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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2021

Caroline Cupit, Janet Rankin and Natalie Armstrong

The main purpose of this paper is to document the first author's experience of using institutional ethnography (IE) to “take sides” in healthcare research. The authors…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to document the first author's experience of using institutional ethnography (IE) to “take sides” in healthcare research. The authors illustrate the points with data and key findings from a study of cardiovascular disease prevention.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use Dorothy E Smith's IE approach, and particularly the theoretical tool of “standpoint”.

Findings

Starting with the development of the study, the authors trouble the researcher's positionality, highlighting tensions between institutional knowledge of “prevention” and other locations where knowledge about patients' health needs materialises. The authors outline how IE's theoretically and methodologically integrated toolkit became a framework for “taking sides” with patients. They describe how the researcher used IE to take a standpoint and map institutional relations from that standpoint. They argue that IE enabled an innovative analysis but also reflect on the challenges of conducting an IE – the conceptual unpicking and (re)thinking, and demarcating boundaries of investigation within an expansive dataset.

Originality/value

This paper illustrates IE's relevance for organisational ethnographers wishing to find a theoretically robust approach to taking sides, and suggests ways in which the IE approach might contribute to improving services, particularly healthcare. It provides an illustration of how taking a patient standpoint was accomplished in practice, and reflects on the challenges involved.

Details

Journal of Organizational Ethnography, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6749

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Emma‐Louise Aveling, Graham Martin, Natalie Armstrong, Jay Banerjee and Mary Dixon‐Woods

Approaches to quality improvement in healthcare based on clinical communities are founded in practitioner networks, peer influence and professional values. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Approaches to quality improvement in healthcare based on clinical communities are founded in practitioner networks, peer influence and professional values. However, evidence for the value of this approach, and how to make it effective, is spread across multiple disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesise relevant literature to provide practical lessons on how to use community‐based approaches to improve quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Diverse literatures were identified, analysed and synthesised in a manner that accounted for the heterogeneity of methods, models and contexts they covered.

Findings

A number of overlapping but distinct community‐based approaches can be identified in the literature, each suitable for different problems. The evidence for the effectiveness of these is mixed, but there is some agreement on the challenges that those adopting such approaches need to address, and how these can be surmounted.

Practical implications

Key lessons include: the need for co‐ordination and leadership alongside the lateral influence of peers; advantages of starting with a clear programme theory of change; the need for training and resources; dealing with conflict and marginalisation; fostering a sense of community; appropriate use of data in prompting behavioural change; the need for balance between “hard” and “soft” strategies; and the role of context.

Originality/value

The paper brings together diverse literatures with important implications for community‐based approaches to quality improvement, drawing on these to offer practical lessons for those engaged in improving healthcare quality in practice.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Book part
Publication date: 27 December 2013

Leslie Rott

This chapter examines the everyday experiences of short women, focusing on the problems they face and the coping strategies used to navigate being short in a heightist…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines the everyday experiences of short women, focusing on the problems they face and the coping strategies used to navigate being short in a heightist society. Further, this chapter views height as a stigmatized identity, which both negatively and positively impacts short women.

Methodology

Sixteen qualitative interviews were conducted with women 5′2″ and under.

Findings

Using the literature on stress, and coping models laid out by social psychologists, this chapter elucidates the unique place of short women in American society.

Originality

While there has been a wealth of literature on how short stature impacts men, research on how short stature impacts women has been scant.

Details

Disability and Intersecting Statuses
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-157-1

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Craig Bennell, Brittany Blaskovits, Bryce Jenkins, Tori Semple, Ariane-Jade Khanizadeh, Andrew Steven Brown and Natalie Jennifer Jones

A narrative review of existing research literature was conducted to identify practices that are likely to improve the quality of de-escalation and use-of-force training…

Abstract

Purpose

A narrative review of existing research literature was conducted to identify practices that are likely to improve the quality of de-escalation and use-of-force training for police officers.

