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Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Alexander W. Wiseman and Preeti Kumar

Since the spread of mass education around the world in the mid- to late-twentieth century, teacher quality has been heralded as the key factor to improve education quality…

Abstract

Since the spread of mass education around the world in the mid- to late-twentieth century, teacher quality has been heralded as the key factor to improve education quality nationwide. National education systems worldwide are also engaged in ongoing and often high stakes cross-national comparisons. As a result, policy-makers and educators in most national education systems are looking at and implementing new ways to improve education overall by raising teacher quality levels, and India is no exception. In India, teacher quality is publicly blamed for both perceived low education quality and demonstrated low average student performance, especially following Indian students’ performance on the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment. Indian education policy-makers are, therefore, looking at teacher quality as a key factor to improve student performance. Little is known about the impact or implementation of Indian policy frameworks on teacher quality and associated student outcomes in India. This introductory chapter identifies and analyzes various measures of teacher quality and how teacher quality varies in India both in response to and in spite of national policies related to teacher quality. It begins by providing evidence regarding the global importance of teacher quality on student outcomes and then addresses the ambiguity of the term “teacher quality.” This chapter then briefly discussed national education policy in India and the role teacher quality has played in these national policies, especially in the early twenty-first century, including NCF 2005, NCFTE 2009, Draft NPE 2016, Draft NPE 2019, and NPE 2020.

Details

Building Teacher Quality in India: Examining Policy Frameworks and Implementation Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-903-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Reetu Chandra

Indian education system is obligated to assure “accessibility” to the “quality” preschool education for all children. National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 has emphasised…

Abstract

Indian education system is obligated to assure “accessibility” to the “quality” preschool education for all children. National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 has emphasised this endeavor loudly and provided clear directions to bring quality in the preschool education through effective implementation strategies. En route to this, trained and motivated preschool teachers are considered as the key factor for quality assurance. Diversity of the Indian society (language, culture, socio-economic status), variety of preschool service providers, different models of preschool education system, uneven salary structure, work load, shortage of support system, huge teacher children ratio, and unregulated sector of teacher preparation are the upfront challenge for the quality of preschool teachers and teacher education. Recruitment of trained preschool teachers, assured career growth, performance-based promotions and salary structure, regulated teacher preparation programs, adherence to the other quality standards for preschool education, digital/distance mode of obtaining required qualifications, and development of strong mechanism for monitoring; supervision as well as on-site mentoring of preschool teachers are some of the major milestones set by the government in the policy. With all this, the most important aspect is to provide encouraging and respectful environment for preschool teachers to keep them happy, contented, and motivated. The teachers, who are prepared in this way contribute in the lives of young children by creating warm and welcoming environment when they enter preschool. The NEP 2020 has brought hope, possibilities, and directions in this regard.

Details

Building Teacher Quality in India: Examining Policy Frameworks and Implementation Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-903-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Jyoti Bawane

The role and performance of a teacher is central to the teaching and learning process in any educational system, but they are often misinterpreted in the context of…

Abstract

The role and performance of a teacher is central to the teaching and learning process in any educational system, but they are often misinterpreted in the context of educational monitoring and quality assurance. Although efforts to relate teacher quality to educational quality are rarely challenged, establishing linkages between teacher quality and student performance have proven to be complex and inconclusive. This holds true especially in the Indian context wherein teachers experience diverse working conditions that may make traditional measures of teacher quality seem impractical and speculative. Teacher roles and performance, apart from being subjected to contrasting realities in schooling systems, are influenced by cultural capital, systemic forces, and teacher education programs. This chapter attempts to unravel the complexities of an Indian school teacher and highlight some of the issues that teachers are likely to face and grapple within their work situations. Nevertheless, the role of a professional and humane teacher will stand paramount in building the future of India.

Details

Building Teacher Quality in India: Examining Policy Frameworks and Implementation Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-903-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Arup Varma, Parth Patel, Verma Prikshat, Deepak Hota and Vijay Pereira

Given that the policy is rather comprehensive and detailed, this paper aims to identify some of the key features and discuss the mechanisms by which the benefits of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Given that the policy is rather comprehensive and detailed, this paper aims to identify some of the key features and discuss the mechanisms by which the benefits of the policy might reach all sections of society.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, we analyse India’s new education policy (NEP) and discuss how it might impact education and employment in India and the neighbourhood.

Findings

This paper believes that the NEP (2020) is likely to alter the educational landscape of India and make education accessible to all sections of society. In addition, the impact of this bill will be felt in the Indian workplace.

Research limitations/implications

This paper would urge the policymakers, educationists and corporate leaders to conduct research on the benefits of the NEP in two phases. In the short run, they could study the implementation – in the long run, all three stakeholders should track the changes in the quality of graduates being produced as a result of the new policy.

