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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 2 August 2022

Lucia Walsh and Thomas Cooney

All entrepreneurs face challenges during their venture start-up process, but immigrant entrepreneurs face additional and distinctive challenges due to their contextual…

Abstract

Purpose

All entrepreneurs face challenges during their venture start-up process, but immigrant entrepreneurs face additional and distinctive challenges due to their contextual newness. This paper focuses on understanding the intertwined journeys of nascent entrepreneurship and cross-cultural adaptation of immigrants in a small Western European country where immigrant entrepreneurship is still a relatively new phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

The induction-driven, 18-month longitudinal empirical inquiry focused on six early-stage nascent entrepreneurs. Qualitative methods included participant observation during an enterprise program, qualitative interviews and ongoing informal communication.

Findings

The data uncovered the interplay between the nascent immigrant entrepreneurship and cross-cultural adaptation. This led to the development of a novel conceptual framework which highlights how the cross-cultural adaptation domain links with the process of recognition, evaluation and exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities by immigrant entrepreneurs. While varying temporarily and contextually, cross-cultural adaptation was found to create both enabling and constraining tensions within the nascent entrepreneurial experiences of immigrants.

Research limitations/implications

It is recognized that undertaking just six cases may present a significant limitation of the research, but a close examination of even one individual's lived experience can yield valuable insights. It is hoped that future work will test the highlighted research propositions and other findings in different empirical contexts, and so add to the emerging conceptual framework on nascent immigrant entrepreneurship within the context of cross-cultural adaptation.

Originality/value

No previous qualitative studies have been undertaken seeking to understand how cross-cultural adaptation interacts with the early stages of nascent immigrant entrepreneurial activity. By integrating new venture creation and cross-cultural adaptation theories, this research contributes to the conceptualisation of early stages of nascent entrepreneurial activities of immigrants in a new host environment. The implications of the research are also relevant to enterprise support bodies, policymakers and practitioners who support immigrant entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Manoj Chandra Bayon, Yancy Vaillant and Esteban Lafuente

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct effect of two individual-level resources, one subjective and the other objective, and their interaction in influencing…

1533

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct effect of two individual-level resources, one subjective and the other objective, and their interaction in influencing the business entry decision. By distinguishing perceived ability from actual ability and using theoretical underpinnings from the human capital theory and self-efficacy theory, the proposed hypotheses are tested on a data set comprising respondents from the adult population.

Design/methodology/approach

Using 20,046 observations from the adult population survey (APS) collected according to the global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) methodology, a logistic regression analysis controlling for robust interaction term is used to determine the direct and interaction effect of perceived entrepreneurial ability and actual ability in influencing the decision to initiate nascent entrepreneurial activities.

Findings

The results reveal that perceived entrepreneurial ability has a distinct positive influence on the decision to initiate entrepreneurial activities and its impact is greater than that of actual abilities. Furthermore, the authors find evidence of a positive interaction effect suggesting that perceived entrepreneurial ability is a key determinant of entrepreneurial initiatives among those with high actual ability.

Originality/value

The main contribution of the study is to highlight the role of subjective judgements of ability in influencing entrepreneurial behaviour. Whereas prior research has found that actual ability influences new venture performance, its influence on new business entry was inconclusive. By including perceived entrepreneurial ability to the model the authors not only establish a link between objective (observable) abilities and subjective (unobservable) abilities of individuals but also suggest the mechanism through which subjective ability perception drive the business entry decisions of individuals.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Stephen E. Lanivich, Laci M. Lyons and Anthony R. Wheeler

Social cognitive theory suggests that entrepreneurs' characteristics affect entrepreneurial outcomes through interaction with their environment. This study examines the…

Abstract

Purpose

Social cognitive theory suggests that entrepreneurs' characteristics affect entrepreneurial outcomes through interaction with their environment. This study examines the relationship between entrepreneurs' characteristics and performance in the context of entrepreneurial nascence.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigated lagged-panel responses from a sample of 100 confirmed nascent entrepreneurs. Data collected on three separate occasions included core self-evaluations, commitment, fear of failure and success. PLS analysis was used to assess mediation of commitment on the self-evaluation – success relationship.

