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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Wani K. Shafi, Ankush Raina and Mir Irfan Ul Haq

This paper aims to investigate the friction and wear performance of Hazelnut oil with copper (Cu) nano additives.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the friction and wear performance of Hazelnut oil with copper (Cu) nano additives.

Design/methodology/approach

The experiments were performed on a pin-on-disc tribometer in boundary and mixed lubrication regimes. Copper nanoparticles were added in 0.5 and 1 Wt.% concentrations and corresponding Stribeck curves were generated with a base oil and with oil containing Cu nanoparticles. Surface analysis of aluminium 6061 pins was conducted using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

Findings

The lubricant with 0.5 Wt.% Cu nanoparticles exhibited better results. An improvement of around 80 per cent in coefficient of friction and around 99 per cent in specific wear rate was observed. The film formation capability of the Cu nanoparticles led to an overall improvement in tribological properties of the base oil.

Originality

Experiments were performed to evaluate the tribological performance of a new lubricant (Hazelnut oil) using Cu nanoparticles. The results obtained herein suggest that Hazelnut oil has a great potential to replace the conventional mineral oils in the field of industrial lubrication.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Alaa Mohamed, Mohamed Hamdy, Mohamed Bayoumi and Tarek Osman

To enhance the tribological properties of nanogrease, one of the new technologies was used to synthesize a nanogrease having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanoparticles (NPs…

Abstract

Purpose

To enhance the tribological properties of nanogrease, one of the new technologies was used to synthesize a nanogrease having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanoparticles (NPs) with different concentrations. The microstructures of the synthesized NPs were characterized and evaluated by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tribological properties of the nanogrease were evaluated using a four-ball tester. The worn surface of four steel balls was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX).

Design/methodology/approach

Grease was dissolved in chloroform (10 Wt.%), at 25 °C for 1 h. In parallel, functionalized CNTs with different volume concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 Wt.%) were dispersed in N, N-dimethylformamide. The mixture was stirred for 15 min and then sonicated (40 kHz, 150 W) for 30 min. After that, the mixture was added to the grease solution and magnetically stirred for 15 min and then sonicated for 2 h.

Findings

The results suggested that CNTs can enhance the antiwear and friction properties of nanogrease at 0.5 Wt.% CNTs to about 57 and 48 per cent, respectively. In addition, the weld load of the base oil containing 0.5 Wt.% CNTs was improved by 17 per cent compared with base grease.

Originality/value

This work describes the inexpensive and simple fabrication of nanogrease for improving the properties of lubricants, which improve power efficiency and extend lifetimes of mechanical equipment.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2018

Wani Khalid Shafi, Ankush Raina and Mir Irfan Ul Haq

This paper aims to study the tribological performance of Cu nanoparticles mixed in avocado oil.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the tribological performance of Cu nanoparticles mixed in avocado oil.

Design/methodology/approach

A Pin-on-Disc tribometer was used to determine the tribological performance of avocado oil as a lubricant as well as for measuring the effectiveness of Cu nanoparticles. Stribeck curve was generated with the base oil and the oil containing Cu nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are added in 0.5 wt. % and 1 wt. % concentration. The worn-out surfaces of aluminum alloy 6061 pins are explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Findings

The use of Cu nanoparticles led to a reduction in friction and wear. Coefficient of friction (COF) was found to be minimum at 1 wt. % concentration, whereas specific wear rate was minimum for 0.5 wt. % concentration. The film-formation capability of the Cu nanoparticles led to an overall improvement in the tribological properties of the base oil.

Originality/value

Experiments are performed to evaluate the tribological performance of avocado oil using Cu nanoparticles. The results obtained herein suggest that avocado oil has a great potential to replace the conventional mineral oils in the field of industrial lubrication.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Aqib Mashood Khan, Muhammad Jamil, Ahsan Ul Haq, Salman Hussain, Longhui Meng and Ning He

Sustainable machining is a global consensus and the necessity to cope up the serious environmental threats. Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and nanofluids-based…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable machining is a global consensus and the necessity to cope up the serious environmental threats. Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and nanofluids-based MQL(NFMQL) are state-of-the-art sustainable lubrication modes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of process parameters, such as feed rate, depth of cut and cutting fluid flow rate, on temperature and surface roughness of the manufactured pieces during face milling of the AISI D2 steel.

Design/methodology/approach

A statistical technique called response surface methodology with Box–Behnken Design was used to design experimental runs, and empirical modeling was presented. Analysis of variance was carried out to evaluate the model’s accuracy and the validation of the applied technique.