Design/methodology/approach

Previous reviews of de-escalation and use-of-force training literature were examined to identify promising training practices, and more targeted literature searches of various databases were undertaken to learn more about the potential impact of each practice on a trainee's ability to learn, retain, and transfer their training. Semi-structured interviews with five subject matter experts were also conducted to assess the degree to which they believed the identified practices were relevant to de-escalation and use-of-force training, and would enhance the quality of such training.

Findings

Twenty practices emerged from the literature search. Each was deemed relevant and useful by the subject matter experts. These could be mapped on to four elements of training: (1) commitment to training (e.g. securing organizational support for training), (2) development of training (e.g. aligning training formats with learning objectives), (3) implementation of training (e.g. providing effective corrective feedback) and (4) evaluation and ongoing assessment of training (e.g. using multifaceted evaluation tools to monitor and modify training as necessary).

Originality/value

This review of training practices that may be relevant to de-escalation and use-of-force training is the broadest one conducted to date. The review should prompt more organized attempts to quantify the effectiveness of the training practices (e.g. through meta-analyses), and encourage more focused testing in a police training environment to determine their impact.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Alan Reinstein, Natalie Tatiana Churyk, Eileen Z. Taylor and Paul F. Williams

Despite formal ethics education and ethics-related continuing professional education (CPE) requirements, professional accountants continue to play a central role in…

Abstract

Despite formal ethics education and ethics-related continuing professional education (CPE) requirements, professional accountants continue to play a central role in enabling corporations to make unethical business decisions and take unethical business actions. Several jurisdictions in the United States require ethics education for licensure, but often the focus is on memorizing rules and regulations, rather than on providing tools to improve the moral practice of professionals and to help them resolve ethical dilemmas. The authors analyzed recent state Certified Public Accountant (CPA) society course offerings and found much more emphasis on memorization than on ethical reasoning to satisfy State CPA CPE requirements. To improve accountants’ ethical awareness and behavior, CPE providers should stress ethical reasoning rather than merely memorizing rules. Such changes will make future and present accountants and auditors more ethically aware, and thus more likely to improve their ethical decision-making. Nonetheless, the authors suggest that effective ethics education and training should start in the classroom with help from departmental advisory councils. Ethics courses offered in accounting programs as well as those offered by CPE providers can leverage the experience of members of advisory councils to create programs that resonate with professionals and foster lifelong ethical awareness and ethical reasoning skills.

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2007

Gbolahan Gbadamosi, Josephine Ndaba and Francis Oni

The purpose of this paper is to identify predictors of charlatan behaviour and investigate relationships among the construct and other variables like: trust in management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify predictors of charlatan behaviour and investigate relationships among the construct and other variables like: trust in management, organisational commitment, turnover intention, supervisory support, job performance and some job characteristics in Botswana and Swaziland.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using self‐administered questionnaires in this survey. Usable questionnaires were received from a total of 484 respondents. Respondents were from public and private sector. Five hypotheses were tested.

Findings

Result shows a strong and significant inverse relationship between charlatan behaviour and trust on the one hand and a direct significant relationship with continuance commitment on the other. Supervisory support, employee participation and goal clarity were also significantly albeit inversely correlated with charlatan behaviour but not so with all other study variables. The significant predictors of charlatan behaviour were trust in management and continuance commitment.

Research limitations/implications

The predictor variables for charlatan behaviour in this study were few and the sample is heavily skewed towards the public sector. Future studies would benefit from looking at how co‐worker trust and ethical behaviour scales would relate to charlatan behaviour, as well as cross‐cultural and multi‐cultural comparison.

Practical implications

Deliberate management policies that build trust, identify and tackle charlatan behaviour during selection and performance evaluation while sustaining employee commitment is vital. So is dealing with the potential problems posed by charlatans especially the possibility of upsetting and demotivating other sincere and committed employees.

