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The purpose of this study is to uncover ground truth insights underlying the agriculture crisis from the perspectives of rural farmers in North-East Nigeria. The needs of…
The purpose of this study is to uncover ground truth insights underlying the agriculture crisis from the perspectives of rural farmers in North-East Nigeria. The needs of individual farmers are otherwise not adequately reflected in national or regional economic development strategies.
A unique sequential mixed-methods research design was adopted for this study. A grounded theory approach was used for the literature review followed by a consensual qualitative research (CQR) technique. Data were collected through a semi-structured sense-making focus group (FG) held at a field site with agricultural extension workers. The CQR technique included brainstorming, the nominal group technique, open discussions, sense-making and consensual agreement on the most important ideas. The FG sense-making was recorded, and discourse analysis was conducted to develop thematic concept maps using NVivo software.
Agriculture crisis ground truth insight themes were consistent with the extant literature but several different issues were also found. Rural farmers in North-East Nigeria have significant challenges with government support in six core areas, namely, farm input quality and dissemination, fair input subsidization, training, market facilitation, corruption and insecurity.
The target population of this study was rural farmers in Adamawa State, North-East Nigeria. A relatively small sample of 16 agricultural extension workers – very experienced farmers who also act as mentors and are paid incentives by the government for doing so – was used.
In tackling the agriculture crisis in Nigeria, policymakers will do well to recognize the realities that the rural farmers face and their needs, the government must address the areas highlighted in this study where support for farmers lacks and urgently review the current process of farm inputs dissemination.
Agriculture crisis problems were explored from the perspectives of rural North-East Nigerian farmers, who have not been previously sampled due to cultural, language, literacy and schedule constraints. The extension workers were better able to communicate agriculture crisis insights in modern economic planning terminology because they are well-educated farmers, knowledgeable about the problems due to their field experience and because they have more flexible work schedules. A unique sequential mixed-methods constructivist research design was used with an embedded CQR technique, which would be of interest to scholars and research institutions.
The researchers in this study reviewed the literature to locate the most relevant multicultural theories, factors, and instruments in order to measure Albania's national…
The researchers in this study reviewed the literature to locate the most relevant multicultural theories, factors, and instruments in order to measure Albania's national culture. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
An innovative combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit the multicultural construct to the sample data and then estimate the national culture (n=73). The multicultural indexes were calculated for five generally accepted national culture factors to compare with the benchmarks published in the literature.
The multicultural indexes were calculated for five generally accepted national culture factors to compare with the benchmarks published in the literature. An asymmetric plot was created for critical comparison of Albania with five other theoretically selected countries, using the indexes for PDi, ICi, MFi, UAi, and LTi. Albania was found to be most similar to its Balkan and Turkish neighbors, as compared with Asian or Western cultures such as that of the USA.
The researchers discussed the implications of knowing Albania's national culture profile with reference to how other countries might collaborate and transact with this emerging transition economy.
From a business standpoint, the multicultural indexes for Albania provide general indicators of the national beliefs, norms and values, which foreign organizations may compare to their own cultural profile when interacting with professionals in this country. The best use for such indexes is for benchmarking and comparison. Foreign government, private corporations, or nonprofit organizations may compare their own culture profile with that of Albania to be aware of the similarities and differences.
Albanian national culture was estimated for the first time in the literature, using a five-factor model adapted from the work of Hofstede.