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Book part
Publication date: 26 January 2011

J. William Leonard

It is genuinely accepted that the withholding of sensitive information by the federal government, be it relating to intelligence, military or foreign policy matters, will…

Abstract

It is genuinely accepted that the withholding of sensitive information by the federal government, be it relating to intelligence, military or foreign policy matters, will invariably serve to preclude or minimize damage to our nation's well-being. However, often overlooked is the impact that official secrecy has upon the decision-making process employed by national leaders. This overview examines the harm that official government secrecy can inflict upon our U.S. national security, through the corrupting influence it has on national policy decisions. Using the Constitutional Convention of 1787 as an apt lesson, this overview goes on to examine the impact that official secrecy had on many of the post-9/11 decisions made by U.S. national leaders.

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Patrick Mapulanga, Jaya Raju and Thomas Matingwina

The paper seeks to report on research-evidence-based health policy formulation in Malawi based on interviews with policymakers and questionnaire administered to health researchers.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to report on research-evidence-based health policy formulation in Malawi based on interviews with policymakers and questionnaire administered to health researchers.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative data for inferential statistical analysis was obtained through a questionnaire administered to researchers in the University of Malawi's College of Medicine and the Kamuzu College of Nursing. Interviews were conducted with four directors holding decision-making national health policy roles in the Ministry of Health and the National Assembly. The five national policymakers interviewed constituted five of the nine interviewees. The remaining four interviewed represented other government agencies and non-governmental organisations in the health sector. These constituted a piloted group of health policymakers in Malawi. Data from interviews shows illustrative comments typical of consistent perspectives among interviewees. Where they disagreed, divergent views have been presented.

Findings

The survey has revealed that health researchers rarely interact with health policymakers. Policymakers rarely attend researchers' workshops, seminars and conferences. Researchers prefer to interact with policymakers through expert committees or technical working groups. However, the meetings are called by policymakers at their own will. In terms of health research designed for user relevance, survey respondents suggested that developing research products; formulating study objectives; analysing and interpreting research findings and; developing research designs and methods were their responsibility. However, policymakers felt that research evidence should appeal to specific priorities needed by health policymakers in policy formulation. Health researchers suggested that health research evidence should be communicated through syntheses of the research literature and reprints of articles published in scientific journals. However, policymakers were of the view that research products should not be bulky, should be presented in points form and should provide options for specific policy areas.

Practical implications

University research groups and technical working groups provide an opportunity for interacting and enhancing the use of health research evidence.

Originality/value

For the purposes of facilitating the use of research evidence into policy, the study provides a low-cost framework for linking research groups and technical working groups to inform health research utilisation.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Martha Hampson, Carlie Goldsmith and Michelle Lefevre

Substantial government investment has accelerated innovation activity in children’s social care in England over the past decade. Ethical concerns emerge when innovation…

Abstract

Purpose

Substantial government investment has accelerated innovation activity in children’s social care in England over the past decade. Ethical concerns emerge when innovation seems to be propelled by a drive for efficiency and over-reliance on process output indicators, as well as, or even instead of, improving the lives of children, families and societies. No ethical framework exists at present to act as a check on such drivers. This paper reviews the literature with the aim of considering how best to address this gap.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on a review of innovation in children’s social care, conducted as part of an Economic and Social Research Council-funded project exploring innovation in services for young people exposed to extra-familial risk and harm.

Findings

This study proposes a new conception of “trustworthy innovation” for the sector that holds innovation in children’s social care to the standards and principles of the code of ethics for social work. This study offers an ethical framework, informed by the interdisciplinary school of organisational ethics, to operationalise this extended definition; the analytic framework guides policymakers and the practice sector to question at every stage of the innovation process whether a particular model is ethically appropriate, as well as practically feasible within a specific context. Implications for local decision-making and national policy are set out, alongside questions raised for future research.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to offer an ethical framework for innovation in children's social care. The conception of “trustworthy innovation” offers a guide to policymakers and the practice sector, which they can use to ethically test every stage of the innovation process and make decisions about whether a particular model is ethically appropriate, as well as practically feasible within a specific context.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Martin Samy, Heineken Lokpobiri and Ade Dawodu

This paper aims to examine the extent to which environmental rights enforcement is currently practiced in Nigeria and the relevant characteristics for the development of a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the extent to which environmental rights enforcement is currently practiced in Nigeria and the relevant characteristics for the development of a legal framework for the practice of environmental rights enforcement in Nigeria, particularly in the interest of the Niger Delta region of the country. The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is rich with abundant hydrocarbon resources and plays host to numerous multinational oil companies. For over five decades, oil spills and gas flaring from the operations of these companies have polluted water bodies and degraded farmlands on which the inhabitants depend for their livelihood. However, the absence of a legal regime of environmental rights has made it difficult for inhabitants of the region to seek legal remedy against these companies.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the extent to which environmental rights enforcement is currently practiced in Nigeria and the relevant characteristics for the development of a legal framework for the practice of environmental rights enforcement in Nigeria, particularly in the interest of the Niger Delta region of the country.

Findings

Nigeria does not have constitutional environmental rights. The legal implication of this provision is that it is not justiciable as such no court of law can exercise jurisdiction to hear any matter that is connected with the provisions of that chapter. In other words, even the government’s “constitutional” responsibility to protect the environment cannot be judicially enforced, let alone environmental rights for victims of environmental damage.