Findings

Core self-evaluations are an important predictor of entrepreneurial success in nascent-stage entrepreneurs participating in pre-venture assistance programs; positively affecting success and commitment, while negatively affecting fear of failure.

Research limitations/implications

This investigation contributes to a fuller understanding of social cognitive theory as it pertains to nascent entrepreneurship. Furthermore, contrary to general expectations found in the entrepreneurship literature, the authors uncover a context where entrepreneurs' characteristics are relevant predictors of early entrepreneurial outcomes.

Practical implications

Results showed core self-evaluations as a robust predictor of perceived success in nascent entrepreneurs. Administrators of pre-venture assistance programs should consider screening applicants to programs designed to assist nascent entrepreneurial opportunity development for signs of high core self-evaluations.

Originality/value

This study advances theory by (1) demonstrating the value of assessing nascent entrepreneurs' core self-evaluations as a specific predictor of early-stage entrepreneurial outcomes, (2) suggesting social interaction amidst participation in pre-venture assistance programs makes commitment a salient part of perceived success and (3) providing evidence that entrepreneur-level characteristics need consideration in the context of nascent entrepreneurship and pre-venture assistance programs.

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Alexandros Kakouris

The purpose of this paper is to identify entrepreneurial conceptions and beliefs of Greek graduates, comparing science and economics graduates and nascent entrepreneurs to…

1596

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify entrepreneurial conceptions and beliefs of Greek graduates, comparing science and economics graduates and nascent entrepreneurs to general population samples. Differences in conceptions are further examined as determinants of entrepreneurial intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilizes a 34-item questionnaire for a graduates’ survey in a science and an economics department (n=413). The questions concern five major subjects of entrepreneurial thinking: conceptualizing entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial success factors, motivation, risk management and business financing. Entrepreneurial intention is identified through a six-item scale. Structural equation model is used to retrieve an explanatory pattern for the present variables and data.

Findings

Greek science and economics graduates typically exhibit differences in beliefs that downsize through entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurial nascence is supported by personal competencies, self-confidence, planning capacities and adoption of an entrepreneurial style. Beyond expected dependencies on personal entrepreneurial competencies, motives, organizational skills and other subjective beliefs, possible misapprehension of entrepreneurial notions were found to reduce the entrepreneurial intention. The latter result differentiates nascent entrepreneurs from latent ones.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations concern the full representation of Greek universities, the representation of science disciplines and the exhaustive representation of the spectrum of beliefs associated with business venturing.

Practical implications

Findings have direct implications for entrepreneurship education and educational policies. This is because beliefs are cognitive structures which can be altered through effective education and counseling methods.

Social implications

Findings reflect socio-economic influences on young potential entrepreneurs in Greece during the debt crisis.

Originality/value

The paper originally contributes to the survey of entrepreneurial beliefs in Greece. Beliefs are thought culture and field of study specific, and thus, the paper not only covers a gap in literature for the Greek population, but also adds comparative analyses between: science/economics graduates and the nascent entrepreneurs/general population. In this way, it seeks the origin of different beliefs and also attempts a consistent examination of their relations into relevant conceptualizations as determinants of entrepreneurial intention. Comparisons between economics and science students are scarce in the literature offering insights toward the interdisciplinary fostering of entrepreneurial mindsets.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2018

Bruce M.K. Mwiya, Yong Wang, Bernadette Kaulungombe and Maidah Kayekesi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of entrepreneurial intention (EI) in relation to the influence of the five dimensions of entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of entrepreneurial intention (EI) in relation to the influence of the five dimensions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) on nascent behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The study relies on a quantitative approach where primary data were collected from 294 final year undergraduate students at a public university in Zambia. The data were examined by using correlation, logistic regression and mediation analyses.

Findings

The findings indicate that each of the five dimensions of ESE is positively and significantly related with EI. Additionally, each of the ESE dimensions, except the financial aspect, is positively correlated with nascent behaviour. Finally, the results show that the influence of ESE dimensions on nascent behaviour is significantly mediated by intention.

