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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Barry Gerhart

It is generally recognized that multinational enterprises must take into account country differences in deciding the degree to which it makes sense to localize their human…

Abstract

It is generally recognized that multinational enterprises must take into account country differences in deciding the degree to which it makes sense to localize their human resource management (HRM) strategies and organization cultures to fit with the host country or rather standardize HRM strategies and organization cultures across countries. However, an important vein of academic work assumes that country differences, especially in national culture, are so important that management is “culturally dependent” (Hofstede, 1983) and that “national culture constrains variation in organization cultures” (Johns, 2006). I critically evaluate the logical and empirical evidence (including methodological issues regarding effect size) used to support such constraint arguments and conclude that the evidence is much weaker than widely believed. One implication then is that organizations may be less constrained by national culture differences in managing workforces in different countries than is often claimed. A second implication is that researchers may wish to re-think how they study such issues. I provide suggestions for future research.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-056-8

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2009

Suku Bhaskaran and Emilija Gligorovska

The purpose of this paper is to analyse and review whether national culture influences organisational beliefs about and behaviours to trans‐national alliance partners.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse and review whether national culture influences organisational beliefs about and behaviours to trans‐national alliance partners.

Design/methodology/approach

Reviewed extant studies on national culture, organisational culture and business‐to‐business relationship. Using information from the literature review and key informant surveys, a survey instrument comprising of close‐ended questions was developed. The questionnaire was sent to the Chief Executives Officer's of 1,248 organisations identified through systematically selecting every third organisation in the sampling frame. Two weeks later, universal reminders were sent to all 1,248 organisations. The data from 376 fully completed questionnaires returned were analysed through exploratory factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis.

Findings

National culture influences beliefs about and behaviours to trans‐national alliance partners. However, beliefs and behaviours are also influenced by the complex inter‐relationships between relational constructs such as trust, commitment, co‐operation, dependence, communication and compatibility. Often, compatibility is not only influenced by national culture but also by the size, business activity and how the organisation is incorporated.

Practical implications

Beliefs about and behaviours to trans‐national partner organisations are not solely influenced by national culture. It is the outcome of complex and diverse social, political, economic and organisational factors and how these factors influence orientations to issues such as trust, commitment, co‐operation and communication.

Originality/value

Explores a hitherto under‐researched theme on trans‐national business alliances, the influence of the national culture of organisations on various relational issues discussed in business‐to‐business relationship studies. The study consolidates knowledge from three streams of literature (national culture, organisational culture and business‐to‐business relationship), often handled as disparate sources of knowledge.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Abstract

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 12 no. 4/5/6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Jyoti, D.K. Banwet and S.G. Deshmukh

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and compare the performance of national R&D organizations in India in terms of their relative efficiencies using a multiple output…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and compare the performance of national R&D organizations in India in terms of their relative efficiencies using a multiple output measurement criteria incorporating the quality of the output measures.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrated data envelopment analysis (DEA) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been used.

Findings

The relative efficiency for national R&D organizations is obtained not only based on quantity of output, but also on the basis of quality of the output and provides more comprehensive and realistic results to the decision makers in identifying the benchmark national R&D organizations and inefficient organizations.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to difficulty in approaching all the departments, the application of the model is limited to a small group of Indian national R&D organizations. This model can be extended for various departments/agencies heading various national R&D organizations in India as well as in other countries according to their requirement and suitability.

Practical implications

This model provides a more comprehensive method to the policy makers for evaluating the performance of national R&D organizations in terms of their relative efficiencies also incorporating the quality of the output measures. The results provide the indicators to the policy makers for redesigning the R&D processes in the inefficient national R&D organizations.

Originality/value

In the context of R&D, an integrated DEA‐AHP model is applied for the first time to evaluate the performance of national R&D organizations in terms of their relative efficiency obtained not only on the quantity of the output taken, but also on the quality of the output.

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International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 57 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Amy L. Stone

This study theorizes about the development of dominant tactics within social movements, as certain tactics within a tactical repertoire are used frequently and imbued with…

Abstract

This study theorizes about the development of dominant tactics within social movements, as certain tactics within a tactical repertoire are used frequently and imbued with ideological significance. Little research has been done on hierarchies within tactical repertoires, assuming that all tactics within a repertoire are equal. Between 1974 and 2008, the US Religious Right attempted over 200 anti-gay referendums and initiatives to retract or prevent gay rights laws. This research examines how the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movement developed campaign tactics to fight these direct democracy measures. This research expands the existing literature on tactical repertoires by theorizing about the mechanisms by which tactics become dominant, namely, their affirmation by victories, responsiveness to countermovement escalation, and involvement of institutionalized social movement organizations to disseminate tactics. This research contradicts existing movement–countermovement literature that suggests that movements do not develop dominant tactics when mobilizing in opposition to a countermovement.

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Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-609-7

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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Fabio Rojas

Social movements are heterogeneous because they attract organizations from other movements and encourage activists to create organizations “indigenous” to the movement…

Abstract

Social movements are heterogeneous because they attract organizations from other movements and encourage activists to create organizations “indigenous” to the movement. This chapter examines the structural and technical differences between these kinds of organizations. Employing a contingency theory framework, it is shown that older “spill over” groups are much more likely to be multi-issue national organizations with particular organizational structures. Then, it is shown that these older groups have correlated environments and internal structures, but not their more contemporary counterparts. Finally, it is shown that the adoption of a new technology, the Facebook group, is mainly a path dependency outcome, and not correlated with contingency factors.

