using this as a basis, they defined transportation As the movement of people or goods from one place to another, and included a little tourism to break up the concrete and steel. While some historical materials are included, this resource guide emphasizes modes of transportation currently used in the United States.
THE Newcastle school, like most others, was established after the second world war to provide full‐time education in librarianship as an alternative to the part‐time system which until 1946 was the only one available to the majority of librarians. At first most of the students were returning servicemen whose library careers had been interrupted by the war and they were followed by students direct from libraries, universities and schools. From a handful of students and one full‐time member of staff in the first year the school has grown steadily until there were 53 students and five staff during the session 1962–3 which was the last course held for the Registration Examination.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the current stage of the development of the study of tourism policy and some of the key issues that have come in for attention.
The work is based on a review of the literature relating to tourism policy over a 40-year period. Based on one of the models of tourism policy-making, it uses a five-part structure to organise the literature and for each part, it explores the issues dealt with by researchers over the period.
After a slow start, most aspects of tourism policy are now well-covered in the literature, and notably, there has been a marked quickening in the pace of study over the past decade. Influences on policy are well-documented, as are the roles of the different stakeholders in the policy process. This contrasts with the understanding of the work of the policymakers, which is less well-developed, as is the nature and influence of the different forms of policy output. Neoliberalism and governance have been prominent among recent policy themes pursued by researchers.
The paper draws on a wide range of work over 40 years, but it cannot be comprehensive.
The paper’s originality lies in it providing a brief overview of the current state of research into tourism policy.
Discusses economic and employment patterns in Portugal as they relate to tourism and the economic downturn following linked with the SARS outbreak and international…
Discusses economic and employment patterns in Portugal as they relate to tourism and the economic downturn following linked with the SARS outbreak and international terrorism. Relates macro tourism trends to the challenges facing the tourism sector in Portugal and the specific operational issues facing hoteliers: quality management, product differentiation; market diversification; marketing and productivity. Relates these and other issues to a roundtable discussion with participants from industry and education and concludes that a national strategy for human resources training and development is needed, together with a code of ethics for human resource management in the Portuguese tourism sector.
Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are two technological breakthroughs that stimulate reality perception. Both have been applied in tourism contexts to…
Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are two technological breakthroughs that stimulate reality perception. Both have been applied in tourism contexts to improve tourists’ experience. This paper aims to frame both AR and VR developments during the past 15 years from a scientific perspective.
This study adopts a text mining and topic modelling approach to analyse a total of 1,049 articles for VR and 406 for AR. The papers were selected from Scopus, with the title, abstract and keywords being extracted for the analysis. Formulated research hypotheses based on relevant publications are then evaluated to assess the current state of the broader scope of the large sets of literature.
Most of research using AR is based on mobile technology. Yet, wearable devices still show few publications, a gap that is expected to close in the near future. There is a lack of research adopting Big Data/machine learning approaches based on secondary data.
As both AR and VR technologies are becoming more mature, more applications to tourism emerge. Scholars need to keep pace and fill in the research gaps on both domains to move research forward.
研究目的 – VR和AR是两种提高人们现实感知的科技突破。二者均被运用到旅游场景中提高游客体验。本论文旨在建立一个模型来描述过去15年内AR和VR的发展轨迹。
本论文采用文本挖掘和主题建模方法来分析1049篇有关VR和406篇有关AR的文章。样本库采样于Scopus, 通过题目、摘要、和关键词来检索。根据检索结果, 本论文提出研究假设, 并且审视延展更大范围的相关文献。
本论文发现大多数AR文章都是以移动技术为本。然而, 可穿戴设备始终有很少的文章。因此, 文献缺口预计在不久的将来会得以补上。研究还发现, 基于二手数据而运用大数据/机器学习方法的文章少之又少。
随着AR和VR技术越来越成熟, 旅游业更多的运用案例随之出现。学者需要紧随脚步, 填补AR和VR的文献缺口, 推进研究进程。