Research limitations/implications

The study took place in a public university in Zambia; more universities could be involved to improve the generalisability of the study conclusions.

Practical implications

The study shows that the five ESE dimensions positively influence not only business start-up intention but also nascent behaviour. To motivate graduates’ involvement in business start-up, there is a need to tailor training and practical pedagogical approaches on entrepreneurship that are focussed on developing the five ESE dimensions.

Originality/value

This paper extends an emerging body of knowledge which has not been fully investigated in terms of the mediating role of intention on the relationships between dimensions of ESE and nascent behaviour. The study also makes a valuable contribution to the under-researched context of Zambia and African entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Lenita Hietanen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a model for facilitating employees’ and full-time, non-business students’ entrepreneurial capabilities during their optional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a model for facilitating employees’ and full-time, non-business students’ entrepreneurial capabilities during their optional entrepreneurship studies at one Finnish Open University.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study investigates the course in which transitions from employees or non-business students to nascent entrepreneurs are presupposed to happen. The examined phenomenon is the lecturer’s (the author’s) facilitating process. The key method is to support the ES students in developing their daily practices and reflecting on these from an entrepreneurial view.

Findings

For the ES students identified as latent nascent entrepreneurs, the development period facilitated by exploiting small-sized entrepreneurs’ attributes, skills and behaviour mainly awakened intrapreneurship. Intrapreneurship was an unexpected phase because the lecturer did not offer it as an alternative. This necessitated the lecturer to investigate her instructions during the ES students’ development processes to find out the crucial factors that might have awakened their intrapreneurship.

Practical implications

In the current case, intrapreneurship seems to be an essential phase between latent nascent and nascent entrepreneurship. Therefore, it is important to note the elements in the facilitation process that may strengthen intrapreneurship. The implications of latent nascent entrepreneurs’ entrepreneurial processes should be further investigated, whether strengthening intrapreneurship would produce more nascent entrepreneurs than processes without noticing intrapreneurship.

Originality/value

Developing and reflecting on one’s practices from an entrepreneurial viewpoint as an employee or a full-time, non-business student seem worthy of more examinations. Generally, opportunities for encouraging new start-ups by these people comprise an unknown area when considering supported entrepreneurial processes.

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Harry Matlay

This paper is the second in a series of conceptual, contextual and empirical contributions that, individually and cumulatively, seek to analyse, develop and link two…

9282

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is the second in a series of conceptual, contextual and empirical contributions that, individually and cumulatively, seek to analyse, develop and link two important fields of research: “entrepreneurship” and “entrepreneurship education”. Part 2 aims to provide a critical evaluation of entrepreneurship education and its impact upon graduate entrepreneurship in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive literature review and a structured evaluation of current knowledge on topics related directly and indirectly to “entrepreneurship education” in the UK.

Findings

It appears that conceptual, contextual, design and delivery differences can have a considerable influence upon entrepreneurship education courses delivered in the UK. There are significant definitional as well as conceptual and contextual issues affecting the design of relevant programmes and the delivery of the chosen curriculum. Consequently, a number of actual and perceived barriers need to be overcome in order to facilitate a better understanding of stakeholder needs and learning patterns.

Research limitations/implications

The evaluation and interpretation of relevant research results represent the author's own perception and experiences, and should therefore be viewed with caution. It is suggested that the content of this paper is subject to the usual bias and singular perspective generally attributable to “viewpoint” articles.

Practical implications

The paper measures the outcomes of entrepreneurship education is still proving difficult and inconclusive. More in‐depth research is needed on current UK entrepreneurship education provision and initiatives in order to gain a better understanding of the scope and limitations of a wide range of entrepreneurship education programmes.

Originality/value

This paper provides a critical evaluation of entrepreneurship education in the UK.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 48 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 March 2022

Ahmad Hawi, Farha Al-Kuwari and Christophe Garonne

This chapter draws its findings from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data set for 2016 to 2019 to provide a comprehensive albeit concise overview of the…

Abstract

This chapter draws its findings from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data set for 2016 to 2019 to provide a comprehensive albeit concise overview of the evolution of entrepreneurship activities in Qatar.