Findings

A comprehensive analysis revealed the superiority of implementing NFMQL in comparison to MQL within the levels of process parameters. The comparison has shown a significant reduction of temperature under NFMQL at the tool-workpiece interface from 16.2 to 34.5 per cent and surface roughness from 11.3 to 12 per cent.

Practical implications

This research is useful for practitioners to predict the responses in workshop and select appropriate cutting parameters. Moreover, this research will be helpful to reduce the resource which will ultimately save energy consumption and cost.

Originality/value

To cope with the industrial challenges and tribological issues associated with the milling of AISI D2 steel, experiments were conducted in a distinct machining mode with innovative cooling/lubrication. Until now, few studies have addressed the key lubrication effects of Al2O3-based nanofluid on the machinability of D2 steel under NFMQL lubrication condition.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Ming Zhang, Xiaobo Wang and Weimin Liu

The purpose of this paper is to study the influences of test conditions to the tribological behavior of LaF3 nanoparticles as an additive to a polyalphaolefin (PAO).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the influences of test conditions to the tribological behavior of LaF3 nanoparticles as an additive to a polyalphaolefin (PAO).

Design/methodology/approach

An Optimol‐SRV4 oscillating friction and wear tester (SRV) were used to investigate the tribological properties of LaF3 nanoparticles as an additive in a polyalphaolefin (PAO). The 3‐D morphologies and wear loss volume of the worn scar were measured using a surface profilometer. The chemical state and the intensity of La and F elements on worn surface after friction test was investigated with X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interpret the possible mechanisms of friction‐reduction and anti‐wear with LaF3 nanoparticles.

Findings

The experimental results show that LaF3 nanoparticles added to PAO exhibit excellent load‐carrying capacity, anti‐wear and friction‐reduction properties. LaF3 nanoparticles deposited on the worn surface under lower test temperature during the friction test, and higher applied load, higher test frequency and longer test duration are propitious to the deposition of LaF3 nanoparticles accumulated on the rubbing surface. Under higher temperature, a complicated tribo‐chemical reaction occurred during the friction process, the tribo‐chemical reaction product of La2O3 deposit on worn surface, which also exhibits good lubricating performance.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the tribological properties of LaF3 nanoparticles as green oil additive in poly‐alpha‐olefin (PAO) under variable temperature, applied load, sliding speed and sliding duration. The results could be very helpful for the further applications of LaF3 nanoparticles additives in industry.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 65 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Mayurkumar Ashwinbhai Makhesana and Kaushik M. Patel

The quality of the surface being machined and tool life are greatly affected by heat generated during machining. Abundant use of cutting fluid leads to higher production…

Abstract

Purpose

The quality of the surface being machined and tool life are greatly affected by heat generated during machining. Abundant use of cutting fluid leads to higher production rates and a threat for environment and worker’s health. Hence, the need is to identify eco-friendly lubricants. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the effects of solid lubricants (boric acid and molybdenum disulphide) mixed with oil during turning of EN-31 using cemented carbide tools. The concentration of solid lubricants in oil is varied to analyze output parameters such as surface roughness, process temperature, power consumption and tool wear.

Design/methodology/approach

EN 31 steel material is machined at various cutting speeds and constant feed and depth of cut to determine the effects of dry, wet and solid lubricant assisted machining.

Findings

Experimental study revealed that the solid lubricants performed better while machining and therefore it may be considered as environment friendly and cost effective way of lubrication as compared to flood cooling.

Research limitations/implications

The work can be extended to identify the effects of solid lubricants on micro hardness and cutting force.

Practical implications

From the findings of the work, solid lubricants may be considered as suitable choice as compared to fluid cooling because it improves process performance without much affecting the environment and worker’s health.

Originality/value

So far the use of solid lubricants in machining is limited. The results of the work will be useful to explore various efficient way to apply solid lubricants.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Manu V. Thottackkad, P.K. Rajendrakumar and K. Prabhakaran Nair

– This manuscript aims to deal with the tribological property variations of engine oil (SAE15W40) by the addition of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles on weight percentage basis.

Abstract

Purpose

This manuscript aims to deal with the tribological property variations of engine oil (SAE15W40) by the addition of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles on weight percentage basis.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental studies on the influence of CuO nanoparticles utilised as an additive in lubricating oil (SAE15W40) under boundary lubrication conditions have been carried out using a pin-on-disc machine in accordance with ASTM G-99 standard. The variation of viscosity, coefficient of friction, wear and settling of nanoparticles has been studied as a function of particle concentration in the lubricant.

Findings

Results show that the frictional force and specific wear rate decrease with an increase in concentration of nanoparticles comes to a minimum at a specific concentration and then increases, showing the presence of an optimum concentration. With the increase in concentration of nanoparticles, the kinematic and dynamic viscosities, and the flash and fire points are found to increase.