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Studying Differences between Organizations: Comparative Approaches to Organizational Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-647-8

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2004

Mary Futrell, Fred van Leeuwen and Bob Harris

The way in which the international teacher organizations evolved suggests both the advantages and the difficulties of maintaining a coherent and purposeful international…

Abstract

The way in which the international teacher organizations evolved suggests both the advantages and the difficulties of maintaining a coherent and purposeful international organization for education advocacy (the abbreviations and acronyms for all the organizations are spelled out for reference in Appendix A to this chapter; the complex succession of organizations is traced in a table, presented as Appendix B to this chapter). The international teacher organizations began at the outset of the 20th century in Europe.1 The first of these, founded in 1905 and centering on the concerns of primary school teachers, was the International Bureau of Federations of Teachers (IBFT; it became the International Federation of Teachers’ Associations [IFTA] in 1926). The second, founded in 1912, was the International Foundation of Secondary Teachers (known by its French acronym, FIPESO, the Fédération internationale des professeurs de l’enseignement secondaire officielle).

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Teacher Unions and Education Policy: Retrenchment of Reform?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-126-2

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

G. Ronald Gilbert and Mary Ann Von Glinow

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of diffusional pressures as they relate to organizational performance (OP) across public, private, and not-for-profit…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of diffusional pressures as they relate to organizational performance (OP) across public, private, and not-for-profit sectors in two different national contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

A review is conducted of institutional forces in the environment of two nations; one highly developed and the other developing to identify isomorphic pressures in each of the countries. An organizational performance assessment (OPA) tool is used to analyze the differences in the performance of the three sectors in the two national contexts identified. The research relies on Pearson correlation, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and MANCOVA statistical applications to validate the assessment instrument and shed light on differences across nations and sectors that can be attributed to organizational diffusion as a result of institutional pressures that exist in the countries in which the organizations are embedded.

Findings

The findings indicate there is greater need to adapt to local ways of doing things when working cross-nationally within developing countries than with those that are developed where management practices are more alike than dissimilar. The results of the study suggest that when managing organizations cross-nationally, in the more developed nations organizations will perform more effectively and more alike than when working with organizations in less developed countries where the conditions for the diffusion of organizational practices are weaker.

Research limitations/implications

The research focussed on two countries for comparative purposes. Due to sampling limitations, the findings are more relevant to the sectors the authors studied within countries than between the countries per se. It is recommended further research be conducted using larger samples across many national cultures. While relying on broad societal institutional dynamics, the study design does not permit the analysis of the effects of specific contextual characteristics on OP. Such an undertaking is undoubtedly a “next step” that the authors recommend.

Practical implications

The extant literature finds that managing systems cross-nationally requires adaptation to local national contexts. Where there is less economic and technological development, less opportunity for free market competition (capitalism), educational opportunities, and shared standards from which the performance of organizations are judged, the more unlikely organizations will employ commonly applied management practices. A new tool is introduced that can be used to further research on OP cross-nationally.

Originality/value

The study provides empirical evidence to demonstrate that in nations where stronger diffusional pressures exist, fewer differences will be found among the performance of the three sectors. Additionally, the effectiveness of organizations in these national contexts will be greater. While research among the three sectors has identified performance differences, such differences are less likely to be discernible in developed nations due to isomorphic pressures. The study is especially relevant to those who manage global organizations cross-nationally. It introduces a new tool to measure OP across national boundaries.

Details

Cross Cultural Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Government and Public Policy in the Pacific Islands
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-616-8

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2020

Lina Frennesson, Joakim Kembro, Harwin de Vries, Luk Van Wassenhove and Marianne Jahre

To meet the rising global needs, the humanitarian community has signed off on making a strategic change toward more localisation, which commonly refers to the empowerment…

Abstract

Purpose

To meet the rising global needs, the humanitarian community has signed off on making a strategic change toward more localisation, which commonly refers to the empowerment of national and local actors in humanitarian assistance. However, to this date, actual initiatives for localisation are rare. To enhance understanding of the phenomenon, the authors explore localisation of logistics preparedness capacities and obstacles to its implementation. The authors particularly take the perspective of the international humanitarian organisation (IHO) community as they are expected to implement the localisation strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

A phenomenon-driven, exploratory and qualitative study was conducted. Data collection included in-depth interviews with 28 experienced humanitarian professionals.

Findings

The findings showed the ambiguity inherent in the localisation strategy with largely different views on four important dimensions. Particularly, the interviewees differ about strengthening external actors or internal national/local offices. The resulting framework visualises the gap between strategy formulation and implementation, which forms major obstacles to the localisation aims.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is required to support the advancement of localisation of logistics preparedness capacities. Important aspects for future research include triangulation of results, other stakeholder perspectives and the influence of context.

Practical implications

The authors add to the important debate surrounding localisation by offering remedies to overcoming obstacles to strategy implementation. Further, the authors’ proposed framework offers a language to precisely describe the ways in which IHOs (should) view localisation of logistics preparedness capacities and its operationalisation.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first academic article on localisation within the humanitarian logistics context.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

Keywords

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