The results indicate that Qatar experienced an increase in the entrepreneurship activities with a significant percentage of adults starting or running new businesses. Data also revealed that, despite an equal proportion of women and men involved in early-stage entrepreneurial activities, women experience a lower transformation rate into established business ownership. In addition, to the gender gap, this study revealed that transforming new businesses into established business ownership is one of the main challenge to be addressed to develop the impact of entrepreneurship in the country further. Finally, the chapter shows that Qatar has created an entrepreneurial ecosystem of very high quality as demonstrated by its third place in the National Entrepreneurship Context Index and by having secured the first place in the MENA region.

This chapter concludes by outlining a number of recommendations for policymakers to further foster the entrepreneurial activities in Qatar especially among the younger population.

Details

Entrepreneurial Rise in the Middle East and North Africa: The Influence of Quadruple Helix on Technological Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-518-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Rachid Zeffane

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of trust, personality and risk taking on entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). In this perspective, it explores gender…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of trust, personality and risk taking on entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). In this perspective, it explores gender differences among nascent and actual entrepreneurs in the context of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from two sets of populations: 370 students attending business courses in a university in the UAE (as proxies to nascent entrepreneurs) and 324 small business owners/operators (as proxies to actual entrepreneurs). The scales used in the study were borrowed from previous research and were also empirically confirmed through reliability tests.

Findings

In support of previous research, analyses of variance confirmed the hypotheses that females are less inclined to become entrepreneurs and are less likely to take risk. Females were also found to be less trusting than males. Regression analysis revealed that, the intention to engage in entrepreneurship is most significantly affected by the propensity to trust. These confirm the study hypotheses.

Research limitations/implications

This study is set in a single country and as such, its findings may be constrained by cultural/national specificities. Future research could consider examining the variables of this study (particularly gender differences and their relevance to the effects of trust and risk taking on EIs) in a wider cross-national context.

Practical implications

The findings of this study clearly indicate that trust is an important variable that can be cultivated at the pre-entrepreneurial stage so that future entrepreneurs (females in particular) are appropriately equipped and geared to cope with risk in entrepreneurship activities.

Originality/value

Research on gender, trust, risk taking and entrepreneurial behaviors in the UAE/Middle East context remains lacking. Also, studies using samples of both actual and nascent entrepreneurs remain lacking. This study fills these gaps and also provides a platform for further understanding the importance of gender differences in relation to trust, personality, risk taking and EIs.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2022

Robert J. Pidduck

Drawing on the “shocks to the system” concept in image theory, a mid-range theoretical model is developed to illuminate understanding on why cross-cultural experience is…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the “shocks to the system” concept in image theory, a mid-range theoretical model is developed to illuminate understanding on why cross-cultural experience is so conducive to stimulating entrepreneurship yet has remained largely unexplained at the individual level.

Design/methodology/approach

The novel idea is put forth that experience of foreignness, in itself, can be harnessed as a powerful cognitive resource for entrepreneurship – particularly the nascent stages of new venture development. Providing cross-cultural exposures arouse “self-image shocks”, they manifest over time as skill clusters that reflect the sensing, seizing and transforming capabilities at the heart of entrepreneurship. This paper's pivot helps delineate a common mechanism to explain how a diverse range of seemingly disparate cross-cultural experiences can be processed in a way that enhances entrepreneurial pursuits.

Findings

The insights of this paper reinforce the need for educators and policymakers to encourage and provide opportunities for aspiring entrepreneurs to engage in cross-cultural and overseas exposures as they are influential for stimulating each of the core sets of entrepreneurial capabilities. The model and synthesis table also help to practically unpack how to design and plan such cultural experiences to optimize the enduring entrepreneurial advantages.

Originality/value

The author turns a long-standing assumption surrounding cultural differences in entrepreneurship on its head. The shocks and tensions arising from intercultural interactions are not always inevitable liabilities to be “managed away” or attenuated. Rather, cross-cultural experience can be explicitly leveraged as an asset for nascent venturing as the juxtapositions they evoke provide both proximal and distal enhancements to ways in which entrepreneurs think and develop skills at the core of venturing.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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