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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Young-Min Lee and Sung-Eun Cho

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the status of recent Korean four-year college students’ acquisition of vocational qualification certificates (hereinafter…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the status of recent Korean four-year college students’ acquisition of vocational qualification certificates (hereinafter “certificates” or “qualifications”), the factors that influence certificate acquisition, and the resulting employment and wage effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Regression analysis was conducted on the data from the Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey.

Findings

The results showed that females and medicine and education majors had higher rates of vocational qualifications, as did the students in provincial as compared to metropolitan areas and students with high grades. In terms of effects on labor market outcomes, vocational qualifications exert a moderate degree of positive influence on employment rate, wage at the time of initial employment, and current wage (i.e. there is a persistent wage effect).

Originality/value

This study will provide policy implications to decrease youth unemployment in Korea and worldwide as well as to build employment services supporting the acquisition of vocational qualifications across various disciplines.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 59 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1999

Steve Williams

One of the most prominent developments in vocational education and training in recent years has been the development of National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) in…

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1403

Abstract

One of the most prominent developments in vocational education and training in recent years has been the development of National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) in England and Wales, based on the assessment of an individual’s competence at work. However, the initial implementation of the NVQ policy generated a considerable amount of criticism. The standards of occupational competence on which the NVQs are based were attacked for being too narrow; employers appeared reluctant to take up the new qualifications; and the introduction of NVQs appeared to exacerbate, rather than mitigate, the “jungle” of vocational qualifications. Drawing on in‐depth interviews with key informants and an analysis of relevant documentation this article ascribes the initial failure of the NVQ initiative to progress in the manner that its planners had originally anticipated to the existence of certain institutional constraints: the political imperative to manage high levels of youth unemployment; inadequate accountability and supervision in policy implementation; the presence of a renewed ethos of voluntarism in UK labour market policy; and the weakness of employers’ representative structures.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2003

Laura Cruz-Castro and Gavan Conlon

We analyze the relationship between initial vocational education and training (VET) and training policies by looking at the ways and extent to which different approaches…

Abstract

We analyze the relationship between initial vocational education and training (VET) and training policies by looking at the ways and extent to which different approaches foster the acquisition of general and transferable skills. The factors that particularly affect the investment in training and the investment in transferable skills are analyzed both from the point of view of the individual and the employer. We argue that with the reform of their national training systems, Spain and the United Kingdom have followed different routes in order to foster precisely an increase in the investment on transferable skills. Those pathways differ in the extent to which policy strategies have aimed at reducing either individual worker or firms’ constraints to receive or invest in transferable training, and in the extent to which the emphasis for certification focused on “demonstrated learning outcomes” as opposed to “particular learning processes or places.” The paper concludes with the presentation of some policy implications.

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The Sociology of Job Training
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-886-6

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Article
Publication date: 29 February 2008

Felix Rauner

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the internationalisation of nearly all spheres of society and the process of European integration will be leading to the…

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1425

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the internationalisation of nearly all spheres of society and the process of European integration will be leading to the development of a European vocational education and training (VET) architecture.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis of the “Copenhagen process” is based on the EU documents on the realisation of a European Qualifications Framework and a credit transfer system.

Findings

The result of the study shows that the strategy adopted by the European Union for the establishment of a European area of vocational education is confronted with a dilemma. The European Qualifications Framework is highly abstract since any reference to real educational programmes and qualifications and any concrete provision for the transition and for the transferability between educational levels and sectors (vocational and higher education, initial and continuing training) was avoided in order to adhere to the anti‐harmonisation clause. The result is an abstract, hierachically structured one‐dimensional qualifications framework that lacks any reference to existing VET systems and that contradicts all scientific insights from VET research and knowledge research.

Practical implications

The implications for VET policy are far‐reaching. A European area of vocational education can be established only on the basis of European open core occupations and an open VET architecture, which ensures that vocational education becomes an integral part of national educational systems. The qualification of employees for the intermediary sector can be realised only as a European project.

Originality/value

There are only a few contributions available that undertake a conceptual analysis and critique of the European Qualifications Framework.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 32 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1987

George Tolley

The reform of vocational qualifications is now under way. Britain's workforce is seriously underqualified and the need for competence, properly assessed and accredited…

Abstract

The reform of vocational qualifications is now under way. Britain's workforce is seriously underqualified and the need for competence, properly assessed and accredited, and personal qualities, such as attitudes and adaptability, must be met. The National Council for Vocational Qualifications is developing three major thrusts: towards competence, framework (the National Vocational Qualification), and accessibility and progression, giving a wide and more flexible range of learning opportunities.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Stan Lester

The purpose of this paper is to review three international frameworks, including the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), in relation to one…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review three international frameworks, including the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), in relation to one country’s higher professional and vocational education system.