Originality/value

The use of CuO nanoparticles as additives to a moderate level is a very efficient means of improving the tribological properties of lubricating oils.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Ming Zhang, Xiaobo Wang, Weimin Liu and Xisheng Fu

The purpose of this paper is to study the tribological performance and anti‐wear mechanism of Cu nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the tribological performance and anti‐wear mechanism of Cu nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives.

Design/methodology/approach

An end‐face wear testing apparatus is used to measure the tribological properties of Cu nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives and using a commercial SJ 15W/40 gasoline engine oil for comparison. Electrical contact resistance (ECR) is measured on a universal nano and micro tester‐2 tribometer to detect the formation of tribo‐film generated by Cu nanoparticulate additive. The worn steel surfaces are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS) and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

Findings

The results show that Cu nanoparticles used as an oil additive can improve the anti‐wear and friction‐reduction performance of SJ 15W/40 gasoline engine oil remarkably. The results of SEM, EDS and XPS show that a deposit film containing metallic copper can form on the worn surface, which has a film thickness of about 120 nm.

Originality/value

This investigation establishes a baseline of Cu nanoparticles used as lubricating oil additives under face‐to‐face contact work conditions. Thus, the results are reliable and can be very useful for further applications of Cu nanoparticle additives in industry.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 61 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2019

Selman Demirtas, Hakan Kaleli, Mahdi Khadem and Dae-Eun Kim

This study aims to investigate the tribological characteristics of a Napier-type second piston ring against a cylinder liner in the presence of graphene nano-additives…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the tribological characteristics of a Napier-type second piston ring against a cylinder liner in the presence of graphene nano-additives mixed into 5W40 fully synthetic engine oil.

Design/methodology/approach

Wear tests were carried out in the boundary lubrication condition using a reciprocating tribometer, and real engine tests were performed using a single spark ignition Honda GX 270 test engine for a duration of 75 h.

Findings

The experimental results of the tribometer tests revealed that the nano-additives formed a layer on the rubbed surfaces of both the piston ring and the cylinder liner. However, this layer was only formed at the top dead center of the cylinder liner during the engine tests. The accumulation of carbon (C) from the graphene was heavily detected on the rubbed surface of piston ring/cylinder liner, mixed with other additive elements such as Ca, Zn, S and P. Overall, the use of graphene nano-additives in engine oil was found to improve the frictional behavior in the boundary and mixed lubrication regimes. Abrasive wear was found to be the main mechanism occurring on the surface of both piston rings and cylinder liners.

Originality/value

Though many researchers have discussed the potential benefits of graphene as a nano-additive in oil to reduce the friction and wear in laboratory tests using tribometers, to date, no actual engine tests have been performed. In this paper, both tribometer and real engine tests were performed on a piston ring and cylinder liner using a fully formulated oil with and without graphene nano-additives in the boundary lubrication condition. It was found that a graphene nano-additive plays an active role in lowering the coefficient of friction and increasing surface protection and lubrication by forming a protective layer on the rubbing surfaces.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Alaa Mohamed, Mohamed Hamdy, Mohamed Bayoumi and Tarek Osman

This work describes the fabrication of composite nanogrease based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as an additive at different volume concentrations 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 Wt.% and…

Abstract

Purpose

This work describes the fabrication of composite nanogrease based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as an additive at different volume concentrations 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 Wt.% and investigates the correlation between CNTs and grease rheological behaviour. In addition, study the influence of shear thinning rate at various temperatures and investigates the thermal conductivity of nanogrease. The results demonstrated that grease behaves like a Newtonian viscoelastic material with a narrow linear domain. The thermal conductivity of nanogrease was enhanced by about 31.58 per cent, and the thermal and mechanical stabilities improved. Moreover, the apparent viscosity and dropping point increased by about 93 and 27 per cent, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Grease was dissolved in chloroform (10 Wt.%), at 25°C for 1 h. In parallel, functionalized CNTs with different volume concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 Wt.%) were dispersed in N,N-dimethylformamide; the dispersion was stirred for 15 min, and then sonicated (40 kHz, 150 W) for 30 min. Grease solution was then added to the CNTs. The nanofluid was magnetically stirred for 15 min and then sonicated for 2 h. This ensured uniform dispersion of nanoparticles in the base fluid.

Findings

Inexpensive and simple fabrication of nanogrease. Thermal conductivity of nanogrease was typically enhanced compared to other reported studies. Apparent viscosity and dropping point increases with the increase the volume concentration.

Originality/value

This work describes the inexpensive and simple fabrication of nanogrease for improving properties of lubricants, which improve power efficiency and extend lifetimes of mechanical equipment.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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