Originality/value

This is the first known critique of the NEP (2020) written by five Indian-origin academics and practitioners, offering insight into the policy for scholars and practitioners.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 25 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2022

Noran Shafik Fouad

The education sector is increasingly targeted by malicious cyber incidents, resulting in huge financial losses, cancelation of classes and exams and large-scale breaches…

Abstract

Purpose

The education sector is increasingly targeted by malicious cyber incidents, resulting in huge financial losses, cancelation of classes and exams and large-scale breaches of students’ and staff’s data. This paper aims to investigate education technology (EdTech) vendors’ responsibility for this cyber (in)security challenge, with a particular focus on EdTech in India as a case study.

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretically, building on the security economics literature, the paper establishes a link between the dynamics of the EdTech market and the education sector’s cyber insecurities and investigates the various economic barriers that stand in the way of improving EdTech vendors’ security practices. Empirically, the paper analyses publicly reported cyber incidents targeting the Indian education sector and EdTech companies in the past 10 years as published in newspapers, using the LexisNexis database. It also examines existing EdTech procurement challenges in India and elsewhere and develops a number of policy recommendations to address the misaligned incentives and information asymmetries between EdTech vendors and educational institutions.

Findings

Market forces alone cannot create sufficient incentives for EdTech vendors to prioritise security in product design. Considering the infant stage of the EdTech industry, the lack of evidence about the efficacy of EdTech tools, the fragmentation in the EdTech market and the peculiarities of educational institutions as end-users, a regulatorily and policy intervention is needed to secure education through procurement processes.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a novel exploration to the cybersecurity challenge in the education sector, an area of research and policy analysis that remains largely understudied. By adding a cybersecurity angle, the paper also contributes to the literature using a political economy approach in scrutinising EdTech.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2022

Dev Raj Adhikari and Prakash Shrestha

The purpose of this study is to explore knowledge management (KM) initiatives for achieving sustainable development goal (SDG) 4.7 and to investigate enablers and barriers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore knowledge management (KM) initiatives for achieving sustainable development goal (SDG) 4.7 and to investigate enablers and barriers to insert KM to prepare higher education institutions (HEIs) ready to contribute to SDGs’ performance. At the end, this paper provides a practical perspective of KM initiatives for higher education for sustainable development (HESD).

Design/methodology/approach

This is an exploratory study. It applies a descriptive-interpretative-qualitative approach. The analysis is based on the opinions collected from 170 HEIs’ stakeholders. Discussions among participants have been organized through zoom meetings, telephone interviews and focus group discussions in three phases. In the first phase, a total of 113 informants took part in the discussion on various dates. In the second phase, 10 interviews were conducted with university officials using three open-ended questions; and in the third phase, three focus group discussions were organized to interact about the effectiveness of the Masters in Business Administration in Global Leadership and Management programme and curriculum with teachers, students and the programme initiators.

Findings

From the analysis of stakeholders’ views, it appears that Nepalese HEIs have yet to move forward with integrating KM activities into their aims, structure and functions to address the government’s policy guidelines applicable to maximizing SDG’ performance. A KM cultural framework that values intellectual capital is urgently needed to fill the knowledge-doing gap for the benefit of society. HEIs appear to require multidisciplinary teaching, learning and research methods to play a civic role in society. They have to improve their rules and regulation, develop a boundary-spanning structure from a conventional structure and apply KM initiatives to support achieving SDGs’ performance. Understanding and inculcating these initiatives in the academic programmes could provide a value-adding higher education in the country.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is entirely based on the perspectives of stakeholders in higher education. So, understanding their points of view and perspectives may have resulted in vague explanations. Furthermore, because the setting of Nepal’s HEIs differs from that of developed countries, the results should only be interpreted in Nepalese contexts.

Practical implications

This paper acknowledges the gaps and complexities in Nepalese HEIs from the standpoints of HEIs’ leaders, teachers and students for the application of KM initiatives to reform HEIs, with HESD in consideration, and enhance SDGs’ performance.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the paper is the first of its kind in the context of Nepal, exploring KM initiatives for SDGs. It provides a new perspective on KM and comprehends KM initiatives in the case of Nepalese HEIs transformation into HESD for achieving SDG 4.7.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Sudipta Roy

Higher education institutions (HEIs) in India were caught completely unawares by the Covid-19 pandemic and necessitated lockdown. Despite almost two decades of…

Abstract

Higher education institutions (HEIs) in India were caught completely unawares by the Covid-19 pandemic and necessitated lockdown. Despite almost two decades of experimentation with online and distance learning by top-tier and private institutions, the vast majority were unprepared and looked for standalone solutions for different components of teaching and learning. Valuable lessons have been learned based on which a more comprehensive solution must be sought for the post-Covid-19 environment. The lockdown has provided the much-needed impetus to reshape higher education in India. Calls for the adoption of blended learning (BL) have been made on prior occasions; this chapter renews that call and stresses its urgency. It is imperative that educational institutions amplify the momentum gained during the lockdown and transition to a BL model supported by the adoption and use of learning management systems (LMSs). Government should support this initiative by providing a centralized LMS. Corporations must “adopt an HEI,” channeling their unused corporate social responsibility funds to support information and communication technology needs at educational institutions. All stakeholders must work together to transform the country to a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy as envisioned in the National Education Policy 2020.