Design/methodology/approach

The frameworks were examined in the context of English higher work-related education, and areas of mismatch identified. These were investigated to identify the extent to which they were due to weaknesses in the national system or to limiting assumptions contained in the frameworks.

Findings

Assumptions based on stages of education are problematic in the context of lifelong higher and professional education, while more open, lifelong-learning oriented assumptions can be too skeletal to aid comparisons between systems of initial vocational education and training. Particular problems are identified with assumptions contained in the ISCED that do not reflect the reality of professional education.

Practical implications

International frameworks need to take account of patterns of learning that take place outside of formal institutions and throughout life, but which lead to equivalent outcomes. Nevertheless, it is not adequate to substitute assumptions based only on the level of achievement.

Social implications

The assumptions underpinning the ISCED in particular mean that equivalent achievements in different systems can be classified differently, leading to under-reporting of individual achievements, a lack of comparability in international statistics, and potential for policy distortion.

Originality/value

The paper builds on the work of Hippach-Schneider et al. by providing additional evidence, from a different national context, for issues relating to the ISCED in the context of higher professional and vocational education, and extends this analysis to the two major European frameworks.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 60 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1986

A National Council for Vocational Qualifications should be set up by the autumn to provide a sharp national focus for reforming the complex and often confusing system of…

Abstract

A National Council for Vocational Qualifications should be set up by the autumn to provide a sharp national focus for reforming the complex and often confusing system of vocational qualifications at present used in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The new framework — to be called the National Vocational Qualification — is needed to classify and streamline vocational qualifications into a small number of levels covering those taken by people beyond school leaving age right up to top professional levels. A new two‐year YTS certification will be integrated into this framework. A crash programme to have it in place by 1991 is recommended, and effective arrangements must be introduced to ensure that industry and commerce play their full part in developing standards for qualifications in all occupations. These are the main recommendations of the Working Group on the Review of Vocational Qualifications, which was set up by the Government in April 1985 to investigate weaknesses in the present system. Its findings were submitted to the Secretaries of State for Employment, Education & Science, and Wales and the MSC Chairman last month, and the report was published by HMSO on 8 May.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Leesa Wheelahan and Richard Carter

National training packages have become the mandated framework for course delivery in Australia’s vocational education and training sector. Each training package contains…

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3983

Abstract

National training packages have become the mandated framework for course delivery in Australia’s vocational education and training sector. Each training package contains: qualifications that can be issued, industry‐derived competencies, and assessment guidelines but do not contain an endorsed curriculum component or learning outcomes. All public and private vocational education and training providers must use training packages, or industry‐endorsed competencies in cases where they do not exist, if they are to receive public funding for their programs. This article describes the operation of Australia’s national training packages and considers some of their strengths and weaknesses, many of which may be shared by similar systems elsewhere. Argues that training packages may result in poorer student learning outcomes, and that they may threaten the end of effective credit transfer between the vocational education and training and higher education sectors. Suggests that national training packages are not a good model for other countries and that Australia’s current vocational education and training policy needs to be reviewed.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Harry Matlay and Mark Addis

Contextualises a number of concerns related to the usage of National and Scottish Vocational Qualifications by both employers and employees in Britain. It provides an…

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1767

Abstract

Contextualises a number of concerns related to the usage of National and Scottish Vocational Qualifications by both employers and employees in Britain. It provides an analysis of the main factors that are likely to affect the ways in which the newly formed Learning and Skills Council interacts with this well established, but controversial system of vocational qualifications.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Françoise Le Deist and Vidmantas Tūtlys

This paper aims to explore structural and systemic influences in the development of competence models and qualifications systems at sectoral and national levels across…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore structural and systemic influences in the development of competence models and qualifications systems at sectoral and national levels across Europe, considering the influences of different socio‐economic models of skill formation on the processes of design and provision of qualifications.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a meta analysis of three European projects that used literature review, documentary analysis and interviews with practitioners and policy makers.

Findings

The main methodological and practical challenges posed by varieties of competence and qualifications to inter‐country comparability of qualifications are shown to be related to different socio‐economic models of skill formation.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited to 13 countries and four sectors but these were carefully selected to maximise coverage of European diversity with respect to competence models, training regimes and approaches to qualifications. There is clearly a need for further research involving more countries and sectors.

Practical implications

The paper offers recommendations for improving the potential of the European Qualifications Framework to promote comparability of qualifications and hence mobility of labour. These recommendations will be of interest to policy makers and practitioners involved in using the EQF and similar instruments.

Originality/value

This is the first systematic attempt to explore the methodological and practical difficulties of establishing comparability between qualifications.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 36 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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