Originality/value

The original and significant contribution of this paper is to highlight the real issues and address them through substantive and procedural environmental rights provisions either in the constitution or positive legislations.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2008

Idris Nasiru Medugu, M. Rafee Majid and I.D. Choji

The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate current government policies in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. This paper discusses the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate current government policies in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. This paper discusses the menace of desertification, the extent and the impact of drought in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The research reported in this paper was undertaken through review of existing literature, personal observations and interview with some of the residents in the affected areas as well as government officials in charge of programs in combating desertification.

Findings

The paper observes that the failure of current government policies include among others the top‐down approach, inconsistencies of government policies, neglect of indigenous knowledge, use of inappropriate technology, sectoral approach, inadequate funding, and inadequate awareness. Having identified the causes of the problem, this paper proposes that the national policy for drought and desertification should ensure sustainable development based on proper management of human‐environment interactions in the affected areas.

Practical implications

The evaluation method performed in this paper allows us to analyze the factors responsible for the failure of government policies in combating desertification in Nigeria. This paper suggests that a number of complementary policies, strategies and management approaches be put in place and such must take cognizance of the existing institutional settings and professional groupings as well as the complex historical, social, cultural, and legal considerations.

Originality/value

The paper provides a rational, holistic, practicable and comprehensive approach for finding solutions to the problems of drought and desertification in Nigeria.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Miantao Sun

The purpose of this paper is to review the achievements of Chinese educational management in the past 30 years, conclude the characteristics of Chinese educational…

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1119

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the achievements of Chinese educational management in the past 30 years, conclude the characteristics of Chinese educational management and indicate the problems of Chinese educational management and the countermeasures.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the research of educational management in China in the past 30 years from four aspects: research purpose, research methods, research contents and disciplinary system.

Findings

The paper sums up the main achievements, the main characteristics and the main problems of Chinese educational management in the past 30 years. It suggests that the disciplinary relationship should be further clarified; the role of disciplinary research accomplishments has to be further developed and the specialization level in disciplinary research needs to be further improved.

Practical implications

This paper indicates the direction for the construction of Chinese educational management in the future: to further clarify the relationship among related disciplines; to put the role of the research results into full play; to further improve the specialization level of disciplinary research.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the construction of Chinese educational management both theoretically and practically.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 July 2016

Sheyla Blumen

The current status of indigenous gifted children and youth in an ethno-linguistic diverse Andean country is presented. The major purposes of this chapter are: (a) to…

Abstract

The current status of indigenous gifted children and youth in an ethno-linguistic diverse Andean country is presented. The major purposes of this chapter are: (a) to describe gifted education in Peru, underlining the advocacy efforts toward the indigenous population; (b) to analyze the provisions for talent development in Peru; and (c) to present the challenges for the Peruvian indigenous gifted in the future, taking into consideration the needs and challenges of a multicultural society.

Details

Gifted Children of Color Around the World: Diverse Needs, Exemplary Practices, and Directions for the Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-119-4

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Adowa Boatemaa Darko‐Mensah and Chukwumerije Okereke

The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse Ghana's AKOBEN programme which is the first environmental performance rating and public disclosure programme in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse Ghana's AKOBEN programme which is the first environmental performance rating and public disclosure programme in Africa. Furthermore, by means of a SWOT analysis, the article assesses the suitability of AKOBEN as a veritable tool for promoting good environmental governance in Ghana specifically and Africa in general.

Design/methodology/approach

The description of the design, scope and operation of the AKOBEN programme is based on 42 semi structured interviews and series of informal interactions with officials of Ghana's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – the organisation that runs the AKOBEN project, industry participants, civil society representatives and other stakeholders. This extensive interaction with relevant actors and stakeholders and the analysis of extant literature on environmental disclosure projects provided the basis for a Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT) analysis of Ghana's AKOBEN programme.

Findings

AKOBEN possesses several elements that make it capable of being an effective environmental governance tool in Ghana. These include inter alia high level political support, comprehensive rating criteria and transparency in the design of the programme. However, certain weaknesses such as the absence of a specific legal and institutional framework among others could undermine the chances of the programme attaining its full potential. Other African countries can reasonably copy the AKOBEN model with success.

Originality/value

Assessment of Africa's first ever environmental rating programme provides insight that can help Ghana to consolidate on the strengths while addressing the weaknesses of the rating programme. Other African governments considering the establishment of a similar rating programme can learn a lot from the analysis of Ghana's EPA's AKOBEN programme.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 6 October 2015

The gold sector has so far avoided strikes (NUM concluded a wage agreement affecting two firms on October 2), unlike the wider mining sector. Government policies and…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB205809

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Rob McBride

Over the past decade, and coinciding with the rise in HIV/AIDS incidence, there has been a spectacular increase in the number of orphans in Malawi. Few orphans eat as many…

Abstract

Over the past decade, and coinciding with the rise in HIV/AIDS incidence, there has been a spectacular increase in the number of orphans in Malawi. Few orphans eat as many as two poor meals a day; most have few clothes, no shoes, bedding or soap. Hungry, poorly clothed children do not go to school or if they go, do not stay. Without completing at least primary school, job prospects are low. Without education or work orphans remain poor and become involve in casual sexual relationships. Orphans give birth to orphans. Those who are HIV positive give birth to those who are susceptible to HIV. Cycles of poverty, orphanhood and HIV/AIDS continue.

Details

Suffer The Little Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-831-6

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