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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 June 2024

Nasser Asiri

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have been increasingly investing in their economic and social development in recent years, yet the effectiveness of their spending…

Abstract

Purpose

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have been increasingly investing in their economic and social development in recent years, yet the effectiveness of their spending remains unknown although they have been taking reforms to advance their spending efficiency practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies a quantitative approach to analyze panel data using a multiple regression model based on the World Economic Forum (WEF) reports of the global competitiveness index (GCI) from 2009 until 2018.

Findings

The results show that policies' strength has a positive and significant influence, while national infrastructure and workforce empowerment have a negative and significant influence over the extent of spending efficiency implementation in the GCC countries.

Research limitations/implications

GCI disclosure assessment criteria changed in 2019 and then stopped in 2020 due to COVID-19. A different version of GCI was published in 2020, which focuses on recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic, and no other issues have been published since then. This represented a barrier to recent data collection.

Practical implications

Practical contribution is the value added by this study to a minimal literature on spending efficiency in the GCC countries. This study’s theoretical contribution to knowledge is the integration of the new institutional sociology (NIS) perspective of institutional theory and the resource slack theory to investigate a set of factors rarely explored in relation to their impact on governmental spending efficiency.

Social implications

This study provides the following recommendations for policymakers: The GCC government should direct government training bodies and universities (in business majors) to include mandatory spending efficiency subjects to enhance current knowledge. Also, the governmental-related bodies of spending efficiency should make agreements with universities and research centers to improve the diverse R&D aspects of government spending efficiency. Another important recommendation is to enforce the adoption of the GRC concept regarding spending efficiency practices for governmental employees to guide them towards implementing spending efficiency practices.

Originality/value

This study's theoretical contribution to knowledge is the integration of the new institutional sociology (NIS) perspective of institutional theory and the resource slack theory to investigate a set of factors rarely explored in relation to their impact on governmental spending efficiency. Also, the practical contribution is the value added by this study to a minimal literature on spending efficiency in the GCC countries. The research has established empirical evidence to support the findings above.

Details

Journal of Money and Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2596

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Shan Cao, Faqing He and Jinwei Gao

Important reserves of oil and gas, which are left to be discovered and produced, are mainly concentrated in challenging locations and under severe conditions such as high pressure…

Abstract

Purpose

Important reserves of oil and gas, which are left to be discovered and produced, are mainly concentrated in challenging locations and under severe conditions such as high pressure (HP)/high temperature (HT). The presence of aggressive environments including H2S, CO2 and chlorides plus HP/HT causes a series of corrosion problems, which cost the oil industry billions of dollars a year. Thus, there is an increasing challenge for tubes (i.e. oil country tubular goods, for short, OCTG) used in producing oil and gas. The purpose of this study is to summarize different kinds of corrosion problems and their mitigation, to more efficiently protect OCTG from corrosion.

Design/methodology/approach

To effectively select proper mitigation methods, the mechanism of corrosion must be understood, which can be classified into four categories: sweet corrosion, sour corrosion, galvanic corrosion and microbiologically induced corrosion. Also, the effects of environmental and material factors on the corrosion rate are presented. Subsequently, current technology of mitigating these corrosion problems has been discussed, including the development of materials, application of chemical inhibitors and application of protective layers.

Findings

It is stressed that limits exist for each individual mitigation method; therefore, a careful balance between economic life of OCTG and safety in operation is required.

Originality/value

The main purpose of this essay is to give a brief review and detailed introduction and analysis about those technologies.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 March 2024

Mostafa Abdel-Hamied, Ahmed A.M. Abdelhafez and Gomaa Abdel-Maksoud

This study aims to focus on the main materials used in consolidation processes of illuminated paper manuscripts and leather binding.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on the main materials used in consolidation processes of illuminated paper manuscripts and leather binding.

Design/methodology/approach

For each material, chemical structure, chemical composition, molecular formula, solubility, advantages, disadvantages and its role in treatment process are presented.

Findings

This study concluded that carboxy methyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, cellulose acetate, nanocrystalline cellulose, funori, sturgeon glue, poly vinyl alcohol, chitosan, chitosan nanoparticles (NPs), gelatin, aquazol, paraloid B72 and hydroxyapatite NPs were the most common and important materials used for the consolidation of illuminated paper manuscripts. For the leather bindings, hydroxy propyl cellulose, polyethylene glycol, oligomeric melamine-formaldehyde resin, acrylic wax SC6000, pliantex, paraloid B67 and B72, silicone oil and collagen NPs are the most consolidants used.

Originality/value

Illuminated paper manuscripts with leather binding are considered one of the most important objects in libraries, museums and storehouses. The uncontrolled conditions and other deterioration factors inside the libraries and storehouses lead to degradation of these artifacts. The brittleness, fragility and weakness are considered the most common deterioration aspects of illuminated paper manuscripts and leather binding. Therefore, the consolidation process became vital and important to solve this problem. This study presents the main materials used for consolidation process of illuminated paper manuscripts and leather bindings.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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