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The present study spotlights the single and multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) methods to determine the optimal machining conditions and the predictive modeling for…
The present study spotlights the single and multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) methods to determine the optimal machining conditions and the predictive modeling for surface roughness (Ra) and cutting tool flank wear (VB) while hard turning of AISI 4340 steel (35 HRC) under dry environment.
In this study, Taguchi L16 design of experiments methodology was chosen. The experiments were performed under dry machining conditions using TiSiN-TiAlN nanolaminate PVD-coated cutting tool on which Taguchi and responses surface methodology (RSM) for single objective optimization and MCDM methods like the multi-objective optimization by ratio analysis (MOORA) were applied to attain optimal set of machining parameters. The predictive models for each response and multiresponse were developed using RSM-based regression analysis. S/N ratios, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pareto diagram, Tukey's HSD test were carried out on experimental data for profound analysis.
Optimal set of machining parameters were obtained as cutting speed: at 180 m/min., feed rate: 0.05 mm/rev., and depth of cut: 0.15 mm; cutting speed: 145 m/min., feed rate: 0.20 mm/rev. and depth of cut: 0.1 mm for Ra and VB, respectively. ANOVA showed feed rate (96.97%) and cutting speed (58.9%) are dominant factors for Ra and VB, respectively. A remarkable improvement observed in Ra (64.05%) and VB (69.94%) after conducting confirmation tests. The results obtained through the MOORA method showed the optimal set of machining parameters (cutting speed = 180 m/min, feed rate = 0.15 mm/rev and depth of cut = 0.25 mm) for minimizing the Ra and VB.
This work contributes to realistic application for manufacturing industries those dealing with AISI 4340 steel of 35 HRC. The research contribution of present work including the predictive models will provide some useful guidelines in the field of manufacturing, in particular, manufacturing of gear shafts for power transmission, turbine shafts, fasteners, etc.
The purpose of this paper is study of the type of functional group and its situation on phenyl molecule, in increasing the corrosion protection of modified graphene layers…
The purpose of this paper is study of the type of functional group and its situation on phenyl molecule, in increasing the corrosion protection of modified graphene layers by it. Corrosion protection efficiency of graphene was raised via modifying the surface of graphene-coated carbon steel (CS/G) by using aromatic molecules. Phenyl groups with three different substitutions including COOH, NO2 and CH3 grafted to graphene via diazonium salt formation route, by using carboxy phenyl, nitro phenyl and methyl phenyl diazonium salts in ortho, meta and para spatial situations.
Molecular bindings were characterized by using X-ray diffractometer, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/ energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) methods. Anti-corrosion performance of modified CS/G electrodes was evaluated by weight loss and electrochemical techniques, potentiodynamic polarization (Tafel) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, in 3.5 per cent NaCl solution.
The obtained results confirmed covalently bonding of phenyl groups to the graphene surface. Also, the observed results showed that substitution spatial situations on phenyl groups can affect charge transfer resistance (Rct), corrosion potential (Ecorr), corrosion current density (jcorr) and the slope of the anodic and cathodic reaction (ßa,c), demonstrating that the proposed modification method can hinder the corrosion reactions. The proposed modification led to restoring the graphene surface defects and consequently increasing its corrosion protection efficiency.
The obtained results from electrochemical methods proved that protection efficiency was observed in order COOH < NO2 < CH3 and MPD in the para spatial situation and showed the maximum protection efficiency of 98.6 per cent in comparison to other substitutions. Finally, the ability of proposed graphene surface modification route was further proofed by using surface methods, i.e. SEM and EDXA, and contact angles measurements.