Originality/value

The paper re‐awakens a new task for HR practitioners and researchers: that of identifying organisational charlatans. Also striving to create sustained commitment while building trust and segregating (or incorporating where possible) charlatans.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2011

Natalie Govaerts, Eva Kyndt, Filip Dochy and Herman Baert

The aim of this study is to investigate some factors that have an influence on employee retention. Based on the literature and previous research, both employee and…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to investigate some factors that have an influence on employee retention. Based on the literature and previous research, both employee and organisational factors are taken into account.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected by means of a questionnaire that was distributed on a voluntary basis in professional organisations and among employees, both electronically and in hard‐copy, during 2008‐2009. The study sample consisted of 972 employees, mainly clerks, from diverse profit and social‐profit organisations.

Findings

The results show that when organisations want to retain their employees it is important to pay attention to the learning of employees. Letting people do more and learn more of what they are good at will encourage them to stay with the organisation. Results concerning the selected employee variables show that only age has a significant relationship with retention. Regarding the intention to stay, there exists a positive relationship between age and retention.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study is that both employee as organizational factors are measured through the perceptions of employees. The response set of subjects when responding to self‐report measures could therefore be the result of a temporary mood, or could be the result of what may be considered as socially appropriate by the participants. Another limitation is that the questionnaire was voluntarily completed by the respondents; the researcher had therefore no information about the non‐respondents.

Originality/value

The paper focuses on the factors influencing employee retention.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1983

Janet L. Sims‐Wood

Life studies are a rich source for further research on the role of the Afro‐American woman in society. They are especially useful to gain a better understanding of the…

Abstract

Life studies are a rich source for further research on the role of the Afro‐American woman in society. They are especially useful to gain a better understanding of the Afro‐American experience and to show the joys, sorrows, needs, and ideals of the Afro‐American woman as she struggles from day to day.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2019

Kerry McGannon

To explore the discursive construction of disordered eating and athlete identity meanings within elite female athlete’s stories. Published athlete autobiographies were…

Abstract

Purpose

To explore the discursive construction of disordered eating and athlete identity meanings within elite female athlete’s stories. Published athlete autobiographies were interrogated as cultural sites of analysis to accomplish this aim.

Approach

A critical social constructionist perspective on disordered eating is outlined along with narrative research findings on female athletes and disordered eating. A discursive psychological approach and critical discourse analysis (CDA) is then discussed to theorize and study meanings of disordered eating and athlete identities/subject positions. Next, the utility of studying two elite female athlete’s autobiographies is outlined followed by examples from a CDA of two athlete stories.

Findings

Two discourses and two identity/subject positions within each are outlined: discourse of performance and the “committed, controlled athlete” and a discourse of personal growth and the “empowered athlete in transition.” The features of each discourse and subject position are outlined and examples from each athlete’s story. The intention is to show the ways in which discursive resources construct the body, food and identities in sport and the implications.

Implications

The chapter is concluded with why studying “disordered eating and body talk” within discourses is useful to expand understanding of constraining and emancipative aspects of athlete identities, struggle and recovery.

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2018

Sivasankari Gopalakrishnan and Delisia Matthews

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the business model of second-hand fashion stores and explore their challenges/opportunities and suggest potential strategies for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the business model of second-hand fashion stores and explore their challenges/opportunities and suggest potential strategies for second-hand fashion retail stores.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research method using in-depth interviews of convenience sample of owners/store managers from within the USA was employed.

Findings

Contrasting the traditional retail stores, customers are the primary partners and suppliers of second-hand fashion stores. These stores retain minimal profits given a business model that typically involves sharing profits with customers. Cheaper price, thrill of finding great deals, value for brands and variety are the primary reasons mentioned by respondents for shopping at second-hand stores.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include the use of a convenience sample of store owners/managers as well as the research is limited to women and children’s stores. Respondents of the study were from the same geographical region and the characteristics of the redistribution markets may vary in a different region.

Practical implications

As a means to foster textile waste reduction through second-hand clothing business, these stores could adopt innovative revenue streams, additional partnerships, and improved fashion and store appeal that may be effective in increasing profits and the number of customers.

Originality/value

This study is one of the early attempts to examine the business model of second-hand fashion stores, a form of collaborative consumption in the fashion context. The study contributes in promoting second-hand fashion stores as a sustainable business model in the fashion industry.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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