Case study
Publication date: 28 November 2022

Sonia Mehrotra and Ana Colovic

The case is structured to achieve the following learning objectives: ■ to assess how an intuitive response to social need can be complemented with a methodical approach to…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The case is structured to achieve the following learning objectives: ■ to assess how an intuitive response to social need can be complemented with a methodical approach to social entrepreneurship; ■ to analyse the importance of business model canvas from the social sector lens; ■ to evaluate the value created by a small NPO 17000 ft Foundation; ■ to analyse the core elements of a business model for success in the social sector; and ■ to assess and evaluate the options for an early-stage NPO to engage in scaling for a systemic impact.

Case overview/synopsis

17000 ft Foundation (hereafter referred to as 17000 ft) is a not-for-profit (NPO) organisation incepted in 2012 by Sujata Sahu, with the objective of supporting education of children living at high altitudes in remote villages of Ladakh, India. It is an effort that contributes toward objectives of clause 6.1 on educational inclusivity in the new National Education Policy 2020 of India. The case study is set in the context of Indian education, with all its challenges. It describes how Sujata Sahu was motivated to start the Foundation and how it developed to become a complex organisation working on different education-related projects simultaneously. The Foundation’s business model is interesting and unique. It leverages digital technologies to develop a network of interconnected activities, involves local communities and uses an extensive network of different kinds of stakeholders to impact a change in the quality of education in government schools in these remote villages. The case provides a solid basis for the discussion of the vital role of NPOs such as 17000 ft (in emerging economy) which is creating social and economic value for the remote villages of Ladakh, India. The new NEP 2020 argues for equity and inclusivity in education for all, but it failed to provide a blueprint for the implementation process. On the other hand, 17000 ft with its small team was invested and experimental in its approach. It had been working on the same cause of educational inclusivity. They had piloted a quality education business model for the harshest and remote Indian terrains and proven its positive impact. What were some of the core elements that had led them to success so far? The announcement of NEP 2020 provided a new ray of hope. How could they contribute and work together with the government to impact inclusive education and development in India? What collaborative mechanisms could possibly help them replicate their proven business model across the 1,000 schools of Ladakh and beyond? How could they scale for a systemic impact? After all, a nation as big as India required multiple strategies and multiple stakeholders from NPOs, private companies, government agencies, educational institutions, etc. to work collaboratively to bridge the inclusion and equity gaps in education.

Complexity academic level

The case can be used in graduate and executive education courses in entrepreneurship and strategic management. It can also be used for executive sessions at incubation centres for NPO start-ups and is aimed at early-phase social entrepreneurs.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 3: Entrepreneurship.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Case Study
ISSN:

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Rajashree Srinivasan

At the heart of educational work is the teacher; and, everybody in the society from parents to the federal government, school administrators, industry, policy-makers…

Abstract

At the heart of educational work is the teacher; and, everybody in the society from parents to the federal government, school administrators, industry, policy-makers, teacher educators, and not-for-profit organizations carry certain notions about the practice of teaching and work of teachers. Each constituency desires to have able, committed, and qualified teachers to care for the young ones of their society. Developing quality teachers is intricately linked to the quality of teacher education. Teacher educator professionalism is central to the improvement of teacher education and therefore school learning, and needs greater emphasis in the context of India. This chapter begins by outlining the work of teacher educators in higher education-based initial teacher preparation programs. It then gives a brief overview of the changes in initial teacher education in the early twenty-first century. This chapter further analyses the various dimensions of teacher educators’ quality of practice as framed by educational documents to gather insights about their practice among the diverse contexts in India. This chapter makes a plea to teacher educators in India to come together as a collective and take responsibility for strengthening quality teaching in India. This chapter concludes with a proposal for a framework of professional practice of teacher educators.

Details

Building Teacher Quality in India: Examining Policy Frameworks and Implementation Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-903-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2022

Shalini Menon and M. Suresh

The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, to identify and encapsulate the enablers that can facilitate technology integration in higher education and second, to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, to identify and encapsulate the enablers that can facilitate technology integration in higher education and second, to understand and analyze the interplay between technology agility enablers.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the Total Interpretive Structural Modeling (TISM) approach to construct a theoretical model of the technology agility enablers in higher education and MICMAC analysis for ranking and segregating the enablers based on their dependence power into four categories: Autonomous, Dependent, Linkage and Independent.

Findings

The study helped identify eight technology agility enablers, with the Covid-19 pandemic as the most significant enabler. The Covid-19 pandemic has catalyzed the diffusion of technology across the education sector in India, including tertiary higher education. The study revealed government initiatives and institutional commitment as other enablers that can promote technology agility in higher education.

Practical implications

The results of this study would assist the policymakers and management of universities and colleges in understanding the important enablers that can facilitate technology integration in higher education.

Originality/value

Research in the past on technology adoption in higher education has looked into each enabler in isolation. This research provides a comprehensive view of the enablers and has attempted to establish a multidirectional interplay between the enablers.

Details

The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4880

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 25000